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In the march, between measures 23 and 26, Matthews edits the cornet parts considerably. The parts are still essentially there, but he rescores them, cannibalizing the trumpet parts as he goes. In the manuscript, the 1st cornets are split, playing in octaves, while the 2nd cornets, also split, play mostly in 3rds. In measure 24, the bottom 1st rejoins the top 1st in unison, while the split 2nd cornets continue to play in thirds. Matthews takes the top 2nd cornet in measure 23 and places it as the bottom 1st cornet in the same measure, and likewise takes the bottom 1st and places it in the 2nd cornet stave.

Below is the original scoring of the Cornets and Trumpets. All parts are at written pitch. Recall that Eb trumpets are written a minor third below the actual pitch. Once again, all parts are at written pitch. In measures 79 and 80, Holst writes the cues for the split Eb trumpets into 2nd cornet stave. Once again, all the trumpet parts are ad lib. Matthews does not write these cues into the 2nd cornet part in his edition. At measure 81 and 85, Matthews again rescores the cornets.

He takes the written C in the split top 2nd part and writes in as the bottom 1st in measure 81, and does the same in measure 86, even though that C does not exist anywhere in the original manuscript in measure At letter C, Holst again writes cues for the trumpets into both cornet parts in measures 97 and 98 and and Matthews writes these parts for the cornet, but they are not marked as cues. Had Holst wanted both trumpets and cornets playing these two measures together, he would have fully notated the parts into the cornets.

When viewing the Matthews score without the aid of the manuscript, it appears that the cornets are supposed to perform these measures every time, not only in the absence of the ad lib trumpets, as Holst intended. In measures and , the trumpet parts are not exactly the same, but the cues in the cornets do cover both parts. Below is the original notation in the manuscript. As can be seen, the cornet cues cover all the notes played by the trumpets. Below is Mathews' reorchestration.

The cornet parts are not marked as being cues. In addition, Matthews has rescored the cornets so that there are two 1st cornet parts, while there is only one 2nd cornet. In measures 99 and , and again in and , Holst scores the cornets such that the 2nd cornet splits, with both 2nd cornets sustaining whole notes while the 1st cornet performs a repeated descending quarter note passage above. Matthews, however, takes the top 2nd cornet part and scores it as the bottom 1st cornet.

At Letter D, just as in the edition, Matthews writes the 1st cornet melody as Holst indicates in the manuscript, that is, doubling the woodwinds. However, following the lead of the edition, measures and of the 1st cornet are slightly altered. Although the only discernable difference is the absence of the triplet figure on beat two of each measure, it is nonetheless not indicated in the manuscript that this alteration is to be made.

At this time, without having seen the original published parts from the edition, it cannot be determined the origin of this modification. The top stave below denotes the woodwind melody at concert pitch, with the second stave representing the cornet doubling at written pitch. Note that the cornet melody, as written in both the and editions, outlines the woodwind line, minus the triplet figure. However, there are seven other measures in which the cornet is given the triplet figure in both modern editions. Finally, at the Piu Mosso, measure , Matthews again rescores the cornets up to the final three measures of the work, at which point he switches back to the same scoring order that Holst writes in his manuscript.

It should be noted that in the original manuscript, the trumpet parts are split in pairs. The first pair is keyed in Eb, written a minor 3rd below the actual pitch, and the second pair is keyed in Bb, written a major second higher than the actual pitch. The first entrance of the trumpets occurs in measure 31, two bars before the 5th statement. Here, both sets of trumpets play split octaves in unison. However, in measure 33, the Bb trumpets, still split, double the 1st and 2nd cornets respectively. The Eb trumpets continue to play in octaves.

In the edition, the original Bb trumpet part doubling the cornets is eliminated.

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Matthews, having reduced the trumpet section to a single pair of Bb trumpets, eliminates the original doubled Bb trumpets, and like the score, rescores the original Eb trumpets in Bb. The top two staves are from the original manuscript. The middle two are from the edition, and the last stave is the single pair of trumpets from the Matthews edition. This scoring continues all the way until the pickup to measure 49, the 7th statement of the chaconne.

