However, some onomatopoeias related to texture notions as the ones found in comics or cartoons might be included in the upcoming study with consumers. The words are sorted by category, according to the consensus between experts. Terms on which experts agree are presented first. Each word is followed by characteristic food products and by the percentage of respondents i. One of the surprising results regarding the first part of this study is the relatively low agreement between experts, both for the decision to determine if the word belongs or not to the texture language and for the category to affect the word.
If this result is expected for consumers, it is much more surprising regarding experts all working in the same professional research field. This study is now going on with a large consumer test that will be carried out in the near future. The study will cover the food and cosmetic fields, and will be also pursued with the experts.
The characteristic in Japanese texture words is that there are many onomatopoeias which mimic the sounds, appearance, etc. Yoshikawa classified these terms into five categories. She reconfirmed that there are many onomatopoeias in texture terms, and that the usage of terms have changed after 40 years. She found that some terms are not used so often nowadays, and that some new terms have been introduced to represent the texture, which is related with the appearance of new processed foods such as dessert jellies and fizzy drinks.
Therefore, these four vocabularies were excluded in this figure. It turned out that even though consumers know that a specific term expresses some texture of foods, they do not necessarily use that term. Because Oram's and Hayakawa's method of survey are different, it is not possible to compare these two studies directly; however, the terms in Japanese texture terms recognized by consumers are surely much more than the 49 terms in Oram's study.
They were considered to be the core terms of texture vocabulary of Japanese consumers. The 70 textural terms in Fig. Terms such as kari, sakusaku, paripari, etc. She further examined the degree of similarity of different terms based on four category scales  very similar;  a little similar;  only a little bit similar; and  not similar at all based on the questionnaires distributed to 86 researchers of texture.
Then, she used a multidimensional scaling MDS to obtain axes constituting vocabularies. She obtained terms to represent mechanical properties, terms representing geometrical properties and terms relating to characteristics related with water and oil content.
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Meanwhile, the volume of Chinese foods exported to other countries increased rapidly and impacted to global market share in recent years. There are many Chinese foods with special texture because of the wide diversity of foods in different regions and preferred by different ethnical citizens Huang It is found that the systematized investigation of Chinese texture terms can benefit the progress of food science and technology, as well as the development of new concept products in China.
However, besides Huang's primal classification of Chinese texture terms by a table with applicable food examples , there are only a few further reports in this field. From these words, terms were selected as texture descriptive terms through a roundtable discussion by an expert panel. Then terms were studied with respect to their relationship to 30 fundamental concepts such as hardness, fracture, elasticity, particles and moisture.
The data were analyzed through Quantification Method III and their item category score and sample score were obtained. The scores obtained in Beijing and Shanghai were approximately similar. The texture descriptive terms were classified into 53 groups on the basis of the similarity of their sample score. The details of these results are described below. From a total words collected from panelists in Beijing, Shanxi, Shanghai and Guangdong with age of 20—40 years old, the terms were selected as texture descriptive terms through a roundtable discussion by an expert panel.
According to the results of texture terms collected in the study, it is important to find a unified representation of texture terms. Because the texture is sensed and evaluated only by humans, the sensory evaluation is the only direct evaluation method, and it can be compared with other measurements, e. There are three typical methods to classify texture terms: 1 All the texture terms were printed, each one on a card. Quantification Method III was used on the data, and their item category scores and sample scores were obtained. The features of the sixth and the seventh dimensions are not obvious.
The individual item category scores of 92 texture terms are plotted into a Cartesian coordinate system as shown in Fig. In this way, the similarity among different texture terms can be demonstrated quantitatively in this multidimensional space constructed by the texture fundamental concepts. The first term listed in each group is the typical term. Pinyin is a system for transliterating Chinese ideograms into the Roman alphabet, officially adopted by China.
In general, there are few onomatopoeias in Chinese texture terms, compared with that in Japanese. The less frequent usage of onomatopoeia in Chinese is attributed to the characteristics of this language almost consisting of ideograms alone. To make an onomatopoeic word, phonograms are necessary. A useful method for this is MDS, which takes as input any measure of the similarity of two items or words and produces a spatial representation of the similarity structure. Bertino and Lawless applied MDS to data from a simple sorting task to help understand the terms used to describe the mouthfeel of oral health care products.
Similarity is estimated in sorting data from the proportion of frequency in which two items are sorted into the same category, across a group of subjects Rosenberg and Kim The multidimensional methods were applied to assess the texture terms by the comparison of different languages, e. In most frequently used 70 Japanese texture terms shown in Fig. For the French terms, the 35 terms listed in Category 1 concerning mechanical properties are all related with solids.
