HATH, Siraiki. UDE, Samoyed. HATH, Hindustani. HATH, Gujerati. HATH, Kuswar. EED-gekind, Amharic. APKA, Shasti. HATH, Kooch. IDA, Guato. HATN, Hindi. ID, Gindzhar. UBUU, Angami. IDU, Assyrian. AFA, Enganho. They had a common origin, from which they were independently derived. Thus Ret-er would be the word engraved, Ret-ar the retained type. The Rui Eg is the reedvpen of the scribe, also the colour used for the hieroglyphics.
Teru Eg is a roll of papyrus, and the word means drawing in colours, or making hieroglyphics. Rui-teru is the equivalent of the Latin. Litera, a scroll, a writing, or a letter, and of the Welsh Llyther. The engraved stone and hieroglyphic scroll were the letters. Hence we have leather for letter in Leland , tie. The English WEB implies -. KAB Eg yields the principle of weaving with a shuttle.
KAB, to turn, double, turn corner, return, and redouble. It is not necessary for our W to come from V. BAB Eg is to turn, go round, circulate, revolve, a collar. Ab is also to net and tie; Abt is linen,-the woven. Any number, however, of words in Sanskrit, considered to be roots, are but the worn down forms of words. Some of the most famous wheat in the world was the oldest RED corn. HU is corn, aliment, white, and UAH, a name of corn. Thus the name of wheat in Egyptian signals the nature of this corn in contradistinction t0 the cereals that grew wild and uncultivated, and the UAH, to increase and augment, shows the joy of producing the HIT Welsh Yd by means of the Uah—Heb, the Ploughman.
Green rather than white is the colour primally associated with wheat. And here one of many byeways opens, which the present writer must not follow. Pliny says the oldest name for corn in all Latium was FAR. This is a form of the word PAR. PAR was the name of the seed- time in Egypt. It must have been used for malting or distilling, as the KARAU is the jar, a vessel from which steam is issuing.
PER Eg. PEF Eg. PEFS Eg. POBI Welsh means to bake. SEKH is a liquid, the same'as suck and sack in English. But Egyptian shows that Oxford may mean much more than this. The Hall, the Abode, is determined also by the quadrangular sign. This likewise appears in the buildings and the four-cornered cap of USKH—ford. The instructions are to cast out broadly and ring round on a large scale to ensure the run. A collar is one type of the Uskh. The Wherry carried passengers. SKAT is Egyptian, for towing and conducting a boat. SKA is to cut, scrape, play upon. SKA is the plough that cuts the earth. SKAT is to tow or conduct a boat on the water.
KHEN Eg. KHENA is to blow away, puff away, inspire, avert. It was the repetition and not the vapour on which the observers founded the being. AN is being and repeating in one. This is not derived from the breath, but from the breathing. RET Eg. The Mum Mummy was the very self preserved, the self-sameness kept in death. In the hieroglyphics the signs for m and 72 have at times the same value, Ma and Na both read of, from, to, by. Nu and Mu both denote water. The word REMN deposits a rem and a ren, our erm and run, hence the interchange of the one with the other.
The prototype of our tea-urn is an Egyptian vase with a spout, the Kabh sign of refreshment and libation. It may have a bearing on the subject that an URN measure contains twenty-eight pints. The URM or inundation, says Plutarch, at its highest rise at Elephantine is twenty-eight cubits, which is the number of its'several lights.
The Egyptians, he observes, consider the risings of the Nile to bear a certain proportion to the variations of light in the moon. The number twenty-eight is also a mystical measure of time. The REM is one thirty—second of a measure of land; one Rem is a span. The quantity may also be varied, as the word REMN means the extent, extending to, up to, thus far. The hieroglyphic RENN for cattle is a noose or cord for the foot of the animal, to determine its Run or Remn when grazing.
From this lowly origin it rose to become the ring-enclosure of the royal names. And here the RIM Eg , to rise and surge up, has another correlate. SART means to sow seed and also to cut down, prepare, to dig, plant, sow, grow, renew, and augment. This supplies a type-name for lands such as Graffa, Graffee, Graffy, Graffage, meaning the grubbed land. A form of it is extant in the GLEBE land, sacred to the Church, the name of which points to a primordial form of tenure and cultivation. Kar-Nater is one name of the Mason. Every way we take leads to Egypt, every word we hunt down runs to earth at last in the land of the Rut and the Karti, or the Kafruti, who were the Rut of the primordial race.
The Han-ser whin-sill is the rock that pays for quarrying. Our whinstone is a basalt used for whet- stones. This is the AN stone, also used by the Egyptians for whet- stones,2 the AN that gave the name to their typical column. Ba-salt again is ba—sert Eg , gravingstone. Hence Tekhi was Goddess of the Months, and Tekh, the lunar God, the Teacher, as reckoner, calculator, measurer, the ticker-off of periodic time. But it is known that the wild duck covers up her eggs with moss or grass every time she leaves them, and this is a form of ducking or TEKH-ing.
TEKH Eg is to hide, to escape notice of, to duck. Either would supply the name, and both senses meet in the one word TEKH, our duck. The Assyrian Tukhu means the descending, or more literally, the ducking Bird. This is the same word with the same meaning as Duck, although applied to the Dove, doubtless from its motion. The word DATE, the name of the palm—fruit, still preserves the name of TAHT, and of his reckonings or dates made upon the palm— branch of the panygeries. REP and leaf are equiva— lents. There is an old English dance in which the suitor for the lady carries a cushion and presents it to her kneeling.
It is called the cushion dance. The cushion is a type of kneeling down. Eg is to kneel and to adore. DAIR Gael.
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Many words not found in Egyptian were formed as English in the ancient mould. SNA, then, is shapen breath. URS, again, is the name of a pillow or head-rest. P is the. At the end of its lifetime or completed period, the pig becomes PORK, which is, when read in Egyptian, the ended or completed pig. The period is represented by a circle, the symbol of enclosure, or Arking round. ARK Eg with the Tie sign means the end of a period ; 30th of the month ; a binding, to swear, make a covenant. These were called DARG days. The same formation supplies the word DARK for the end of the day.
So likewise with the word NARK. The hauve helve of a thing in English is the hindward part. To HUFF in playing chess is to remove, put back a man. HAAP in Devon means go back. HAPP Eg is to go backward. With us to hiss is an expression of disapproval and contempt, but there is plenty of proof that it was once a sign of applause. With the Basutos, says Casalis, hisses are the most unequivocal marks of applause, and are as much courted in the African parliaments as they are dreaded by our candidates for popular favour. Egyptian will show that. HES Eg. This answers to the Basuto hiss of encouragement.
Tua is to adore, Tua God of the morning, or day. A group of interjections which Mr. This, he observes, cannot be accidental. It is not. Nor is it because there was any general outbreak at various places and times of an universal consciousness which puts the one soul into the same sound. SUUT is to stand.
