H agboldt , P eter , Graded German Readers. H eld , H ilde K ant , Deutsche Satzmelodie. Contes recueillis. D umas , A lexandre , Les Trois Mousquetaires. Edited by James L. Cattell and John T. D audet , A lfonse , Tartarin de Tarascon. Edited by Edward I. W illiams , E dwin B. H ouse , R alph E. W alsh , G ertrude M. L ipp , S olomon and B esso , H enry V. Volume 26 , Issue 5. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.
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Institutional Login. Log in to Wiley Online Library. Purchase Instant Access. View Preview. Learn more Check out. Abstract Book reviewed in this article: T anner , R ollin H. Drawings by Syd Browne Vier Abenteuergeschichten. Alberdi and his influence on immigration policy in the Argentine constitution of The Americas 5: Sollors, Werner.
Beyond ethnicity: Consent and descent in American culture. New York: Oxford University Press. Buenos Aires: ECE. Contemporary Jewish-Argentine writers. Latin American Literary Review 6: Unamuno, Miguel de. Contra esto y aquello. Weisbrot, Robert. Winsberg, Morton. American Journal of Economics and Sociology Mansilla makes a clear distinction between the terms gaucho and paisano. The former lives a nomadic lifestyle, is a gambler and breaks the law; the latter has a fixed residence, holds a job and complies with the law.
En ella el autor estadounidense manifiesta el gran orgullo que siente sobre lo que acaba de escribir:. I have been so ill—have had the cholera, or spasms quiet sic as bad, and can now hardly hold the pen The very instant you get this, come to me. The joy of seeing you will almost compensate for our sorrows.
We can but die together. It is no use to reason with me now; I must die. For your sake it would be sweet to live, but we muse sic die together. You have been all in all to me, darling, ever beloved mother, and dearest, truest friend. I was never really insane, except on occasions where my heart was touched I have been taken to prison once since I came here for spreeing drunk; but then I was not.
It was about Virginia. El libro comienza con un prefacio firmado por Poe. El pensamiento lleva al raciocinio y este lleva a la duda sobre algo que realmente es imposible de demostrar. El primero no puede explicar al segundo, dado que no tiene respuestas racionales para todo; del mismo modo que el segundo, el espiritual, necesita del primero para su existencia. Esta naturalidad y libertad es algo que atrajo enormemente a nuestros literatos. He knew Poe's work as early as , when he mentioned him in his letters Todas ellas salpicadas por la vida y por la muerte de sus personajes y el intentar darle sentido a sus vidas.
Todos ellos buscaron ese punto de equilibrio entre lo material y lo espiritual por medio de su obra. En el caso de Antonio Machado, la influencia que Edgar Allan Poe tuvo en el poeta sevillano se ve reflejada tanto en su escritura, como en su forma de pensar.
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Inquietud, angustia, temores, resignaciones, esperanza, impaciencia que el poeta canta, son signos del tiempo, y al par, revelaciones del ser en la conciencia humana. Existence—self-existence—existence from all Time and to all Eternity—seems, up to the epoch of Manhood, a normal and unquestionable condition:— seems , because it is. Doubt, Surprise and Incomprehensibility arrive at the same moment.
These things we struggle to comprehend and cannot:— cannot , because these things, being untrue, are thus, of necessity, incomprehensible. En , vi, insisto. No podemos vivir anclados en el pasado como los puritanos estadounidenses; el poeta necesita avanzar y moverse en consonancia con el universo y la naturaleza. Unamuno se debate entre dos mundos: el racional y el religioso.
El epitafio a Juan de Mairena es muy revelador. Biography: Accessed December 3, Archimedes Principle: Accessed December 3, Astin, John , Journal of the Caxton Club of Chicago 6 5. Accessed December 20, Barjau, Eustaquio, Convivium 43, pp. Accessed March 27, Baudelaire, Charles, L'Artiste, March 1. Accessed June 25, Paris: L. Accessed June 3, Blanco, Manuel, La voluntad de vivir y sobrevivir en Miguel de Unamuno.
Madrid: ABL editor. Brioso, Jorge, Nueva Estafeta 1, pp. Selection, introduction y notes Arturo del Villar. Madrid: Los Libros de Fausto. Hispania 28 2 , pp. American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese. Accessed January 4, Diego, Gerardo de. Madrid: Signo. Madrid: Taurus. Accessed November 4, Eliot, T.