At this point in the manuscript, Holst calls for both Bb trumpets to double the 1st cornet. When the 1st cornet part splits in measure 52, it is presumed that Holst intended for the bottom Bb trumpet to take the bottom split. This is presumed because Holst does not write out the Bb trumpet parts. Instead, he uses short hand and a simple direction: Coll 1st cornets The Eb trumpets during this section are fully notated with the same part as the 1st cornet, except they do not follow the same exact splits.

Matthews again eliminates the Bb trumpet parts and uses the Eb trumpet part, rescored for Bb trumpet. The trumpets in all three editions remain tacet from Letter C all the way until measure , seven measures after Letter E. From here, the scoring of the trumpet parts gets complicated.

In the manuscript at measure , the Eb trumpets play an Eb concert before lowering to a Bb concert pedal that sustains all the way to the Maestoso at Letter F, measure In the edition, this scoring holds true, except that the Eb trumpets are scored for Bb trumpet. Returning to the manuscript, at the pickup to measure , both Bb trumpets double the 1st cornet melody of the chaconne theme all the way to measure , at which point they play the 2nd cornet part.

The top two staves show the trumpet parts from the manuscript while the middle two staves show the trumpet parts from the edition. Matthews chose to omit the doubling of the 1st cornet melody by the Bb trumpets as the line is already there. This scoring runs all the way until measure At letter F, measure , there is a discrepancy between the manuscript and both modern editions. According to the manuscript, the Eb trumpets split: the lower voice plays a C concert half note while the upper voice plays an Ab concert half note.

The explanation for this must be that the 2nd cornet already plays the low C, so its doubling is not essential. Still at Letter F, recall that the Bb trumpets in the manuscript double the 1st cornets from the pickup to measure until measure The Bb trumpets in the score also double this line to the downbeat of measure In the manuscript, Holst has the Bb trumpets double the 2nd cornet line at measure , with the exception of measure , where they split on beat one, the top note doubling the 1st cornet.

Excluding that note, and another in measure , the Bb trumpets double the 2nd cornets from measure through to the end of the movement. In both cases, it was determined that since the cornets and trombones are playing the melody, that the doubling of the 2nd cornets by the trumpets was unnecessary. The excerpt from the manuscript below begins in measure The slashes in the first three bars of the Bb trumpets refer to instructions Holst made back at the pickup to measure , where he indicates for the trumpets to double the 1st cornets.

In measure , seen below, he notates the 2nd cornet parts the same as the 2nd cornet, as discussed in the paper. The excerpt below is from the Colin Matthews edition. It begins in measure Notice that Matthews does not double the Bb trumpets with the 2nd cornet, as Holst does in the manuscript.

Also notice the rescoring that Matthews writes of the cornet parts beginning in measure This was also discussed in the previous section over the cornets.

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In the manuscript, the trumpets do not enter until measure 29, and their part ends at measure Colin Matthews follows suit. All the notes in the Bb trumpet parts throughout the movement are covered by the cornets, Eb trumpets, and even the tenor trombones between measures 39 and The differences first begin after measure In the original manuscript, Holst indicates that the Bb trumpets are to be split, with the top line doubling the first cornets and the bottom doubling the 2nds.

The Eb trumpets are split more or less the same, but their parts contain more independence than the Bb trumpets. Recall from the analysis of the cornet parts that in measures 15 and 16, the first cornet has a repeated descending quarter note passage. As per the manuscript, the top Bb trumpet doubles this line. Thus the doubling is missing. In the Matthews edition, the single pair of Bb trumpets also play only the Eb trumpet line. Overall, this is a minor issue because all the parts are covered in the event that the ad lib trumpets are omitted.

In measure 18, the edition follows the manuscript more closely, with the Eb line being played by the Bb trumpets. This occurs until measure Here the edition gets creative. The bottom Bb trumpet part from the manuscript seems to be missing. However, this line is played by the 2nd cornet. See also Figure 16 above to see the 2nd cornet line. Below are the trumpet parts from the original manuscript, followed by those from the edition.

All parts are notated at written pitch. In the Matthews addition, since he only uses two trumpets, he too combines different parts here. The top Bb trumpet line is taken from the top Eb trumpet line in the manuscript, which is doubled in the 1st cornet. The bottom Bb line integrates both the original bottom Bb line in the manuscript and also the 2nd cornet part.