It has for hieroglyphic the Phallus. The meaning of this standing, staying, stopping, was embodied in the ancient Deity SUT, who was afterwards dethroned in Egypt on account of his nearness to nature. The God Sut, Stander and Stayer was repre- sented by the ass-headed Onocephalus, and this creature, according to Hor-Apollo2 was adopted to symbolize the man who stopped at home and hugged his ignorance and had never been out of his own country. This certainly agrees with the meaning of Sut. KA is the Phallus and the God. What then becomes of the 1 Primitive Cullure, vol.
The post stands.
HEM is an exclamation, or so-called interjectic'm, having the effect of stopping a person, or calling him back. The origin of this is traceable to the Egyptian HEM, the seat, abode, place of stopping, and dwelling. This is provable. These abrade into SAM. There is one origin for all. Egyptian shows us how these primary sounds of the childhood of language were deposited as child—types.
Thus RURU denotes the nurseling and the nurse, also to dandle and lull the child. The English Lullaby is sung by the nurse in lulling the child. I79 second of two. The hieroglyphicT in Ti indicates that the conditions are one of two in TA and TAT, love and loved, not limited to the present and past, or to the genders, and the second is the con- dition of being Twoed ; a doubled condition or secondary stage of being. The T was made the feminine article, as the secondary one of two. The sole object of the present quest, however, was such matter as retains the original likeness, and tends to prove identity in the be- ginning.
Grammatical structure of languages is not of primary im- portance ; that belongs to the mode and means of dispersion and diversifying the one into the thousand languages which enable philolo- gists to class them according to their later differences, and lose sight of the original unity. This, it has to be remembered, is only a Book of the Beginnings, hence the trivialities of the chapter now ended.
He sees that the architec- ture of Stonehenge is primeval, and that it ought, according to the laws of evolution, to belong to a time and an Art antecedent to that of the Great Temples of Egypt and India! Yet he does not dare to apply the law of evolution to these structures, and has no doubt that the rude erections are degenerate copies of, the more perfect originals.
This is parallel with saying that the poetry of Cmdmon is a lowly imi- tation of the work of Tennyson. Left without likeness in the classical languages, our names of rivers, for example, have been felt to be unfathomable. Uat Eg. Heat or spirit was a secondary element. UKA is the water of the inundation. WYSG is the name of a current. WYSG is the rapid—running water. The sea-cockles are left on the sand by the turning tide. In Devon they are called cocks. Stairs that wind about are called cockle-stairs. They too were Gecs, Khekhs, or Cocks.
To cocker is to fondle, dandle, jog, or rock up and down. To joggle is to move this way and that. To juggle is based on rapidity of movement to and fro. To weigh is to balance, and all turns on the wagging up and down. Goggle, joggle, waggle, gaggles, quake, shiggle, gig, giggle, giglot, gigsy, and many other words are variants, having the same fundamental meaning. A jigger in machinery goes to and fro. In giggling the body shakes up and down.
A giglet is always on the go. The Gaelic gogach and English kickle denote a wavering and unsteady motion. Goggle-eyes roll to and fro. The goging or cucking-stool moved up and down in ducking the culprit. The cock on the vane turns to and fro. Hocking at Hock— tide is a custom of the male and female alternately lifting each other up and doWn.
The game of hooky consists in driving the ball to and fro. Egyptian is the old fool, coward, nincompoop. Khekh-ing, hocking, and hoaxing are all connected with the Equinox. But to return. TEMI, as before mentioned, was one name of the Nile inundation. HAN Eg , 0r An, is to bring, to come and go, turn and return. In Egyptian, TEP marks the point of commencement of thing, time, and place. Several of our river—names suggest this origin. NEN- UT is fresh and sweet. SHEN also is 1 B.
Gave corresponds to Kapu, the name of the Nile in the oldest form, and there are two Gaves whose branches blend at Duruthy. Duruthy is the place of the famous Bone-cave. The TUR, as river-branch and boundary, has its earlier form in ATUR Eg , with the same meaning—the water, the river that constitutes a measure and limit of land. AT adds a different type to the AR or water, which has in each case to be distinguished before we know the nature of the particular name. ATH Eg is a canal. KHET is to navigate. Thus the river named from KHAT may be the fordable, id, the WADE-able, or it may be, the navigable water, for which the water itself must be questioned.
SRUTA is to cut out, engrave, as the stream did in its course, whence its adoption as the distributor and divider of lands and the establisher of frontiers and boundaries to be held sacred. Rivers were the ready-made lines on the map of the land. This principle of naming them in Egyptian as water-boundaries of the district or region of land is very apparent. If we take a few of the border rivers and those found, or once extant, such as the river TEES in the north and the TEISE in the south, on the margin of counties this will be evident.
TES is a liquid measure ; so is the river Tees. HESP is likewise an Egyptian name for a district, land measured off, from, or by water; a square inclosed. Both names agree with these meanings. The Stours were the boundaries of districts. A rivulet near Ambrose Hole, Hampshire, is called Danestream. Danesford also occurs in Shropshire.
But these have no relation to the Danes except to show the perversion of the water—name. They are forms of the dividing stream. TEMA is also to swoop down, out in two, announce, ticket. The '. RU Eg is the mouth, gate, way, gorge for water. There are several Hithes on the banks of the Thames. The name has curious illustrations in Egyptian. Whence HIT is a boat, as a carriage on the water. The canal, as HIT, is determined by the hippopotamus, the bearer of the waters, who as Taurt was the seat.
The HIT is also a seat, a station, a limited place on the canal, our Hithe. The Hithe, in the form of Hit or Hut, then, existed as the boat, the seat, the bearer of the water, and a water-region or inclosure. This, the sign of Chaos and determina- tive of precommencement, so to say, of creation, is the earliest form of the Hithe as a landing—place, and its type is worn on the head of the goddess Egypt, as the sign of land obtained from the water. So ancient is the Hithe. This will prove the origin and application of the principle of naming to be Egyptian.
At the beginning is the BECK, the infant stream. Egypl, 2, II, URI, a name of the Inundation of Nile, is repeated in the -. PR1 Eg. Our prying and peering come from this root. The river MEDWAY is peculiar from its long wandering windings, covering some thirty square miles of the surface of the country with its trunk and branches. It is said to 'have been called the VAGA, on account of its wanderings. MENA is the wet- nurse, and to suckle.
Tef enters into the name of Tefnut, 3 Goddess of Wet. The oldest name of St. In Mendip are the Cefn caves, or caves of Khef, another name of the old bringer-forth. Also NET is the lower region, the underworld of the goddess Neith. NUN Eg is the new water, a name of the Inundation. SEFA Eg. The Aldermen of Nottingham and their wives from time beyond memory had, in , been accustomed on Monday in Easter week, after morning prayer, to march from the town to St. The converse reading of the facts would imply that Egypt had gathered all these names of water from all the groups of languages in the world, including the river-names found in the British Isles.