Among the 51 terms in Category 3 concerning structural properties, only three terms bulle bubble , plupeux pulpy and mousseux foaming, frothy are used for liquids. In French cooking, the sauce is very important, therefore, it is reasonable to see quite much of terms 19 to describe flow properties in Category 2. As mentioned before, Japanese texture terms include many onomatopoeias in comparison with other languages.
Although in Japanese, there are many ideograms, kanji , which means ancient Chinese letters, phonetics, alphabets are also used. In other words, Japanese language consists of ideograms and phonograms, while there are only ideograms in Chinese. At first glance, European people may feel that Chinese language and Japanese language are very similar, but the existence of phonograms, hiragana and katakana , in Japanese alphabets, makes a great difference between Chinese and Japanese. Frequent use of onomatopoeia in Japanese may be attributed to the existence of phonograms in Japanese.
It is needless to say that sounds produced by animals and birds, piping, trumpet, bill, call, mouth, utterance are imitated by humans in all the languages by using phonograms. Also, new concepts or products coming from foreign countries to China are represented by using ideograms as phonograms.
The pronunciation is also similar in the sense that these are frequently changeable in intonations and tones while Japanese pronunciation is comparatively flat, although the rhythm is very important in Japanese poems as well as poems in other languages. As for the arrangement of words in a sentence in English, French, Basque and Japanese, the order of words is similar in English and in French, while it is the same in Basque and Japanese.
The following example is taken from a book Histoire du pays basque written by Lamy , and modified by K. The corresponding Chinese is given by L. English: I 1 would like 2,3 to go 4,5 to look for 6 the 7 gentleman 8 who 9 has 10 arrived 11 with 12 you 13 from 14 the 15 town 16 in the 17 beginning 18 of 19 last 21 month Basque Labourdin: Joan 21 den hilabeteko 20—19 hastenan 18—17 hiritik 16—14 zurekin 13—12 heldu 11 zen 10 yauna 8—7 bilha 6 yoan 5 nahi 3 dut 2—1. In the original text of Michel Lamy, Sen 21 is written as Ato , which is wrong and therefore is changed into Sen here.
Chinese: Wo 1 xiang 2,3 qu 4,5 baifang 6 nawei 7 xiansheng 8 ta 9 shang 21 yue 20 chu 18 he 12 nin 13 yiqi 12 cong 14 zhengshang 16 lai 11 guo In Chinese, the order of words in sentence is similar with that in English or French, i. However, as shown in the above example sentence, the adverbial of time e. How the order of the words in a sentence changes the way of expression is a difficult problem, but it seems to affect the choice of the terms.
Some characteristics in Japanese foods are the varieties in raw materials that are made possible by the long although not wide shape of the Japanese islands and also by the distinct climate difference, temperature, rainfall, sunlight, etc.
Thus, although the total area of Japanese islands is 25 times smaller than that of China, there are still quite a lot of raw materials used for dish in Japan. This is appreciated by Bourne who visited Japan several times Bourne Japanese enjoy different textures of various foods, and thus they need various terms. Although onomatopoeias are not thought to be refined or elegant words to describe behaviors or properties, they are frequently used in daily conversation and also have been used in literature, and without these terms the expression may be felt very monotonous and too formal.
Because texture is a sensory property, as defined by Szczesniak, it can be well expressed by sensory words like onomatopoeia. Onomatopoeia derives from sounds emitting in the moment of mastication or sipping, or the appearance or mode of foods perceived when they deform or flow Kawabata and Huchinoue With the reforms of Prince Constantine Mavrocordato, the office of grand sluger lost its traditional content, and its holder received specific duties from the prince. Io Varthol. Svekiou, , ed. Olga Katsiardi-Hering and Maria A.
Stassinopoulou Leiden: Brill, , — A Greek boyar, with an important office concerned with the handling of foreign affairs, Iordache Stavarache was supported by his father-in-law, Manolache Geanet, the capuchehaia i. Marriage was the most accessible method of social integration into a network. As such, he sought to follow the model whose efficiency was proven, namely marriage. The lineage of the Sturdza boyars was a very important one with not only enormous wealth but also important positions in the social hierarchy. See Fotino, Istoria, , The materialisation of the marriage, however, raised problems.
These were much more political than religious in nature. Patricia M. The understanding shown by Vergennes may be explained by the fact that he was in a similar relationship. Marriage would result in his being called back from his post. For more details see Orville T. See his letter of 27 March Filitti, Lettres, Wax was one of the most important commercial products of interest to Phanariot princes, Turkish merchants and the Ottoman administration alike.