The bottom Eb trumpet part in the original is given to the 2nd cornet by Matthews in measures 23 and See again figure 16 above for comparison to the cornet part. Moving ahead to measure 81, if we take a look at the manuscript, the Eb and Bb trumpets have almost identical parts, with a few minor exceptions. The parts here are also very similar to those in the cornets at measure The bottom Bb trumpet plays a written F, followed by a written C. In the edition, these notes are omitted. As it turns out, the 2nd cornet doubles the Bb trumpet, so the part is still covered.

Colin Matthews also eliminates the Bb trumpet part in favor of the Eb trumpet part for the same reason. At letter C, as discussed in the cornet comparison, the trumpets provide a pianissimo rhythmic motive. Matthews doubles this passage in the cornets without providing the necessary cues.

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Refer to Figure 17 above. In measure of the manuscript, Holst indicates that the Bb trumpets are to double the 2nd cornets, playing a written A and written C. Matthews first eliminates the Bb trumpet because it doubles the 2nd cornet. He writes the Bb trumpet parts to correspond with the original Eb trumpets. However, in measures and , and again in measures and , he alters the scoring.

In and , he utilizes the original Bb trumpet parts, and in and , he combines the bottom Eb trumpet split with the 2nd cornet part. In measure , the Bb trumpets play a written half note D on beats 3 and 4 below the staff, while the Eb trumpets play a written A D on the staff. Matthews just gives the trumpet parts in his edition the high D. As with the cornets during this section, the texture remains the same. Recall that in the original manuscript, Holst writes the first pair of horns in F, and the second pair in Eb. The edition scores both pairs in Eb and the Matthews revised edition scores both in F.

In the original manuscript, Holst scores the 3rd and 4th horns so that they typically double the 1st and 2nd. However, there are sections where they have their own unique material, usually playing a third below the 1st and 2nd. This is significant because the Eb horns are marked ad lib in the manuscript, so their removal would eliminate the harmonies that Holst wrote.

With this in mind, Colin Matthews sought to edit the horn parts so that the 3rd and 4th could be omitted without the loss of any integral material. The score, because it was constructed from the published parts, follows the part writing of the manuscript almost exactly, but does not designate any parts as being ad lib. Where there is a discrepancy between the edition and the manuscript, it will be noted. It should be noted that there are several occasions where the 3rd and 4th horns have material differing from the 1st and 2nd that Matthews does not edit. In most cases, this is because other instruments also play the same material, so there was no reason to rescore those parts.

The measures where these instances occur will not be discussed. The first entrance of the horns does not occur until measure 31, two bars before the fifth statement of the theme. Holst writes both pairs here in unison. However, at measure 36, he splits them, with the 1st and 2nd playing in unison a third above the 3rd and 4th, also in unison. Matthews restructures the parts so that the 1st and 3rd horns perform the top line a third above the 2nd and 4th.

This allows for the safe removal of the ad lib 3rd and 4th horns.

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In measure 40, one bar before Letter B, Matthews rescores the original horn parts completely. Matthews changes the 3rd and 4th horn parts so that they are in unison with the 1st and 2nd. However, in restructuring the 3rd and 4th horns, Matthews eliminates the low C concert that Holst had originally scored for the bottom Eb horn on beat one, and he also eliminates the F concert on beat two in the top Eb horn.

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The first two staves below show the horn parts from the manuscript, followed by the restructured horn parts in the Colin Matthews edition. The first measure shows the parts at written pitch, and the second shows them at concert pitch. Notice first that the low C concert on beat one, C4 in the bottom Eb horn, is not duplicated at the same pitch level in the Matthews version.

Secondly, notice that the F concert on beat two in the top Eb horn is omitted completely. No other instrument in the ensemble, in either edition plays a C4 on beat one, and on beat two, the other instrument that plays a bottom space F concert is the 2nd cornet, but only for an eighth note. In measures 53 and 54, Matthews reverses the pairs so that the original 3rd and 4th parts are now played by the 1st and 2nd, and vice versa.

Because of the way that Holst scores all four parts, this restructuring allows for the bottom pair of horns to be removed without losing any of the original material. As can be seen below, all the notes in F horn part in the manuscript are covered by the Eb horns. Matthews identified this and reversed the parts, allowing for the safe removal of the new 3rd and 4th horns with losing the harmonies Holst wrote.