The Hudson Review 2 3 , pp. The Hudson Review, Inc. Accessed April 18, Englekirk, John E, Edgar Allan Poe in Hispanic literature. Ferguson, John De Lancey, American Literature in Spain. New York: Columbia University Press. Accessed November 1, Flores Moreno, Cristina, Odisea 10, pp. Accessed April 9, Franz, Thomas R, University of Pennsylvania Press. Accessed February 3, Grantz, David. Hawking, Stephen W. A brief history of time: from the big bang to black holes.
London: Bantam. Hobson Quinn, Arthur and Rosenheim, Shawn. Edgar Allan Poe: a critical biography. Hopkins, John H. Humboldt, Alexander von. Cosmos: a sketch of a physical description of the universe, Volume 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Google eBook. Biography and Works: Accessed February 3, Madrid: Afrodisio Aguado S. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, S. Madrid: Aguilar. Madrid: Alianza Editorial S. La realidad invisible , London: Tamesis Books Limited. Preliminary study and selection Aurora de Albornoz. Diario de un poeta reciencasado Michael P. Kant, Immanuel.
Lartigue G, Juan. Machado, Antonio. Los complementarios. Otros poemas. Geoffrey Ribbans.
Rafael Pombo | Revolvy
Campos de Castilla. Accessed June 2, Moreno, Carlos. Flores Moreno, Cristina. Nelson, Roland W. Nietzsche, Friedrich. El Anticristo. Biography and Works. Poe, Edgar Allan. Accessed September 22, The Letters of Edgar Allan Poe. Edited by John Ward Ostrom. Cambridge, Mass. Essays and Reviews. Edited by G. New York: Library of America, Complete Poems. Edited by Thomas Ollive Mabbott. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press. Schopenhauer, Arthur. Accessed December 11, Stott, G. Electronic journal of theory of literature and comparative literature, , 1, Accessed February 2, Stovall, Floyd.
College English , Vol. National Council of Teachers of English.
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Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, p. Buenos Aires. Accessed April 26, Madrid, Espasa-Calpe. Young, Howard T.
Visor de obras.
Accessed February 8, Eureka : A Prose Poem. New York: Geo. Acceso 3 de febrero, Acceso 31 de enero, To the few who love me and whom I love — to those who feel rather than to those who think — to the dreamers and those who put faith in dreams as in the only realities — I offer this Book of Truths, not in its character of Truth-Teller, but for the Beauty that abounds in its Truth; constituting it true.
To these I present the composition as an Art-Product alone: — let us say as a Romance; or, if I be not urging too lofty a claim, as a Poem. London: Bantam, A second problem likely originates from presenting philosophical, metaphysical and astronomical concepts without Poe's possession of an academic degree to support them, including a methodology not always rigorous, and sometimes intuitive. These factors contributed to the refusal of the scientific community, fully opposed to the concept of an evolutive Universe, during his time and later.
Acceso 2 de febrero, The Hudson Review , Vol. Acceso 18 de abril, Acceso 13 de febrero 13, Acceso 9 de abril, Acceso 26 de abril, Acceso 4 de noviembre, Acceso 8 de febrero, Irish dramatic works have a history of becoming successful exports. A significant number of plays emanating from Ireland have been incorporated to the Galician theatrical system since the early 20 th century.
To a great extent, the origin of this interest can be attributed to the poeticised connection between Ireland and Galicia established in the Rexurdimento and its later utilisation by the nationalist movement. Even though this continues to affect the reception of Irish cultural products, other factors must be considered when scrutinising more recent incorporations. Arguably, few national identities are as internationally recognisable as the Irish, due to an array of cultural references that populate the collective imaginary, both within and beyond its geographical borders. Long before the Celtic Tiger catapulted the country to the international foreground in a way that transcended the purely economic, Ireland could count cultural products as some of its most visible exports, amongst them, numerous Irish dramatic works.
In Spain, we find a considerable number of plays by Irish authors entering the system from the early 20th century onwards, not only being translated into Spanish but also into Catalan, Basque and Galician. The focal point of my research is how the representation of Irish identity on the Galician stage has been—and currently is—affected by the multiplicity of factors at play in the theatre adaptation process. I will utilise both textual and extratextual sources in order to carry out an analysis of the incorporation process in line with Descriptive Translation Studies.
However, while this approach is adequate when identifying and describing the operational norms which determine the final product, it does not do full justice to the multilayered nature of dramatic phenomena nor to the different dialogical levels present in theatre translation. In particular, the range of agents and mediators involved in the process of transposing a play for the stage, and who influence the decision-making process, demands close attention to their positioning in the political and sociocultural context.