But he also needs to belong to the local boyar class, in the interests of social integration. Even the French ambassador, Vergennes,49 adopted Oriental costume, and so did the Linchou brothers, adapting to their surroundings. The adoption of a specific local costume facilitated their access to the trading networks with which they formed business connections; similarly the Romanian language and presumably also Greek helped them to communicate and, most importantly, to conduct business.
At present I can only give the point of view expressed by the Linchou family in their numerous correspondences with the ambassador of France in Istanbul, as I do not yet have access to more documents that would complete the picture. From this point on, a long revenge fell upon the Linchou brothers, who were dragged all over the Empire, sometimes in irons, often blackmailed, suffering violation of the privacy of their home in the middle of the night, and sent into exile or suffered the humiliation of the confiscation of their property. I have, however, found similar cases, which can provide information about how such litigation proceeded.
Sterio the Greek identifies himself according to stage of litigation and the courts he addresses: princely subject when he appeals to princely judgement, Ottoman subject when addresses the Ottoman courts. Cases between two foreigners were, as a rule, judged by the local courts, unless there was a numerous and well-organised community, as was the case of the Jews. In fact, Christian merchants from Moldavia and Wallachia, Ottoman subjects, often appealed to the judgement of the Imperial Divan, unhappy with the sentences or mediation offered by the local authorities, thus providing an occasion for the repeated interference of Ottoman envoys in the justice system.
Honour, nation, rights, protection are words that fashion the identity of a Frenchman. On 14 March , he was decapitated before Sultan Mustafa III, accused of grave offence to the Empire in his desperate attempt to restore Constantine Racovitza to the throne of Moldavia. It had not had time to build a defence, or even to know the charges. Correspondance Consulaire. In their petition, the French merchants expressed their concern with inability of their king to protect his subjects.
You can enjoy, in a warm typical bistro, fresh food cuisine and Lyonnaise specialties. A Lyonnais bouchon since Closed on bank holidays and in May. Burgundy Lounge is a gastronomic restaurant dedicated to the wines of Burgundy. We offer various suggestions for lunch on weekdays, made with fresh ingredients, in Le Bouchon des Cordeliers welcomes you in an additional to the annual menu. The Chef offers authentic Lyonnaise cuisine, prepared with fresh produce, in a warm and friendly atmosphere.
Closed from July 29th to Aug. Closed on bank holidays and 2 weeks in Aug. Service until midnight Sat. Against a backdrop of jazz music, this restaurant proposes traditional cooking made with high-quality products. Located in the heart of Lyon's peninsula, we welcome 42 hndop you in a warm atmosphere combining culture Hard Rock Cafe and Lyonnaise cuisine. On Sat. All-day service from Closed on May 1st and Dec.
At lunchtime, it is a welcoming canteen. Enjoy Le Ballon is the perfect place to relax and unwind, two different ambiances and generously-served, proposing tasty, generous cuisine. Discover this flavoursome cuisine. Top of the range meat and Bresse poultry sumptuous and bewitching setting, Jols Saint-Antoine specialities. A new concept with the focus firmly on will treat you to a surprising and delicious culinary product quality. You're in for a total change of scenery and you cannot fail to be charmed by the "aquarium" 90 ehiop atmosphere.
Whatever the time of day, the brasserie will have something to tempt your taste buds. All-day service from contact. Warm and ehnp friendly atmosphere. Pizzas and Italian specialities at reasonable prices. Closed on Sun. Our cheffes Huong the mother froggy produce. May and 2 weeks in Aug. You can also discover our cold-pressed organic juice bar with 17 delicious and healthy recipes!
Closed on improvised with friends. At lunchtime, Pimprenelle offers hot and Open from Tue.
Closed on May Bel is a standard-setter in France and internationally. Discover the 24 i flavours of our delicious macarons. One tasting is free. At Maison Duculty, the ambition is to produce hi charcuterie imbued with passion, to accompany moments of pleasure, sharing and conviviality, while 32 quai Saint-Antoine 07 preserving the know-how of our ancestors. Closed on bank Les Bonbons de Julien is an artisanal confectioner.
Closed on bank holidays except on May 30th and July 14th. Closed on May 1st and 8th, from Aug. An invitation to gluttony and some would say a magician, when it comes to irresistibly! Don't miss the authentic praline tarts. A wide choice, expert advice and Nancy, calissons from Aix and Coussins, etc. Accessories: small leather products, women's and men's clothing, tableware, goods, bags, belts and shoes. Tea room. A collection Open from Mon. Closed on of authentic sportswear clothes.