In measures and both pairs of horns perform in unison. In measures and , Holst again writes the horns in thirds, with the 1st and 2nd horns a third above the 3rd and 4th horns. Matthews once again rescores the parts so that the 1st and 3rd horns play the top part and the 2nd and 4th play the bottom. This ensures that the harmony is present in the event that the bottom pair is omitted.

At Letter F, between measures and , the 3rd and 4th horns contain material differing from the 1st and 2nd horns. The majority of this material is doubled at one point or another between the 1st trombone and the upper woodwinds. Matthews chooses to leave the parts here the same as written in the manuscript.

The texture is very thick at this point, so the potential absence of this line is not likely to be detected. However, with the exception of beats two and three of measure , the 1st and 2nd horn line is in unison for the duration of this passage. It would therefore not be unreasonable to rescore the horns so that the 1st and 3rd horns perform the top line and the 2nd and 4th horns perform the bottom.

The harmonized half note in measure is shared by numerous other instruments and in the event that the 3rd and 4th horns are omitted. The first two systems below show the original horn writing at Letter F.

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Matthews chooses to retain this scoring. However, with the removal of the ad lib 3rd and 4th horns and the ad lib trumpets, the only instruments playing the bottom melody are the 2nd cornet and different combinations of woodwinds. I suggest that in order to preserve the texture that Holst intended, the horns be split in the manner shown in the bottom two systems.

This is exactly the same thing Matthews does on numerous occasions throughout his edition concerning the displacement of the horns in the manuscript. In addition, I have altered the final chord in measure Whereas the 3rd and 4th horns previously played an Eb concert on beats two and three, I have them now doubling the Ab and C concert played by the 1st and 2nd horns.

The 2nd cornet already plays the Eb concert at the same pitch level, so this is not lost. It is essential to keep the Ab concert played by the 2nd horn because only upper woodwinds share this note, and the strength and depth of tone would be missing otherwise, in the event that the 3rd and 4th horns are omitted. The horns first appear in measure 27, the third bar after Letter A. Matthews leaves the parts as they appear in the manuscript.

The 3rd and 4th horns at this point are doubled by the 2nd cornet, so the effect of their removal would be negligible. No other instrument in the ensemble has this pitch. Matthews takes this note and places it in the same spot for the 1st horn, whom Holst previously had doubling the 2nd horn on a second line G. This simple alteration allows the harmony intended by Holst remains intact in the absence of the bottom pair of horns. Measures 89 and 90 see significant changes to the original horn parts, with most of the emendations coming from the 3rd horn.

These measures are considerably altered so that the 3rd and 4th horns can be safely omitted. Even though the 4th horn line is not doubled by either the 1st or 2nd horns, these notes are covered by other instruments throughout the rest of the ensemble. The dotted markings above indicate that Holst may have intended for these notes to be slurred. However, the piano reduction at the bottom of the manuscript shows these same notes without slur markings. This could be interpreted as a mistake, but Holst does write in slurs in the reduction for other parts.

Matthews assumes that these notes are to be slurred, and marks them as such in his score. While I believe he is probably correct, the manuscript does not definitively answer the question. In measures 94 and 97, Matthews inserts slur markings in the horn parts where it appears that Holst had intended to, but for whatever reason did not.

There are no further alternations to this movement. At the conclusion of the Intermezzo, Holst gives instructions for the 1st and 2nd horns, keyed in F, to switch to horns in Eb. In the fourth bar, Holst indicates that the 3rd and 4th horn are to double the 1st and 2nd. This doubling continues for the duration of the entire movement with the exception of measures 88 through However, during these nine measures, Matthews does not alter the scoring.

Between measures and Matthews again adds slurs that it appears Holst left out. The alto saxophone here shares the same line as the horns, and in the manuscript, there are slurs and ties that are omitted in the horn part. It is interesting to note that in the March, Holst organizes the horn parts in the same manner that Matthews does in his revised edition. That is, instead of having the 3rd and 4th horn play the same part, with the 1st and 2nd horn harmonizing above, Holst has the 1st and 3rd play one part, while the 2nd and 4th play another.