The sign consists of ahead and vertebra, a backbone and brain, with the meaning of ruling and sustaining and maintaining power. Also the Ka sign is the determinative of Ses, the back and shoulders, the image of the Seser or Kaiser. Consequently some one must have very nearly read the hieroglyphics of the Sesertosis. Kherp abrades into Erp or Repa. The feminine Repa is the wife of Nile and Goddess of Harvest. Harvest is Kherp or Kherf, the supply or crop.
The Hlafford, then, points to the Kherp for origin, not to the loaf, which became a later sign. Hlafford worn down? RURT, the round, is a pill. Wales is the earlier Gales, still earlier Kars, which became the shires. The VVelkin is the circle round. As ter is the frontier and extreme limit, the Ealderman may have been the boundary-keeper of the Kar, Gale, Weal, as representative of the ter Eg , that is, the whole, as land or community.
The Alderman still represents the ward, and Ward is philologically one with guard and with weald. Ward also means good keeping. The Ward was the little world that needed the warden. The Weald as forest land had its warden, and the EaldorJ man is the warden or warderman who represents the ward and weal, and is chosen for that purpose. Weal means to choose, and the Weal—der—man, Ealdorman, is the man still chosen to represent the whole, entire, the Ter or commonweal. The Earl, Ceorl, Churl, or Jarl, is derived from the Kar inclosure, and, primarily, the name denotes one who belongs to that circle or inclosure before it was given to him to whom the circle belonged.
HAN Eg is honour, sanctity, royalty, majesty, and rule. Har or Her is the'lord, chief, superior. HAN Eg , moreover, means tribute, and to conduct as tribute. In Egyptian Tum means dumb, mouthless ; hence dumb means turn in relation to the dumb-wife who announces and makes known. Conjurors are proverbially born dumb. Tum, as representative of the lower sun, as Hak Kak , is a form of Harpo— crates, the dumb child, or mystic word, who points to his mouth, and is the antithesis of Makheru, the true voice. The thumb, the lower member of the hand is named after the god of the lower world.
This too was a type of Turn, the diviner in the dark. The thumb foretold. In another bit of gesture language the thumb was bitten at a person to convey a meaning without words. The type of Tum made the truth visible. We have the Doole or dule, a kind of Tel Arabic, mound , as a conical heap of earth which marked the limits of parishes or farms upon the downs, probably the Cairn of the dead before towers were erected.
The Lich, as the dead corpses , are those that lig or lie at rest. But in the hieroglyphics the Rekh Lech are the dead in another sense ; they are the pure wise spirits with the Phoenix emblem of renewed life rather than the bodies that moulder in the ground. But the name was applied to these that ligged or lay there. The dead are those who know; they are the supreme knowers. The wise spirits, as the Magi, are also the Rekh. The Rekh, the knowers, as priests, were the dwellers with the dead, and they taught in the sanctuary, but the Rekhten or Lichten school originates with the living Rekh.
The same word has various applications. The Buau Eg are the chiefs, heads, archons. The Buau—Sart of Leighton are thus the chief men of learning, who dwelt in the Tun of the Rekh, not of the dead only, but of the Magi. The Rekh supplies the Leech. In Akkadian the woman is the Rak. Yet the name is unknown to any of the cognate dialects. It was therefore a word, like so many more, adopted from the British, and out of this the Saxons formed a verb be-drian, to bewitch or en- chant; but they found the Dry already extant.
It is yet to be found in the Gaelic Draoi as the Magician. Tri is to invoke, adore, question, with the determinative of a person making the Invocation. Teriu Eg. In this sense a Teru-it might be the hieroglyphist who drew in colours. Ut Hut also denotes magic. Khen in Egyptian is a sanctuary of rest and faith, and Nuter is divine. The A80 is a Gaelic name of the Druid or adder. ASC permutes with Sekh in Egyptian. SEKH Eg is. This is the ASC as Druid; he is the informant, hence the verb to ask or seek to be informed. They were also designated SOWS. Some divining faculty was ascribed to the sow; it is yet said that pigs see the wind.
The Egyptian SUA is a priestess and singer. HWCH is Hog, independently of 'sex, hence the boar. HEK also means charm, magic. Here is a good test, as it seems, of Egyptian origin. The name of the British Merlin permutes with Merddin. Both signify the circle. REN Eg , is to name. The Round Table was the name—circle of the twelve signs, and later of the twelve Knights. This will serve to show how Merlin and Merddin may be interchangeable names. Scrap, English, is a plan, a design, from Skher Eg to plan, design, picture; the Egyptian terminal p turns Skher into Scrap.
SKHEP is to clear up, enlighten, illumine, render brilliant. And to this occult origin may be attributed a considerable share of the odium attached to the name of the STEP-Mother, who has suffered for her symbolical character. This reaches from the centre to the circumference of the meaning. The second Widow was the woman put out and set apart, divorced from the herd or. The third Widow is a woman who has lost her husband.
Names like these originate in primaries, not in the tertiary stage of application. The t is the feminine terminal; also ta is typical. UTA is the heron or crane, as the widow, the solitary, isolated one, distinct from the gregarious birds. The goddess UAT or UATI is the divine widow, in the form of the genitrix, who was the one alone in the beginning, the one who brings forth the gods; she who was mateless, the Virgin Mother of Mythology. Thus the widow is the Uta, Fut, and Khut, each of which has its still earlier point of departure in the name Kheft Eg , the ancient mother which deposits the Gweddw on one line, and the Fedb on the other, and shows how the Egyptian precedes both.
KUF in Cornish English is the wife. KEF is the wife who was the earlier widow, before her son had become her consort. The Virgin and the Harlot are two names of the same character in Mythology; the mother of the gods, who bore without the male, and was the prototype of ' the Widow. The Ass was one of these living types that have suffered ever since.
Woman has been degraded in various characters for her early supremacy in typology, one of these being that of the stepmother, another that of the widow. In her sacred aspect she was the Virgin Mother, in her degraded one the Whore. For this the widow suffers, and the opprobrium descends to her children. Things now held to be vulgar and unclean were the divine verities of an earlier time.
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BECC, a constable, is the earliest form in English. The wearer sits for the portrait of one. Queen's Bench, who are compelled to go on circuit. The word implies religious service. The determinative denotes a hall, a foundation. The fagging in our public schools is an extant form of slavery or compulsory service explicated by the Egyptian word FEKH, capture, captives, to be a captive. The Page in East Anglia is a boy servant, especially an underling to a shepherd.
This is the Egyptian BAK, a servant who is a labourer. The page of the book we may derive from Pakha Eg , to divide, a division, one of two, and this may also be the meaning of the name of the boy as one of the two sexes. Khe Eg is the child, and P is the masculine article, the. P-KHE yields the male child—Bekh also denotes the male—and with the feminine terminal T we have the name of the goddess, the lion and cat, as Pekht, a form of the biune being.