An invitation to travel: Jan. Open more than m2. The space is also used to promote the Anglo- www. Discover a space contact bourbonshouse. A charming place to relax, with comforting childhood smells of tea and cakes Lingerie and pimprenellerestaurant gmail. Open from Wed. It is a reference in the world of cocktails so discover our magazine menu now. The musical atmosphere and the calm offered by the alcoves are eip conducive to relaxation, for a timeless moment.
Herriot 05 boscolocollection. Make the most of its terrace, open all year round, and enjoy its wide selection of whiskies, beers and cocktails. Theater of laughing and emotions, they propose several modern plays. The square is lined with restaurant and cafe terraces, bookshops and other stores. Jacobins' Fountain B. Louis XIV equestrian statue E. Tourist Office F. Textile Museum H. Bell Tower. Closed on May 1st, April 15 to 21 and in Aug. This authentic bouchon proposes delicious traditional cuisine. Open from Mon. Closed ehiop on Dec. Featuring a magnificent period counter, the main room can be hired for private events and can seat up to 20 diners.
This approved bouchon Lyonnais is sure to delight your taste buds. Closed on bank holidays and the first 3 weeks 5 rue des Marronniers 10 of Aug. The chef proposes constantly changing traditional and Lyonnais seasonal dishes prepared using fresh products. Enjoy delicious breaks and shared moments in the heart of Lyon.
The attentive, fast and smiley service is matched only by the appetizing dishes made with fresh, seasonal ingredients. It is the only remnant of the eve. In , the hospital built the bell tower so that mothers in distress could leave their babies there Appointment for departure Place Bellecour! This establishment is a paradise for meat lovers.
A restaurant and tearoom, Pignol offers modern and urban catering combining prompt service and quality. Closed on bank 14 rue d'Amboise 12 holidays and Mon. Closed from Dec. Adapted to everyone's tastes, this Bar, forerunner of the Lounge, invites its customers to establishment is very popular with the residents of share an experience based on flavours from around Lyon. The terrace is particularly attractive when the sun is out. Our chai dessert Groups at lunch or dinner on reservation. Shops open from Mon. In the capital of gastronomy, it was a culinary bookstore! Reynon has been Lyon's reference in 1 place Bellecour 05 Deli-quality pork produce.
Made of white Place des Jacobins which is on the site of marble, it depicts the architect Philibert the former Jacobins convent, which was Delorme, the sculptor Guillaume Coustou, destroyed in Manicure sets Meilleurs Ouvriers de France are meeting in a m2 and walking sticks. If you're looking to buy a knife as a space to share their passion for fine food and good souvenir in Lyon then look no further!
Closed on bank contact chocolatier-bouillet. Closed on bank fr. Open on Mon. Behind the unique shop front, discover a offers a wide selection of shoes from classic to realm of sweet delights, with more than 50 kinds of creative, from England to Italy for men or women via cakes and pastries, and a tea room for a gourmet France and the United States.
More companion with femininity and style. From the than a shop, Citadium is a friendly home to originality essential black blazer to the cocktail dress, Un Jour and street culture. Ailleurs dresses women in her daily life. Come and discover the new collection. Available in sizes 36 to We offer a quality service based on our expertise as opticians. A lot of french and foreign knives for the pocket, for cooking or for the table. Manicure instruments and walking sticks. Sharpening and reparing workshop. At lunchtime, several delicious lunch menus are available, Have a gourmet break after a ride?
Combine usefulness with pleasure in this - SILK TRADE - boutique that sells products that epitomize the very best of Lyon's know-how: it's a pleasure for the eyes and prices come in all shapes and sizes. Here, iconic Jamawar Open from Tue. Silks stand alongside presciously hand-woven ultrafine Pashminas and stunningly embroidered shawls. To be enjoyed day and night without moderation. The museum shop offers a wide range of pieces related to the collections.
The Decorative Arts Museum is open exclusively for groups by prior reservation. A monument located on the central Place Bellecour pays tribute to him. A couple of streets further along, Rue Victor Hugo is a popular shopping destination. On the other side of the train station, the Confluence district is undergoing rapid change: the former prisons are being transformed into a university, while exhibitions are held at the municipal archives. The pace of life picks up along Cours Charlemagne, lined with plane trees, which leads down to the edge of the Confluence district.
Municipal Archives C. Sainte Blandine Church. This is an address you won't want to forget in Lyon! Gluten-free and vegetarian menus contact lepoelondor-restaurant. Closed on Nov. This blending of cultures creates a warm day life, here in the French culinary capital. Closed on bank holidays, in Aug. Closed 1 week at Christmas and the first 3 weeks in Aug. Tastings can also be arranged on info. The sumptuous decor, the warm gourmet moments and both traditional and original and friendly service and, of course, the delicious food flavours.