It could also be, although purely conjecture at this point, that Holst intended to, or actually did, write his own revised version of the manuscript. In this case, many of these idiosyncrasies may have been corrected by Holst himself. However, no such manuscript has yet been discovered, and the alterations made by Matthews regarding the horn parts only make the work more efficient. This appendix contains, as the title suggests, irregularities and characteristics of the and scores as they relate to the original manuscript. These include differences in notation, misprints, omissions and other minor characteristics.

Some additional characteristics found in the manuscript are also addressed. Note: This is not an errata list. Although some obvious misprints are listed below, the purpose of this paper was not to specifically look for wrong notes or editorial errors. That said, some were discovered during the research process, even in the manuscript.

There are likely more not included here. As discussed in Part II, there are instances where Holst gives cues for instruments not marked ad lib in the score. At Letter C of the Chaconne, the flute solo is cued in the solo clarinet. The score does not notate this, but instead has a superscript over the solo clarinet stave indicating the cue. However, the solo clarinet part from the edition does include the entire cue. In the Matthews edition, this cue is not notated or marked in the score. As discussed in Part II, there are additional cues for the alto saxophone, oboe and 1st Eb clarinet included in the manuscript.

All of these are marked in the score, but only the oboe cue is notated in the Matthews edition. In the Intermezzo, the 1st E-flat clarinet is cued into the flute. This occurs three times in the movement. The edition includes the superscript notification above the flute stave for all three occurrences and the cues are also included in the actual flute parts as well.

Once again, Matthews does not include these cues into his score. In measure 88 of the March, Holst gives cues for the 2nd bassoon and bass clarinet to the euphonium. The edition shows a superscript above the euphonium part indicating this. I was unable to procure a copy of the euphonium part from the edition, but it is likely that it also contains the cues for the bassoon and bass clarinet.

This cue is not included in the edition. For example, in the Intermezzo, Holst writes a separate stave inserted above the 1st cornet line for solo cornet. This does not exist in the Chaconne or March. Neither the nor the editions include this separate stave. The solo line is simply superimposed over the existing 1st cornet part in both editions.

In measures and of the Intermezzo, the triangle plays a single half note in each measure. This corresponds with the descending horn line being played at the same time. The edition notates the triangle on the timpani stave, but the Matthews edition does not include this important part at all. This is probably just an editorial oversight. Below are measures of the manuscript. Letter E occurs in measure Notice the cue for the baritone in the euphonium part. The second stave from the bottom clearly shows the half notes played by the triangle.

Below is the same excerpt as above, except it is from the Colin Matthews edition. As the passage was split between two pages, they have been elided together for ease of reading. The baritone solo here is scored for euphonium. Notice the hand written inclusion of the triangle part. The string bass part in the final three measures is also notated an octave higher than it is in the manuscript above. At Letter C of the March, Holst indicates that both tenor trombones play the same rhythmic figure as the trumpets or cornets in the event that the trumpets are omitted. However, in measures 99 and of the manuscript, only the 1st trombone plays, while the 2nd trombone rests.

The score adheres to this. However, Matthews has the 2nd trombone continue to play with the 1st trombone in these measures. The manuscript clearly marks the short passage with a roman numeral I, indicating that only the 1st player is perform this passage, but Matthews does not indicate this. Below is the notation as it appears in the original manuscript.

Both the 1st and 2nd trombones are placed on the same stave. Holst writes a whole rest in measure 99 to indicate that the 2nd trombone does not play Also note the roman numeral I that appears over first trombone part. Holst does not write a whole rest in measure , but it assumed that he intended for the 2nd trombone to continue resting. He first gives each part its own stave. Below are notational errors discovered during analysis of the three scores.

Since this was not the focus of the paper, there are likely more that have gone unnoticed. In the Chaconne after Letter A, the bass clarinet in edition is notated incorrectly in measure The manuscript shows that the bass clarinet is to play a written F natural through the measure. The edition is correct here. In measure 55 and 56 of the manuscript, two bars before Letter C, Holst makes an error in the bass clarinet line. Recall from Part II that Holst edited the bass clarinet and tenor saxophone parts here. Starting in measure 49, the bass clarinet doubles the low brass, but Holst seemingly forgets to notate the final two measures of the phrase.