One meaning of our word HIND is to be in an abject, evil, enslaved, or accursed condition. PA, then, is the producer, REN means toname, nurse, rear up. This reminds us of the story told by Dr.
Lieber, who was looking at a negro feeding some young birds by hand, and asked if they would eat worms. There is a point at which the child and the name are one, as they are in the Egyptian RENN, the child and the name. It is the same with the Word and the child.
Both are uttered; both are issue. The name with the Hebrews is one with the god, and the SEM or divine name of the Chaldeans was a person. With the Egyptians the personal name was sometimes synony-. The child of the parent was likewise an image of her or him. The name REN is identical with the son as the representative sign of the parent. Oaths were sworn by the name and by the son, and the name and son are equivalent as types of continuity.
The Hebrew Metatron is the Angel of the Name. He is called by that title, say the Rabbis, because he is a messenger. Metat—Ren is the revealer or manifester of or as the Name. But we shall refute Eratosthenes42 more at length, when we have occasion again to speak of Homer. What we have already advanced is sufficient to prove that poet the father of geography.
Those who followed in [Pg 11] his track are also well known as great men. Anaximander [Pg 12] [Pg 13] was the first to publish a geographical chart. For instance, no one could tell whether Alexandria in Egypt were north or south of Babylon, nor yet the intervening distance, without observing the latitudes. In small distances a little deviation north or south does not signify, but when it is the whole circle of the earth, the north extends to the furthest confines of Scythia,45 or Keltica,46 and the south to the extremities of Ethiopia: there is a wide difference here.
The case is the same should we inhabit India or Spain, one in the east, the other far west, and, as we are aware, the antipodes47 to each other. The [motions] of the sun and stars, and the centripetal [Pg 14] force meet us on the very threshold of such subjects, and compel us to the study of astronomy, and the observation of such phenomena as each of us may notice; in which too, very considerable differences appear, according to the various points of observation.
How could any one undertake to write accurately and with propriety on the differences of the various parts of the earth, who was ignorant of these matters? He who has thus elevated his mind, will he be satisfied with any thing less than the whole world? If in his anxiety accurately to portray the inhabited earth, he has dared to survey heaven, and make use thereof for purposes of instruction, would it not seem childish were he to refrain from examining the whole earth, of which the inhabited is but a part, its size, its features, and its position in the universe; whether other portions are inhabited besides those on which we dwell, and if so, their amount?
What is the extent of the regions not peopled? Thus it appears that the knowledge of geography is connected with meteorology48 and geometry, that it unites the things of earth to the things of heaven, as though they were nearly allied, and not separated. To the various subjects which it embraces let us add natural history, or the history of the animals, plants, and other different productions of the earth and sea, whether serviceable or useless, and my original statement will, I think, carry perfect conviction with it.
That he who should undertake this work would be a benefactor to mankind, reason and the voice of antiquity agree. The poets feign that they were the wisest heroes who travelled and wandered most in foreign climes: and to be familiar with many countries, and the disposition of the inhabitants, is, according to them, of vast importance. To these should be added its marine history; for we are in a certain sense amphibious, not exclusively connected with the land, but with the sea as well. One consideration however appears to bear in a peculiar manner on the case in point; viz.
For the sea and the earth in which we dwell furnish theatres [Pg 16] for action; limited, for limited actions; vast, for grander deeds; but that which contains them all, and is the scene of the greatest undertakings, constitutes what we term the habitable earth; and they are the greatest generals who, subduing nations and kingdoms under one sceptre, and one political administration, have acquired dominion over land and sea. It is clear then, that geography is essential to all the transactions of the statesman, informing us, as it does, of the position of the continents, seas, and oceans of the whole habitable earth.
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Information of especial interest to those who are concerned to know the exact truth of such particulars, and whether the places have been explored or not: for government will certainly be better administered where the size and position of the country, its own peculiarities, and those of the surrounding districts, are understood. Forasmuch as there are many sovereigns who rule in different regions, and some stretch their. Indeed, were the whole earth under one government and one administration, it is hardly possible that we should be informed of every locality in an equal degree; for even then we should be most acquainted with the places nearest us: and after all, it is better that we should have a more perfect description of these, since, on account of their proximity, there is greater need for it.
We see there is no reason to be surprised that there should be one chorographer57 for the Indians, another for the Ethiopians, and a third for the Greeks and Romans. Even if we descend to the consideration of such trivial matters as hunting, the case is still the same; for he will be most successful in the chase who is acquainted with the size and nature of the wood, and one familiar with the locality will be the most competent to superintend an encampment, an ambush, or a march. But it is in great undertakings that the truth shines out in all its brilliancy, for here, while the success resulting from knowledge is grand, the consequences of ignorance are disastrous.
The fleet of Agamemnon, for instance, ravaging Mysia, as if it had been the Trojan territory, was compelled to a shameful retreat. Likewise the Persians and Libyans,59 supposing certain straits to be impassable, were very near falling into great perils, and have left behind them memorials of their ignorance; the former a monument to Salganeus on the Euripus, near Chalcis, whom the Persians slew, for, as they thought, falsely conducting their fleet from the Gulf of Malea60 to the Euripus; and the latter to the memory of Pelorus, who was executed on a like occasion.
On the other hand, matters have come to a prosperous termination, when judiciously directed by a knowledge of the locality. But passing over ancient occurrences, we think that the late expeditions [Pg 18] of the Romans against the Parthians furnish an excellent example, where, as in those against the Germans and Kelts, the Barbarians, taking advantage of their situation, [carried on the war] in marshes, woods, and pathless deserts, deceiving the ignorant enemy as to the position of different places, and concealing the roads, and the means of obtaining food and necessaries.
As we have said, this science has an especial reference to the occupations and requirements of statesmen, with whom also political and ethical philosophy is mainly concerned; and here is an evidence. We distinguish the different kinds of civil. For the laws which emanate from the sovereign, from the aristocracy, and from the people all are different. The law is in fact a type of the form of government. It is on this account that some define right to be the interest of the strongest. If, therefore, political philosophy is advantageous to the ruler, and geography in the actual government of the country, this latter seems to possess some little superiority.
This superiority is most observable in real service. But even the theoretical portion of geography is by no means contemptible. On the one hand, it embraces the arts, mathematics, and natural science; on the other, history and fable. Not that this latter can have any distinct advantage: for instance, if any one should relate to us the wanderings of Ulysses, Menelaus, and Jason, he would not seem to have added directly to our fund of practical knowledge thereby, which is the only thing men of the world are interested in, unless he should convey useful examples of what those wanderers were compelled to suffer, and at the same time afford matter of rational amusement to those who interest themselves in the places which gave birth to such fables.
Practical men interest themselves in these pursuits, since they are at once commendable, and afford them pleasure; but yet not to any great extent. In this class, too, will be found those whose main object in life is pleasure and respectability: but these [Pg 19] by no means constitute the majority of mankind, who naturally prefer that which holds out some direct advantage.