Although Descriptive Translation Studies scholars and approaches are not insensitive to the cultural aspects of translation, these do not constitute its main preoccupation. Accordingly, my analysis is enriched by drawing on culturalist and comparative approaches, such as those proposed by Bassnett and Venuti. In that time, the London-born playwright had gained recognition, not only through his dramatic works but also as a script writer, with the award-winning films Six Shooter and In Bruges All productions in Galician language are automatically nominated and there is nothing preventing members from voting for shows that they have not attended nor indeed for the only show they have seen in a given category.
More relevant to the matter, translations and adaptations will almost invariably be judged without knowledge of the original text. Therefore, as with most awards, their significance as a measure of quality or impact is relative, to say the least. As a minorised language, Galician does not enjoy the same status as Spanish in the area of cultural manifestations, despite apparently favourable legal and institutional structures.
The relatively high number of Irish plays—and particularly Irish-themed plays—produced in the Galician theatre system can be linked to an ongoing interest in Irish culture initiated during the Rexurdimento, the 19 th century literary movement which had the rehabilitation of Galician language and cultural identity at its core. This mythical common origin went on to be utilised by the nationalist movement during the 20th century, in an attempt to legitimise claims for recognition and increased autonomy from the central government in Madrid by drawing a parallel with the Irish political situation.
The translation was accompanied by poems and pseudo-anthropological articles on Ireland, as well as several references to Terence McSwiney, the late Lord Mayor of Cork, who had recently died on hunger strike.
It is a text that ultimately exemplifies the extent of this mystified identification with Irish culture in the Galician system; an identification that, I will show, continues to affect the incorporation of cultural products from Ireland. In his work Theatre and Globalizaton. Irish Drama in the Celtic Tiger Era, PatrickLonergan discusses in detail how the reception of Irish theatre is affected by globalisation, a concept that has in recent times become increasingly relevant when examining the creation and reception of cultural products, especially those destined to travel beyond their source context.
Dramatic works are thereby presented as products and, indeed, Lonergan takes into consideration some of the commercial aspects of the productions he examines. If we consider a brand as constituted by a collection of recognisable features, the term is not only applicable but particularly relevant in cases where the export of a dramatic work requires a process of adaptation. At a time when cultural manifestations cross borders more often than ever due to the increased accessibility brought about by the multiple media at our disposal, such distinctions would nevertheless indicate a source system in which the issue of national identity is a recurrent subject of discussion.
Indeed, in the Irish cultural context, attempts to define the essential features of Irishness are commonplace. This is not a description for outsiders but an account destined to encourage reflection and internal discussion on the aspects that have affected the makeup of Irish society in recent times. A modern day Synge or an English chancer?
The Irishness of the people is part of the joke. You can see in a writer like Beckett, who was Irish, that when he depicts the depleted human condition, he does it without reference to ethnicity. The inhabitants of the stage Leenane that he recreates are loaded with markers of Irishness, albeit rather conventional ones.
McKinty Indeed, as far as the Galician context is concerned, the Irish origin of the plays has not only been decisive for their incorporation but has also been repeatedly utilised in the marketing of the productions. Perhaps for that very reason, debate over whether Martin McDonagh deserves a place in the Irish canon does not attract much attention; neither does his use of ethnicity in ways that for many of his detractors treads a fine line between the grotesque and the downright racist.
Although the problematic delimitation of the term is well-documented MacCarthy , the majority of the audience are likely to remain unaware of its colonial overtones and accept the simplified image of Irish identity that is laid before them. The main image chosen to represent the play on promotional cards and posters is a skull made up of shamrocks in two contrasting shades of green. The original title in English appears on posters and programmes in virtually the same size as the title in Galician, drawing attention to the fact that audiences will be confronted with a translated play.
This shift in the title anticipates the underlying mystery present throughout the play—did Mick Dowd kill his wife with a blow to the head? According to Patrick Lonergan, this is crucial in making the plays exportable:. Lonergan , xvi. While McDonagh certainly shows an inclination towards reliance on audience interpretation for completeness, this is by no means unique to his works. Perhaps, the aspect that truly sets him apart is the way in which he manipulates our expectations, whether of the characters or of the plot itself, to the point that spectators often find themselves questioning their earlier assumptions.
In any case, he eludes demanding from the audience absolute condemnation or forgiveness for the people of Leenane, however questionable their actions may be. In the broad field of translation studies, it is now generally accepted that the translation of dramatic works for performance entails specific difficulties, not least because of the layers of readings that overlap in the journey from source text to target text. The translation scholar Susan Bassnett has demonstrated over the decades a distinct preoccupation with theatre translation, an area which she considers has been by and large neglected both in prescriptive and descriptive approaches.