See the example below. Still in measures 55 and 56 of the manuscript, Holst also notates the bassoon part incorrectly. It too doubles the low brass from measure 49 to the downbeat of measure Note the bassoon and bass clarinet staves as they double the low brass and string bass. The bassoon part in final two measures is notated differently from all other parts. In measure of the Intermezzo, Holst incorrectly notates the tenor saxophone, which doubles the euphonium.

He writes a quarter note on beat one followed by two eighth notes on beat two. However, it should be the exact opposite. In addition, the notes he writes are not the right ones either. The dotted lines show the slur markings as notated by Matthews in his edition. However, the actual parts in the manuscript score do not have any slur markings other than the one connecting beat four of measure to the whole note in measure in the tenor saxophone part.

In addition, the euphonium part in the manuscript, copied in this example, seems to be notated incorrectly when also compared to piano reduction below. Matthews corrects this to match the tenor saxophone. Below is the piano reduction from the manuscript, showing the intended slur markings for both the tenor saxophone and euphonium. Note the difference in notation from the Matthews edition. In the March, after letter A, there is a discrepancy between the tuba parts of the manuscript and the Matthews edition and the edition.

From measures 61 to 63 and 86 to 87, the tuba part is notated an octave higher by Matthews than it appears in either the manuscript or edition. It should be noted that the string bass plays the exact same notes in the same register as the tubas in the manuscript. In measure 85 of the March, Matthews adds a C5 to the split cornets. This note does not exist anywhere in the manuscript. No other instrument in measure 85 contains a Bb concert at that pitch level.

Holst does write a written C5 in measure 81, so it may be that Matthews makes the assumption that Holst intended to do the same in measure Mitchell, Jon C. Turner, Gordon, and Alwyn Turner. Staplehurst, United Kingdom: Holst, Gustav. Autograph manuscript score, British Library, London. MS Full score prepared from individual parts from the published edition. No editor listed. Colin Matthews. Dyson, George. Grainger, Percy Aldridge. Lincolnshire Posy. Full score. At some point during this service stationed at the port of Pola, his ability on the rotary valve trumpet was noticed and he served that tour as a trumpeter in the Austrian Marine Band.

At the end of the year, he found an engineering job in an elevator company, but was recalled to duty in Receiving much attention for his ability as a musician, the military experience and experimenting on stage in early convinced him that his only path to happiness would be to defy his step-father and follow his heart with a career in music. Once again released from military service and armed with an Alexander cornet, Vincent Schrottenbach began touring Europe as a virtuoso cornet soloist.

Unfortunately for his career, and for all of Europe, in April of everything changed when a Russian-backed Serbian national assassinated the Austro-Hungarian crown prince and World War One shortly followed. Being a known enemy reservist on English soil, Vincent hurriedly booked passage to the United States aboard the Lusitania under the assumed name of Vincent Bach and fled England, arriving in New York on the 14 th of September With virtually no money, no home and no job, Vincent immediately began seeking a job performing.

He was quickly offered work by Oscar Hammerstein, but in a theater of a type Bach had not seen before — a vaudevillian burlesque. He quickly learned the hard way that his repertoire, which was suited to opera houses, would not go over well in such a venue. Realizing this, the theater manager moved Bach to the opening act - to cover the noise of the audience filing in. Frustrated, Bach sent a letter to Karl Muck, the director of the Boston Symphony, requesting an audition. Bach was immediately switched to a Low Pitch model Holton trumpet.

He had been awarded the prestigious seat auditioning on a cornet! In , Bach married Madge Cummings, a girl he had met when she was 16 in England 3 years earlier. A year later however, he returned to steady employment with the Russian Ballet of the Metropolitan Opera. The relationship between Bach and Holton strengthened from stable artist, to endorser, to ultimately a spokesman position acting as a road man for the company by The ninteenth-century community band traditions of Champaign, Illinois can be traced to the European military band traditions of Germany and England.

The primary purpose of community bands across America was to supply music to accompanying the marching of local militia during times of war and provide musical entertainment for holiday and patriotic celebrations. While most community ensembles played a variety of secular and religious music, the most common genre of music performed by these community ensembles was the military march. While Champaign, Illinois enjoyed a thriving military band tradition during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, it is unclear which local ensembles may have used the music included in this collection.

There is some evidence to suggest Champaign's Order of the Knights of Pythias, a non-sectarian fraternal order, may have had a fraternal band which used some of this music. Finding Aid.