The geographer should therefore chiefly devote himself to what is practically important. He should follow the same rule in regard to history and the mathematics, selecting always that which is most useful, most intelligible, and most authentic. Geometry and astronomy, as we before remarked, seem absolutely indispensable in this science. This, in fact, is evident, that without some such assistance, it would be impossible to be accurately acquainted with the configuration of the earth; its climata,61 dimensions, and the like information.
As the size of the earth has been demonstrated by other writers, we shall here take for granted and receive as accurate what they have advanced. We shall also assume that the earth is spheroidal, that its surface is likewise spheroidal, and above all, that bodies have a tendency towards its centre, which latter point is clear to the perception of the most average understanding.
However we may show summarily that the earth is spheroidal, from the consideration that all things however distant tend to its centre, and that every body is attracted towards its centre of gravity; this is more distinctly proved from observations of the sea and sky, for here the evidence of the senses, and common observation, is alone requisite.
The convexity of the sea is a further proof of this to those who have sailed; for they cannot perceive lights at a distance when placed at the same level as their eyes, but if raised on high, they at once become perceptible to vision, though at the same time further removed. So, when the eye is raised, it sees what before was utterly imperceptible. Homer speaks of this when he says, Lifted up on the vast wave he quickly beheld afar. Sailors, as they approach their destination, behold the shore continually raising itself to their view; and objects which had at first seemed low, begin to elevate themselves.
Our gnomons, also, are, among other things, evidence of the revolution of the heavenly bodies; and common sense at once shows us, [Pg 20] that if the depth of the earth were infinite,63 such a revolution could not take place. Now there are some facts which we take to be established, viz.
With some of these matters, unless as philosophical pursuits, they should not burden themselves at all; others they must take for granted without searching into their causes. This must be left to the care of the philosopher; the statesman can have no leisure, or very little, for such pursuits. Those who, through carelessness and ignorance, are not familiar with the globe and the circles traced upon it, some parallel to each other, some at right angles to the former, others, again, in an oblique direction; nor yet with the position of the tropics, equator, and zodiac, that circle through which the sun travels in his course, and by which we reckon the changes of season and the winds, such persons we caution against the perusal of our work.
For [Pg 21] if a man is neither properly acquainted with these things, nor with the variations of the horizon and arctic circle, and such similar elements of mathematics, how can he comprehend the matters treated of here? So for one who does not know a right line from a curve, nor yet a circle, nor a plane or spherical surface, nor the seven stars in the firmament composing the Great Bear, and such like, our work is entirely useless, at least for the present.
Unless he first acquires such information, he is utterly incompetent to the study of geography. The present undertaking is composed in a lucid style, suitable alike to the statesman and the general reader, after the fashion of my History. For a man who has bestowed no attention on virtue or intelligence, nor what constitutes them, must be incompetent either to blame or praise, still less to decide what actions are worthy to be placed on record. Having already compiled our Historical Memoirs, which, as we conceive, are a valuable addition both to political and moral philosophy, we have now determined to follow it up with the present work, which has been prepared on the same system as the former, and for the same class of readers, but more particularly for those who are in high stations of life.
And as our former production contains only the most striking events in the lives of distinguished men, omitting trifling and unimportant incidents; so here it will be proper to dismiss small and doubtful particulars, and merely call attention to great and remarkable transactions, such in fact as are useful, [Pg 22] memorable, and entertaining. In the colossal works of the sculptor we do not descend into a minute examination of particulars, but look principally for perfection in the general ensemble. This is the only method of criticism applicable to the present work.
Its proportions, so to speak, are colossal; it deals in the generalities and main outlines of things, except now and then, when some minor detail can be selected, calculated to be serviceable to the seeker after knowledge, or the man of business. We now think we have demonstrated that our present undertaking is one that requires great care, and is well worthy of a philosopher. No one can [justly] blame us for having undertaken to write on a subject already often treated of, unless it appears that we have done nothing more than copy the works of former writers. In our opinion, though they may have perfectly treated some subjects, in others they have still left much to be completed; and we shall be justified in our performance, if we can add to their information even in a trifling degree.
At the present moment the conquests of the Romans and Parthians have added much to our knowledge, which as was well observed by Eratosthenes had been considerably increased by the expedition of Alexander. This prince laid open to our view the greater part of Asia, and the whole north of Europe as far as the Danube. And the Romans [have discovered to us] the entire west of Europe as far as the river Elbe, which divides Germany, and the country beyond the Ister to the river Dniester.
To the Parthians we are indebted for a better acquaintance with Hyrcania,72 Bactriana, [Pg 23] 73 and the land of the Scythians74 lying beyond, of which before we knew but little. Thus we can add much information not supplied by former writers, but this will best be seen when we come to treat on the writers who have preceded us; and this method we shall pursue, not so much in regard to the primitive geographers, as to Eratosthenes and those subsequent to him. As these writers far surpassed the generality in the amount of their knowledge, so naturally it is more difficult to detect their errors when such occur.
If I seem to contradict those most whom I take chiefly for my guides, I must claim indulgence on the plea, that it was never intended to criticise the whole body of geographers, the larger number of whom are not worthy of consideration, but to give an opinion of those only who are generally found correct.
Still, while many are beneath discussion, such men as Eratosthenes, Posidonius, Hipparchus, Polybius, and others of their stamp, deserve our highest consideration. Let us first examine Eratosthenes, reviewing at the same time what Hipparchus has advanced against him. Eratosthenes is much too creditable an historian for us to believe what Polemon endeavours to charge against him, that he had not even seen Athens.
At the same time he does not merit that unbounded confidence which some seem to repose in him, although, as he himself tells us, he passed much of his time with first-rate [characters]. Never, says he, at one period, and in one city, were there so many philosophers flourishing together as in my time. In their number was Ariston and Arcesilaus. This, however, it seems is not sufficient, but you must also be able to choose who are the real guides whom it is your interest to follow. Although at Athens he became a disciple of Zeno76 of Citium, he makes no mention of his followers; while those who opposed that philosopher, and of whose sect not a trace remains, he thinks fit to set down amongst the [great characters] who flourished in his time.
His real character appears in his Treatise on Moral Philosophy,77 his Meditations, and some similar productions. He seems to have held a middle course between the man who devotes himself to philosophy, and the man who cannot make up his mind to dedicate himself to it: and to have studied the science merely as a relief from his other pursuits, or as a pleasing and instructive recreation.
In his other writings he is just the same; but let these things pass. We will now proceed as well as we can to the task of rectifying his geography. First, then, let us return to the point which we lately deferred. Eratosthenes says that the poet directs his whole attention to the amusement of the mind, and not at all to its instruction. In opposition to his idea, the ancients define poesy as a primitive philosophy, guiding our life from infancy, and pleasantly regulating our morals, our tastes, and our actions.