For a translation to have an impact upon the target system, there has to be a gap in the system which reflects a particular need, and the skills of the translator have to be such that the end product is more than merely acceptable. Bassnett and Lefevere , Although Bassnett is referring to poetry on this occasion, her words can be fittingly applied to the translation of dramatic works. For a production to be viable, it needs to appeal to audiences or, to put it in economic terms, there needs to be a market for it. Likewise, viability relies to a great extent on the knowledge the translator has of the specific requirements of translation for the stage and her awareness of performability.
Therefore, the impact of a dramatic translation in the target system can be also measured against these two axes—the gap and the craft. While this can provide a starting point, we must not forget that the translator is not the only contributor to the performance text and the input of director, actors or even audiences can be equally relevant. Therefore, the awareness of a gap is ultimately produced by an encounter, or even a series of encounters, involving all the participants in the process.
Yeats and his contemporaries. This perception permeated the translation, performance and production choices and, in turn, the reception of the play. In costumbrista plays, the rural setting is often a backdrop—nearly another prop—for events dealing with universals of the human condition, a sort of locus amoenus that does not deeply affect nor is it affected by the characters.
In contrast, McDonagh dissociates himself from the costumbrista agenda through realistic conventions with a touch of the dark humour to which TV and film-educated audiences nowadays seem to respond so well, and also by tying the people of Leenane indissolubly to their surroundings, starting with the geographical references in the titles, ranging from the most specific The Beauty Queen of Leenane , to the most general The Lonesome West , passing through Connemara.
This begs the question whether theatre companies or audiences would show the same degree of recognition, or even tolerance, towards similar portrayals of rural life that had originated in Galicia. The acceptability of realism in the Galician system is increased by the fact that the plays in question are translations from a more established source culture that is in many ways deemed more prestigious. Therefore, this example of realism can enjoy a higher level of acceptability as a form incorporated from a prestigious source culture than it would had it emanated from the Galician target system itself.
The status occupied by these translated texts in the target system is symptomatic of the status occupied by translation in the Galician dramatic canon. The place occupied by the sui generis realism cultivated by McDonagh in the Galician context and the acceptability enjoyed by Un cranio furado reflect the central role played by translation in this particular target system.
At present, translation is considered in the Galician context as a very legitimate source of creative material for theatre practitioners. However, this was not always the case and the debate around the issue of translation was still very intense in the s. This controversy derived from the sociolinguistic situation, namely the minorised status of the Galician language and the divergent approaches to broadening its contexts of use. For the critics of translation, only original creations in Galician could contribute to the establishment of a Galician dramatic canon.
However, this may be down to the specific characteristics of A Skull in Connemara , ratherthan a general reflection of attitudes towards translation in the Galician system. However, as they developed their various arguments, it became increasingly clear that it is not an aspect that can be overlooked. The way in which the Leenane Trilogy has been marketed as Irish drama in the Galician context is particularly noticeable in the case of A Skull in Connemara. The visual language is unequivocally evocative of the Irish brand. By producing the illusion of transparency, a fluent translation masquerades as true semantic equivalence when it in fact inscribes the foreign text with a partial interpretation, partial to English language values, reducing if not simply excluding the very difference that translation is called on to convey.
Yet, the concepts of domesticating and foreignizing translation can only be applied to cultural manifestations in minorised languages such as Galician with some nuances. However, the aim is not to conceal the translation process as such, since the translational aspect plays a crucial role in the acceptability of the sub-genre of this piece as explained above. As opposed to creating the illusion that a play belongs to the target culture by erasing any trace of otherness, the preservation of foreign cultural references challenges the audience to confront aspects of a different cultural reality that they are probably not familiar with.
Conversely, theatre-goers are also presented with additional references to the source culture easily recognisable to them. These are not necessarily characteristic of an Irish country kitchen but they fulfil their purpose because, in the eyes of the target audience, they are clearly evocative of Ireland. When queried about his stance in relation to realistic representation and characterisation, director Quico Cadaval shows a very pragmatic attitude towards recreation at the service of a vision:.
The problem in theatre is a problem of convention: the sooner you get the audience to accept, the sooner we get started. He is immediately identifiable as police, on account of his uniform and his gun. As well as raising questions with regards to the issue of authorship and fidelity, London illustrates the long-lasting effects of the transformation of cultural references on the reception of translated dramatic works. London , In the translation of drama for the stage, the concept of performability replaces the idea of readability and this imposes a series of specific demands to be met by the translator.