The [Stoics] of our day affirm that the only wise man is the poet. On this account the earliest lessons which the citizens of Greece convey to their children are from the poets; certainly [Pg 25] not alone for the purpose of amusing their minds, but for their instruction. Nay, even the professors of music, who give lessons on the harp, lyre, and pipe, lay claim to our consideration on the same account, since they say that [the accomplishments which they teach] are calculated to form and improve the character.
It is not only among the Pythagoreans that one hears this claim supported, for Aristoxenus is of that opinion, and Homer too regarded the bards as amongst the wisest of mankind. Homer inserted into his poetry all that he knew about the Ethiopians, Egypt, and Libya. But in pursuing this method, what object has he in view, to amuse [merely], or to instruct?
The latter, doubtless. Well, perhaps he has told the truth in these instances, but in what was beyond his observation both he and the other writers have indulged in all the marvels of fable. To seek to invest him with all this knowledge is most likely the effect of too great a zeal for his honour. I ask, is it of no value to the auditors83 of the poets to be made acquainted with [the history of] different countries, with strategy, agriculture, and rhetoric, and suchlike things, which the lecture generally contains.
One thing is certain, that the poet has bestowed all these gifts upon Ulysses, whom beyond any of his other [heroes] he loves to adorn with every virtue. That eloquence is regarded as the wisdom of speech, Ulysses manifests throughout the whole poem, both in the Trial,89 the Petitions,90 and the Embassy. Are we not all agreed that the chief merit of a poet consists in his accurate representation of the affairs of life? Can this be done by a mere driveller, unacquainted with the world?
The excellence of a poet is not to be measured by the same standard as that of a mechanic or a blacksmith, where honour and virtue have nothing to do with our estimate. But the poet and the individual are connected, and he only can become a good poet, who is in the first instance a worthy man. To deny that our poet possesses the graces of oratory is using us hardly indeed.
What is so befitting an orator, what so poetical as eloquence, and who so sweetly eloquent as Homer? But, by heaven! Of course [I admit this]; in poetry itself there is the tragic and the comic style; in prose, the historic and the forensic. But is not language [Pg 28] a generality, of which poetry and prose are forms? Yes, language is; but are not the rhetorical, the eloquent, and the florid styles also? I answer, that flowery prose is nothing but an imitation of poetry.
Ornate poetry was the first to make its appearance, and was well received. The metre was the only thing dispensed with, every other poetic grace being carefully preserved. As time advanced, one after another of its beauties was discarded, till at last it came down from its glory into our common prose. In the same way we may say that comedy took its rise from tragedy, but descended from its lofty grandeur into what we now call the common parlance of daily life.
Poetry in. The song or ode was but a modulated speech, from whence the words rhapsody, tragedy, comedy,93 are derived; and since originally eloquence was the term made use of for the poetical effusions which were always of the nature of a song, it soon happened [that in speaking of poetry] some said, to sing, others, to be eloquent; and as the one term was early misapplied to prose compositions, the other also was soon applied in the same way. Lastly, the very term prose, which is applied to language not clothed in metre, seems to indicate, as it were, its descent from an elevation or chariot to the ground.
Homer accurately describes many distant countries, and not only Greece and the neighbouring places, as Eratosthenes asserts. His romance, too, is in better style than that of his successors. He does not make up wondrous tales on every occasion, [Pg 29] but to instruct us the better often, and especially in the Odyssey, adds to the circumstances which have come under his actual observation, allegories, wise harangues, and enticing narrations.
Concerning which, Eratosthenes is much mistaken when he says that both Homer and his commentators are a pack of fools. But this subject demands a little more of our attention. To begin. The poets were by no means the first to avail themselves of myths. States and lawgivers had taken advantage of them long before, having observed the constitutional bias of mankind.
Man is eager after knowledge, and the love of legend is but the prelude thereto. This is why children begin to listen [to fables], and are acquainted with them before any other kind of knowledge; the cause of this is that the myth introduces them to a new train of ideas, relating not to every-day occurrences, but something in addition to these. A charm hangs round whatever is new and hitherto unknown, inspiring us with a desire to become acquainted with it, but when the wonderful and the marvellous are likewise present, our delight is increased until at last it becomes a philtre of study.
To children we are obliged to hold out such enticements, in order that in riper years, when the mind is powerful, and no longer needs such stimulants, it may be prepared to enter on the study of actual realities. Every illiterate and uninstructed man is yet a child, and takes delight in fable. With the partially informed it is much the same; reason is not all-powerful within him, and he still possesses the tastes of a child. But the marvellous, which is capable of exciting fear as well as pleasure, influences not childhood only, but age as well. As we relate to children pleasing tales to incite them [to any course] of action, and frightful ones to deter them, such as those of Lamia,95 Gorgo,96 Ephialtes,97 and Mormolyca.
In the same way they are restrained from vicious courses, when they think they have received from the gods by oracles or some other invisible intimations, threats, menaces, or chastisements, or even if they only believe they have befallen others. The great mass of women and common people, cannot be induced by mere force of reason to devote themselves to piety, virtue, and honesty; superstition must therefore be employed, and even this is insufficient without the aid of the marvellous and the terrible.
Such was mythology; and when our ancestors found it capable of subserving the purposes of social and political life, and even contributing to the knowledge of truth, they continued the education of childhood to maturer years, and maintained that poetry was sufficient to form the understanding of every age. In course of time history and our present philosophy were introduced; these, however, suffice but for the chosen few, and to the present day poetry is the main agent which instructs our people and crowds our theatres.
Homer here stands pre-eminent, but in truth all the early historians and natural philosophers were mythologists as well. Thus it is that our poet, though he sometimes employs fiction for the purposes of instruction, always gives the preference to truth; he makes use of what is false, merely tolerating it in order the more easily to lead and govern the multitude. In [Pg 31] this manner he undertook the narration of the Trojan war, gilding it with the beauties of fancy and the wanderings of Ulysses; but we shall never find Homer inventing an empty fable apart from the inculcation of truth.
It is ever the case that a person lies most successfully, when he intermingles [into the falsehood] a sprinkling of truth. That at that time the districts surrounding the strait were unapproachable; and Scylla and Charybdis were infested by banditti. In like manner in the writings of Homer we are informed of other freebooters, who dwelt in divers regions.
Being aware that the Cimmerians dwelt on the Cimmerian Bosphorus, a dark northern country, he felicitously locates them in a gloomy region close by Hades, a fit theatre for the scene in the wanderings of Ulysses. That he was acquainted with these people we may satisfy ourselves from the chroniclers, who report an incursion made by the Cimmerians either during his lifetime or just before. It is possible that Jason himself wandered as far as Italy, for traces of the Argonautic expedition are pointed out near the Ceraunian mountains, by the Adriatic, at the Posidonian Gulf and the isles adjacent to Tyrrhenia.