As per present day conventions, the translator of the performance text should remain invisible. In realistic theatrical modes, the invisibility of the actors is also desirable, since they must give way to the characters, while ensuring a convincing delivery of their lines. This combination of fluidity and fluency required of the performance text hinders any attempt at the foreignizing strategies advocated by Lawrence Venuti. His ideas resonate with Hans J. In fact, lexical alternatives are often favoured on the basis of feedback from performers obtained during the rehearsal process.
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If there is interest, he then proceeds to work on a performance text which is by no means a definitive version but rather a malleable material for the director and the performers. There is no doubt that his experience as an actor informs his approach to translating a dramatic text, as does the fact that he is not a translator by trade. When he reads a play, he does so from the perspective of a performer, with its advantages and limitations. Whilst he has the benefit of an awareness of what works on stage and benefits from the opportunity to closely collaborate with the performers, his methodology relies to a great extent on an intuitive identification of phraseology and context-specific elements.
While the use of Irish symbols in the adaptation of A Skull in Connemara can be linked to the above-mentioned mythical connection with the Irish nation within the Galician context, these stereotypes are also commonplace at a global level as markers of the Irish brand. Although different in many ways from the early 20 th century identification utilised by the incipient nationalist movement in Galicia, there is a common strategic aim in the utilisation of visual elements, as well as in the manner in which the play is framed.
The implication is that the source text contained an irreverent essence that the target culture lacks and desires, a trait that can only be taken by force. Whereas the Irish may see a caricatured representation of Ireland through a compendium of stereotypical features, non-Irish audiences will just identify Ireland and Galician audiences may also recognise themselves. I interpret the distillation of Irish identity present in Un cranio furado not so much as an attempt to open the eyes of the Galician public to a different culture but as an introspective view into how Galicians perceive their own ethnicity, their own national identity.
Bassnett, Susan. Benoit, Elie. Berman, Antoine. Lawrence Venuti, London and New York: Routledge. Cadaval, Quico. Un cranio furado , hand programme. On the incorporation of Un cranio furado 3 September. Oleiros: Netbiblo. Freyne, Patrick. The Irish ideologies. London, John. Lonergan, Patrick. The Theatre and Films of martin McDonagh. London: Methuen Drama.
MacCarthy, Anne. Identities in Irish Literature. McDonald, Henry. McKinty, Adrian. Munday, Jeremy. Introducing Translation Studies. Theories and Applications. O'Neill, Elizabeth. The Lieutenant of Inishmore. Unha prospectiva xeral. No aniversario da estrea de A fonte do xuramento , de Manuel, coord. Vieites, Vigo: Editorial Galaxia. Company web site. Toury, Gideon. Venuti, Lawrence. The Translator's Invisibility. A History of Translation. London: Routledge.
Although an interesting area, it will not focus on the many examples of interlingual translation that take place throughout the text, but instead the less obvious and subtler cases in which the protagonist of the novel, Jacques Deza, provides readers with cases of intralingual translation. This suggests that, if both the source text and its translation appear obscure and subjective, the certainty of the message that results from this process is rendered questionable. As the following article seeks to show, this ambiguity is present in the communication process, whether the linguistic exchange takes place between two languages or within the confines of one.
Thus, the relentless personal interpretation of messages in the novel brings into question the veracity of the story told by the narrator, turning the narrative plot into a domain where ambiguity and haziness emerge as all-pervasive. The term intralingual translation was coined by Roman Jakobson in , distinguishing between interlingual between languages , intralingual within a language and intersemiotic translation in which written text is translated into different artistic forms, such as music or cinema. The notion of intralingual translation refers to the process of interpreting information within the confines of a single language, exploring the nature and value of paraphrasing and rewording Venuti , George Steiner argues that translation is a process that takes place every time a person receives a message from another human being, even when only one language is involved in the process , In this sense, translation is understood as an interpretation of information.
The main focus of the article is to assess the ways in which messages are interpreted or by the narrator, as well as how this interpretation constitutes an important tool in the creation of an all-pervasive uncertainty within the plot. The same subjectivity with which the author believes reality is experienced by human beings is transferred to the main character of Rostro , Jacques Deza, who also experiences both his own reality and conversations subjectively, making use of intersemiotic and intralingual translations respectively.