In his time people absolutely regarded the Euxine as a kind of second ocean, and placed those who had crossed it in the same list with navigators who had passed the Pillars. In order therefore to be well received, it is probable he transferred the scenes from the Euxine to the ocean, so as not to stagger the general belief. And in my opinion those Solymi who possess the highest ridges of Taurus, lying between Lycia and Pisidia, and those who in their southern heights stand out most conspicuously to the dwellers on this side Taurus, and the inhabitants of the Euxine by a figure of speech, he describes as being beyond the ocean.
Having premised thus much, we must now take into consideration the reasons of those who assert that Homer [Pg 33] makes Ulysses wander to Sicily or Italy, and also of those who denied this. The truth is, he may be equally interpreted on this subject either way, according as we take a correct or incorrect view of the case. And so far this description of him is right; for not about Italy only, but to the farthest extremities of Spain, traces of his wanderings and those of similar adventurers may still be found.
But nothing can be said against the man who understands the words of the poet in a rational way. Eratosthenes, though on no sufficient grounds for so doing, rejects both these opinions, endeavouring in his attack on the latter, to refute by lengthened arguments what is manifestly absurd and unworthy of consideration, and in regard to the former, maintaining a poet to be a mere gossip, to whose worth an acquaintance with science.
Further, if those who describe the geography of certain places do not agree in every particular, are we justified in at once rejecting their whole narration? Frequently this is a reason why it should receive the greater credit. They add thereby strength to this view, inasmuch as though they are not agreed as to the exact locality, neither of them makes any question but that it was some where contiguous to Italy or Sicily.
That the poet did not search for accuracy in every minor detail we admit, but neither ought we to expect this of him; at the same time we are not to believe that he composed his poem without inquiring into the history of the Wandering, nor where and how it occurred. As for Homer, he was altogether unacquainted with these places, and further, had no wish to lay the scene of the wanderings in any well-known locality.
Or is Hesiod so correct as never to write nonsense, but always follow in the wake of received opinions, while Homer blurts out whatever comes uppermost? The conjecture of Polybius in regard to the particulars of the wandering of Ulysses is excellent. In like manner Danaus for pointing out the springs of water that were in Argos, and Atreus for showing the retrograde movement of the sun in the heavens, from being mere soothsayers and diviners, were raised to the dignity of kings.
And the priests of the Egyptians, the Chaldeans, and Magi, distinguished for their wisdom above those around them, obtained from our predecessors honour and authority; [Pg 36] and so it is that in each of the gods, we worship the discoverer of some useful art.
There is a spice of the fabulous here, as well as in the Trojan War, but as respects Sicily, the poet accords entirely with the other historians who have written on the local traditions of Sicily and Italy. For the same thing occurs here, and at the rising of the Nile and other rivers, as takes place when a forest is on fire. Vast crowds of animals, in flying from the fire or the water, become the prey of beasts more powerful than themselves.
One look-out directs the whole body of fishers, who are in a vast number of small boats, each furnished with two oars, and two men to each boat. One man rows, the other stands on the prow, spear in hand, while the look-out has to signal the appearance of a sword-fish. This fish, when swimming, has about a third of its body above water. As it passes the boat, the fisher darts the spear from his hand, and when this is withdrawn, it leaves the sharp point with which it is furnished sticking in the flesh [Pg 37] of the fish: this point is barbed, and loosely fixed to the spear for the purpose; it has a long end fastened to it; this they pay out to the wounded fish, till it is exhausted with its struggling and endeavours at escape.
Afterwards they trail it to the shore, or, unless it is too large and full-grown, haul it into the boat. If the spear should fall into the sea, it is not lost, for it is jointed of oak and pine, so that when the oak sinks on account of its weight, it causes the other end to rise, and thus is easily recovered. It sometimes happens that the rower is wounded, even through the boat, and such is the size of the sword with which the galeote is armed, such the strength of.
The customs of the inhabitants of Meninx closely correspond to the description of the Lotophagi. If any thing does not correspond, it should be attributed to change, or to misconception, or to poetical licence, which is made up of history, rhetoric, and fiction. Truth is the aim of the historical portion, as for instance in the Catalogue of Ships, where the poet informs us of the peculiarities of each place, that one is rocky, another the furthest city, that this abounds in doves, and that is maritime.
A lively interest is the end of the rhetorical, as when he points to us the combat; and of the fiction, pleasure and astonishment. A mere fabrication would neither be persuasive nor Homeric; and we know that his poem [Pg 38] is generally considered a scientific treatise, notwithstanding what Eratosthenes may say, when he bids us not to judge poems by the standard of intellect, nor yet look to them for history.
To those who demand how it was that Ulysses, though he journeyed thrice to Sicily, never once navigated the Strait, we reply that, long after his time, voyagers always sedulously avoided that route. Such are the sentiments of Polybius; and in many respects they are correct enough; but when he discusses the voyage beyond the ocean, and enters on minute calculations of the proportion borne by the distance to the number of days, he is greatly mistaken.
Here he is altogether wrong, though quite correct about the wandering of Ulysses having taken place round Sicily and Italy, a fact which Homer establishes himself. We may justly reprehend his assertion on this point, as also where he says, that Homer places the scene of his marvels in distant lands that he may lie the more easily. Let us not therefore tax the poets with ignorance on account of the myths which they employ, and since, so far from myth being the staple, they for the most part avail themselves of actual occurrences, and Homer does this in a remarkable degree, the inquirer who will seek how far these ancient writers have wandered into fiction, ought not to scrutinize to what extent the fiction was carried, but rather what is the truth concerning those places and persons to which the fictions have been applied; for instance, whether the wanderings of Ulysses did actually occur, and where.
The Elect rule Ierna, ensuring their people live in peace and plenty, protected from the planet's merciless sun by a biosphere that surrounds their city. Originally published Reprinted , , Lemony Snicket's a serie of unfortunate events : Hungarian dance No.
Artificial intelligence : A. Big fish : Symphony No. Ocean's twelve : Symphony No. Sixth sense : Trout quintet Op. The talented Mr. Edition: Print book : English A simple introduction to the equipment, rules, and techniques of tennis. Innocence and experience. The externalization of the internal -- The songs of innocence -- The songs of experience -- Gnostic myth-making -- Nature and supernature. Lyrical ballads -- Wise passiveness -- The willing suspension of disbelief -- The dark side of inspiration -- Crisis and resolution.
Abundant recompense -- Solipsism with a vengeance -- Trumpet of a prophecy -- Process in stasis -- The darkness within. An illustrated biographical record of prominent personalities in the Republic of South Africa, Botswana, Mauritius, Namibia, Swaziland, Zimbabwe and neighbouring countries in Southern Africa. Previous edition: Teaches grammar concepts in song and rap to young listeners. Children hear instructions, follow along in the book, and participate in identifying parts of speech in sentences.
But this time, their candidate is as gun shy as the pastor! When a group of children gather to spend the summer on an island, their vacation turns into a series of dangerous entanglements as they strive to save a prince in peril. The A-Z of inventions and inventors. Responsibility: The A-Z of inventions and inventors. Panel title. Includes indexes and inset maps of "Downtown Houston" and "Houston area map. This picture book addresses 11 socioeconomic issues, including health, education, justice, wealth, and the environment that pertain to African-American children and their families.