Firstly, the intersemiotic translation that Deza embodies entails a subjectivity that could be placed alongside the visual and plastic arts, which have long acknowledged that the representation of reality is utterly dependent on the eye of the artist: reality acts as a message that is filtered by the artist subjectively in a not too dissimilar way to that whereby reality is interpreted by a speaker.
The movement of impressionism constitutes one of the many examples of subjective representation. It is almost as if there were a narrator whose impression of reality is being presented as the only one. It is the individual perception of reality by human beings, but also and more specifically that of artists. This explains why, in the words of David K. Amongst other types of first-person narrators, Franz K. Therefore, although he is the main character and the person who experiences most actions, he also appears as though he were stepping back from the action to watch over it.
The outcome is a first-person narrator who, although a witness of events, is nevertheless the main centre of the action and therefore is often found witnessing his own life. Whether it is the reality around the narrators or the conversations they hear, both source texts are inherently unstable. The reflections and opinions about the nature and effects of storytelling in the text will be analysed in the light of intralingual translation. The interpretations about suspects advanced by Deza as well as his reflections upon them are amongst the most remarkable traits of the novel.
These are based on his partial experiencing of reality and on the subjective nature of language respectively. This suggests there is inaccuracy and ambiguity in the intersemiotic translation of reality into language. And how does intralingual translation function and affect the plot? Indeed, Deza states that what he hears affects him as much as what he lives BS , In his second stay in England, he starts to work for a mysterious organization, which he believes to be linked to the British Secret Services. Initially, his work consists of translating Spanish discourses of suspects into English.
However, it is not long before these discourses stop coming from Spanish speakers and start taking place in English, shifting the focus from an interlingual to an intralingual interpretation. In fact, Deza is not merely interpreting verbal messages from suspects but also translating verbally what he perceives from their linguistic and non-linguistic behaviour: their tone of voice, inflections or nuances as well as other signals such as gesture and clothing.
Therefore, he is interpreting intralingually, but he is also translating reality into language. In both cases, uncertainty and subjectivity prevail, but intralingual translation poses a second layer of complexity since the verbal messages interpreted are a translation of some previous aspect of reality, a process which could stretch ad infinitum. In his own words about his job:. Interpretaba—en tres palabas—historias, personas, vidas. Historias por suceder, frecuentemente FL , There are a number of uncertainties surrounding the process of interpreting people.
His judgements and interpretations are based on what often is an absence of information FL , Secondly, his own interpretations, often based upon uncertainties, are subjective by nature because they belong to his perception. The nature of his job constitutes, thus, an impossible task. He has to interpret the future based on a number of uncertainties, and although he seems to agree with the premise of its impossibility, he nevertheless takes the risk and experiences the bitter consequences of his interpretations, ignoring his own warning about how no one should ever tell anything to anyone, and realising that, although unknown to him in most cases, his verbal interpretations do have consequences.
If the true meaning of facts only depends on their interpretation, such meaning will always be inevitably subjective. Thirdly, and not without controversy, these interpretations are essential in assigning meaning to facts that would otherwise not have any. Hence, his interpretation of the suspects mirrors the interpretation of reality as a simulacrum through language; much as the suspects, reality is only ever experienced partially and is expressed subjectively through the inadequate means of a linguistic system.
Finally, there is great ambiguity surrounding the purpose or destination of these messages. The narrator admits he does not have any information about the purpose his interpretations serve, even questioning whether they have any at all FL, , ; BS , Just as expressions of life are connected in the most intimate manner with the living being without having any significance for the latter, a translation proceeds from the original.
Herzberger posits the importance of this issue, alluding to the lack of control that he has over his words:. Who listens to them? And how do they interpret them? The novelist, she states, is not responsible for the ideas or temptations that his fictions provoke BS , 54 , just as they are not responsible for the actions that their interpretations trigger.
In the words of Herzberger:. One of the most interesting paradoxes of the novel is that, however unreliable and dangerous language interpretations are, they happen constantly and have the ability to shape the course of events. This sheds light on the questioning of reality, a fragile domain susceptible to the subjectivity and uncertainty of language interpretation. The danger of this practice is patent in the plot; Dearlove is not the only one who controls his story. During the course of this process, Deza is also affected by his own interpretations since the decision to leave his job and return to Madridis based on the consequences of his own words about Dearlove.
Arguably, this transformative power rests upon the idea of intralingual translation. In other words, the power of stories rests on the premise that each receiver will interpret and use the story depending on their own circumstances, desires or whims. This process, due to its never-ending nature, takes place whenever there is a verbal discourse and constitutes a fundamental trait of language. The fascination with the consequences of speaking and interpreting is patent in the Miranda warning, upon which the protagonist reflects in the novel as another example of the dangerous effects of this never-ending process.
The Miranda warning is a legal warning given by the police in the United States aimed at criminal suspects in police custody to prevent them from incriminating themselves. They are given the right to remain silent because anything that they say may be used against them. This use of language prompts the idea of J. Deza remembers a time when he was told the Miranda warning inaccurately, and therefore invalidly FL , The dangers of speaking and the advisability of remaining silent are further illustrated in the campaign against careless talk.
Deza finds out the extent of its historical relevance through Sir Peter Wheeler. The campaign was launched in Britain during the Second World War to urge people not to talk to anyone about anything that could compromise national security. This fear of spies resulted in the inevitable perception of language as a dangerous tool that could be used against speakers at any point. Sir Peter Wheeler describes the nature of this process:.
The idea of careless talk, which represents the dangers of speaking and being heard, is inextricably linked to our third example, the act of eavesdropping, for the latter represents one of the dangers about which the campaign was trying to warn its target audience. On both occasions, the characters he spies on would have either used a different tone as is the case with De La Garza or omitted information in the case of Luisa had they known that Deza was listening. Therefore, the danger of language is intimately linked to the idea of intralingual translation precisely because this danger stems from the interpretation of the message by its receiver.
It is the appropriation of messages which, as previous examples show, leads to fatal consequences. In other words, one message has multiple intralingual translations, turning the act of communication into a subjective and uncertain process. These interpretations are both the only way for the message to exist and the reason why they can never be trustworthy. In conclusion, how does intralingual translation contribute towards the creation of uncertainty in the novel?
Stories fold into stories and are forever interpreted subjectively by individuals. In this inevitable process, the objective truth of those messages recedes ever further and readers are left only with their interpretation. Furthermore, the Miranda warning provides Deza with further examples of the dangers of language upon which to reflect, whereas the cases of eavesdropping illustrate how the danger is patent in everyday life situations. Therefore, it would not be too far-fetched to argue that one of the main traits of Rostro is the obsessive presentation of events through an extremely personal intersemiotic translation.
However, first-person narrators who tell a story about the past are extremely common in contemporary fiction. Why is he less trustworthy in his telling of stories? In other words, his individual version of the story encourages readers to, not only question the truth of the story but, in fact, advance their own subjective readings of the text.
Es que quien escucha se apodera de aquello que se le cuenta. Deza deals with stories constantly cast by others, which amount to permanently ambiguous messages that he is constantly interpreting. Regarding the truth at a textual level, the lack of objectivity which this process leads to mirrors the partial view with which reality is typically experienced.
Rostro illustrates that there is an inherent subjectivity in the perception of any source text, be it reality, textual reality or a conversation. The ambiguity that pervades Rostro ultimately stems from the author applying the same principles to his characters as to those that he observes in real life. The result is an all-pervasive uncertainty in the narrative plot in which the very viewpoint of the narrator emerges as dubious, perhaps inviting readers to question their own perspective on life. Alameda, Irene Zoe. Austin, J. How to Do Things with Words. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Benjamin, Walter.
Braudeau, Michel. Barcelona: Debolsillo. Grohmann, Alexis. Herzberger, David K. Ingendaay, Paul. Iriarte, Antonio. Logie, Ilse. Mendoza, Eduardo. Navajas, Gonzalo. Prettejohn, Elisabeth. Beauty and Art Oxford: Oxford University Press. Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe. Stanzel, Franz K. A Theory of Narrative.
Cambridge: Cambridge UniversityPress. Steiner, George. After Babel: Aspects of Language and Translation. The Translation Studies Reader. Madrid: Alfaguara. Since the Chilean education system has faced a crisis of unprecedented proportions. The school year was virtually paralysed as students of secondary and higher education, as well as teachers, took part in strikes that lasted weeks and flooded the streets of Santiago de Chile in the largest demonstrations the country has seen since the restoration of democracy.
The marches have continued throughout and , with over , students marching through the capital as recently as April this year Fang The movement has sparked national and international scrutiny of the profoundly unequal conditions that exist within the Chilean education system, as well as broader questions of social and economic justice in Chilean society. Students have been campaigning persistently against the excessive cost of education, the widespread privatisation and for-profit nature of educational institutions and the increasing disparities between rich and poor in access to quality education at all levels.