Includes the text of selections from the Shema in English and Hebrew. This besutiful adaptation of the Kriat Sh'ma al haMitah, the Bedtime Sh'ma, invokes traditional nighttime blessings of peace and protection and recalls the wonder of our waking hours. Words with chord symbols. Guitar chord diagrams at head of selections. Afternoon delight -- Annie's song -- A boy named Sue -- Cecilia -- Cold as ice -- Crocodile rock -- Day after day -- Dixie chicken -- Feel like makin' love -- Follow me -- Garden song -- Heard it in a love song -- Hummingbird -- I'd really love to see you tonight -- Knock three times -- Lights -- Lookin' out my back door -- Maggie May -- Nights in white satin -- On and on -- Rocky Mountain high -- Say has anybody seen my sweet gypsy Rose -- Shelter from the storm -- Space oddity -- Summer breeze -- Sunshine on my shoulders -- Superstar -- Take it easy -- Take me home, country roads -- Teach your children -- This masquerade -- Tie a yellow ribbon round the ole oak tree -- Uncle John's band -- Where is the love?
I especially like the detailed list of albergues in each town, complete with prices and icons showing their amenities. The book covers the entire route all the way to Finisterre and Muxia, with daily stages of around 25km You can, of course, finish your day anywhere you like, but the stages often end in the larger towns with more options for places to stay and eat, as well as resources such as pharmacies, ATM machines, etc. Each stage begins with an overview including the distance, difficulty, average number of hours, and a breakdown of the percentage of time you'll spend on paved vs.
It then includes a description of what you'll be facing that day, along with an elevation chart and a map showing all towns and the amenities you can expect to find there albergues, food, shopping, etc. It then walks you through each town you'll be visiting, and describes points of interest as well as warnings for things to watch out for like the lack of water between Valcarlos and Roncesvalles. Each town has a sidebar with a listing of places to stay, each with its price, contact details, and amenities food, washer, dryer, kitchen, WiFi, number of beds, etc.
Maps are also included for the larger towns, with all places to stay marked on the map. We always found it easy to understand the differences between the albergues, and to find them once we arrived in the town. The book also includes a lot of nice information in the introductory chapters, including a history of the Camino, when to go, how to get there, visas, the various types of places to stay and eat, costs, safety issues, packing lists, and lots more.
This information is expanded even further on the book's extensive web site, including links to many of the sites and places to stay that are listed in each stage. Gilbert, book review, Amazon. The Trabzon and Batum Conferences: Azerbaijan's first diplomatic steps toward independence 3. The Diplomatic Campaign for the Liberation of Baku 5. Azerbaijan and the International Situation on the Eve of the Occupation Azerbaijani Diplomacy and the April Occupation.
Conclusion Includes an excerpt from Highland wolf. Ernhart, Sandra Scarr, and David R. Kobrick, Marc A. Rodwin, and Gary R. Spilguide Includes index. Best Books. Part 1. Commentary -- Part 2. Transcriptions [of selected chansons]. Originally published: Wheaton, Ill. The war will not only change their son but will change them as well. We can not go back to who we once were. Instead we must move ahead with a new found strength and wisdom, knowing that if we can survive the heartacdhe of sending a son to war we can survive almost anything.
Stay strong. City Boy. The question that ought to be at the heart of the school reform debate is: Why do we have schools? An answer to this question will drive the sorts of "improvements" that schools attempt. This book proposes that schools exist to help young persons create meaning and discover their own being through development of the mind. The mind is the starting point for personal progress, and its development allows for success in all facets of life. Asserting the strong claim of the mind on the rural school curriculum disavows a popular notion about school purpose--that it ought to be economically centered.
Focusing on human development also challenges the currently accepted "technocratic" approach to schooling, which relies on ready-made "one best" solutions devised by experts, manipulative methods, and mechanical techniques. In contrast, a "thoughtful" approach to education aims to create meaning by going beyond the transmission of information. Thoughtful learning involves consideration both for ideas and for other people. Students who engage in thoughtful learning acquire a disposition to be mindful--to weigh evidence, make connections among ideas, understand perspective, find alternatives, and judge value.
Ultimately, thoughtful learning results from thoughtful settings brought about by thoughtful teachers and administrators. Although the prospects for widespread institutional change are slim, individual teachers and administrators have the potential to commit themselves to meaning and thoughtfulness and to transform their own school settings. An appendix contains an annotated bibliography of 12 resources on predicative teaching and learning. Contains 79 references.
SV One of a series of children's books written from the point of view of an elementary grade child with a disability or other problem, the stories emphasize the similarities in childhood experience while providing information specific to the disability. In this book, year-old Christine copes successfully with her diabetes but finds it much more difficult to come to terms with the demands of her Greek-American heritage. After the story, a question and answer section provides answers by Christine of typical questions children often have about diabetes.
These include: "What is diabetes? Isn't it disgusting? For related books, see EC Original ed. Arthur's new puppy causes problems when it tears the living room apart, wets on everything, and refuses to wear a leash. Parish and pastoral ministry in the light of Vatican II. Receiving Vatican II : an ongoing challenge for moral theologians -- The changing face of moral theology after Vatican II -- The responsibility of moral theology to church and modern society -- Receiving Vatican II : the contribution of the Association of Teachers of Moral Theology -- Towards an adult conscience -- "Do it yourself" moral theology -- Live simply : being true to our togetherness -- Two-minute talk at a Liverpool public rally, protesting against government cuts -- Saints or sinners?
Towards a spirituality of growth out of sin -- I believe in a sinful church -- The gift of general absolution -- Pastoral care of the divorced and remarried -- Can marriage breakdown be a death-resurrection experience?
- yzeryjb.tk Ebooks and Manuals.
- Common Sense says.
- Love, Hate, and Fate : Alexis Marsh Finds Redemption;
The new translation of the Roman Missal : lament for a flawed process -- The Eucharist and unity -- The Eucharist and violence -- On viewing Mel Gibson's film, The passion of the Christ -- Some thoughts on the diminishing number of priests -- Is "no" to female priests "good news" for women? The prophecy keepers. Book one Fourteen-year-old Lisandra Ackart discovers she is the Gifted One of legend and reluctantly embarks on a journey to find the twenty-three Keepers of the ancient Prophecy and save her world from the coming Darkness.
Cover title. Half my life ago, I killed a girl. So begins Darin Strauss Half a Life, the true story of how one outing in his fathers car resulted in the death of a classmate and the beginning of a different, darker life for the author. Based on the horror video game series Silent Hill. Among the damned -- Paint it black -- The grinning man. The place where we started -- Five-finger exercise -- Security -- Boundaries -- Significance -- Community -- Creativity -- Hands together -- Hands apart -- Villages and comost heaps. What is good stress?