Their demands go far beyond the provision of additional resources for education. They argue that the structure of Chilean education is fundamentally flawed, creating one of the most expensive and unequal education systems in the world. At the core of their frustrations is the belief that the Chilean model of education is a relic of the Pinochet regime. Key features of the current education system were implemented between and , a period of institutionalized human rights violations. Furthermore, successive democratic administrations have failed to significantly reform these structural aspects of the education system.
This paper takes the argument of the student movement as its starting point. Therefore, this paper will analyse the development of educational policy in Chile since the Pinochet era, taking a human rights based approach. By drawing on international standards on the right to education, it will examine whether Chile is meeting its obligations under international human rights law, to respect, protect and fulfill the right to education.
It will question whether economic and social policy implemented under an authoritarian regime can be considered compatible with social justice. This will require a brief sketch of the right to education under international law and a broader examination of the economic and social policy implemented under the Pinochet regime and following the restoration of democracy.
The Chilean student movement has drawn attention to issues that go beyond their immediate demands for educational reform. They have highlighted deeper frustrations lying at the heart of Chilean society: questions of equality and social justice following the restoration of democracy have been sacrificed in the name of economic growth and political stability.
The movement has finally brought the intimate relationship between the violence of the military takeover, the violations of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights that occurred during the regime and persistent social and economic injustices, into the mainstream public discourse. These instruments place legally binding obligations on all countries that have signed and ratified them to respect, protect and fulfill the right to education. UN General Assembly, The United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights has provided further clarification on the nature of state responsibility to provide free education at all levels:.
Sharp disparities in spending policies that result in differing qualities of education for persons residing in different geographic locations may constitute discrimination under the Covenant. This treaty protects the right to education as a universal right that is necessary for the full development of the human personality and its provisions mirror the rights set out in the ICESCR Organisation of American States , Art. Thus, the Chilean state has both international and regional obligations to respect, protect and fulfill the right to education.
Drawing from this diverse body of international law, the right to education can be understood as a legal obligation on states to provide universal access to free primary education. Furthermore, states must ensure universal availability and accessibility of secondary education and equal access to higher education on the basis of capacity, in particular by the progressive introduction of free education at second and third level. Education must be available , accessible, acceptable and adaptable. In other words, education must be free and government-funded and there must be adequate infrastructure and trained teachers able to support it.
It must be non- discriminatory and accessible to all, and states are obliged to take positive steps to include the most marginalized. The content of education must be relevant, non-discriminatory, culturally appropriate and of quality. Moreover, the right to education is an enabling right: it enables the enjoyment of other rights such as freedom of expression and the right to work Ibid, However, there is a growing trend within economic, social and development policies, at both the national and international level, to regard education as a service for which users should pay, rather than a universal human right Tomasevski , xxiii.
The result has been a dramatic shift in educational provision from the state to private, for-profit, interests. The Chilean student movement has been the most sustained and dramatic manifestation of public frustration in the face of this crisis. In an ironic twist of history, the country that was held up as a model for free market reforms in the provision of education has become the champion of the right to education and an inspiration for similar movements across the globe. However, such policies stoked fears among national and international business elites that the socialist government proved a threat to their personal and business interests Klein , Allende was perceived as a threat to US political and economic hegemony in the region Klein , This situation led to an extreme ideological polarisation between supporters of the Unidad Popular government and its opponents.
All social movements, political parties and collective forms of organisation were dismantled Harvey , 8. It is estimated that 3, people were murdered or disappeared by the regime, that at least 80, people were imprisoned or sent to concentration camps and , people were exiled Klein , The overthrow of the Allende administration represented both a military and economic takeover that installed one of the most repressive dictatorships in Latin American history Silva , This included the negotiation of huge loans from the International Monetary Fund IMF on the condition of a major restructuring of the Chilean economy.
IMF restructuring policies prioritised the reduction of public spending and the balance of payments deficit. They also embarked on a process of dramatic reform in social policy which resulted in cuts to wages, state employment and expenditure. Agricultural production was redirected towards export crops thereby reducing the food supply to the Chilean population.
Inflation continued to grow, the real value of wages fell dramatically and price controls were lifted from all foods. This period was characterised by cycles of economic growth and collapse Harvey , The spurts of growth were enough justification to maintain the demobilisation of all political opposition. The regime relied on the economic promise of neoliberalism, as a source of legitimacy for their continued rule Silva , The crisis sparked the first large-scale protests since as people took to the streets to voice their dissatisfaction with the economic policies of the regime and to call for the restoration of democracy.