The Gerland district is also home to a number of scientific organisations and students. Halle Tony Garnier B. Gerland Park Rue de Gerland C. Matmut Stadium Lyon Gerland D. Confluences Museum F. Gerland Mural G. Place Nautique H. Cube Orange. Brunch every Sun. Live a new culinary experience at Gourmet Bar. People "eat well and feel well" here. In a and which has remarkable setting, the Selcius is an contemporary design, surrounded with water, the invitation to travel cardinal culinary inspiration North Brasserie des Confluences is the result of a meeting and South.
It must certainly be its spirit of openness as Open from Tue. Accessible by river boat. Restaurants, cinema and Supermarket Carrefour open on Sun. Shops: open lehcip 43 quai Rambaud - 2nd 04 from Mon. It hosts clubs, concerts, aperitifs, For a professional meeting or a drink with friends, conferences and other events throughout the year.
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Ticket office closes 45 min. In the Docks cattle market until , and known as La Mouche. It's Art festival one of the biggest in Europe and other now the home of the Lyon rugbyteam headquarter. Cour des Loges Mural Qu eo. Temple du Change es C. Metallic Tower a t Pl D. Parc des Hauteurs du E. Loyasse Graveyard e Ru Ru F. Rosaire Gardens la Place H. Gallo-roman Theatres Antoine Vollon I. Gadagne Museums K.
The terrace is a genuine haven of peace when the sun is out. The optimal fourviere-hotel. Don't miss the Lyonnais specialities in a warm and friendly setting. Fresh fish and wine by the glass. Lemonades and verrines in the afternoon. The family cooking in a friendly, authentic setting.
Closed on Open from Sun. Welcome to Wallace Bar! Located in Old Lyon, this restaurant is guaranteed to delight all lovers of the Saint-Jean district. Enjoy revisited traditional cuisine and typically Lyonnais dishes. The Chef offers different suggestions every week. Specialities vintage "s grocery shop" decor, proposing of Lyon, such as almond paste coussins de Lyon and breakfasts, snacks or dinners at any time of day in a cocons de Lyon in the shape of silkworm cocoons , setting unique of its kind in France in the very heart of macaroons, teas, chocolates Old Lyon.
Open from Thu. In a tastes! From thecrocknroll. A shop with objects and collectibles that date from to , all fully restored by our workshop. We also offer a rental service for collectibles, antiquities, film set and event decors, interior decoration, shop- window displays, private sales, etc. COM The must-gift shop during your vacation or business trip in Lyon.
Saint-Jean offers its collection of silk scarves and ties 25th. A contact lasoieriedesaintjean. Wild silks in shimmering colours, created by an original Lyonnais fashion designer - you are in CathAm Soie in Old Lyon. Open daily. Closed on May 1st. It is the ideal place in Lyon for a situated in the Saint Georges area, Guignol and his meal in a jazz atmosphere or a dinner with friends, friends welcome you with open arms to his theatre. Shows open to the public. Open on specific Sundays see website. A "Marian fortress" on the outside, contact espacegerson.
The panoramic view from Open all year. Doors open at the esplanade is breathtaking. Hotline: Mon. Chapel: perfect place to party and celebrate in Old Lyon. This frontage was there. Built in the 19thcentury by Bossan, it features an eclectic style. Immersive and playful, scenography invites you to discover the secrets of puppetry. Young or old, come This new cultural space dedicated to the history and wake up the puppeteer who lies in you!
It stands on the site of the old hospital Antiquaille. Closed on contact antiquaille. In this small museum, Guignol is king! You will discover a wide collection of puppets and other unique items bearing the image of small wooden Lyon. Drawing on the 80, items in its collection, in activity in Old Lyon, with the realization of fabrics for anyone keen to discover Lyon, this is a place to for fashion designers or the castles furniture and see begin your exploration of the city. Closed on Open from Mon. The medieval Ile Barbe island is absolutely charming. Bocuse is also setting up a restaurant and a unique fast-food concept here!
The Canuts Mural Colbert B. Closed on bank holidays except on Easter and Pentecost Mon. Closed on May 1st and 3 weeks in Aug. Open Sat. Chef Georges Desriaux serves up home-made cuisine with fresh produces all year round. The interior decor is modern, decorated with wood and aluminium features, with a view across the wine cellar and a kitchen lehniop opening out onto the dining area.
Quality and tradition are the key words Have you tried a restaurant where meat and fish of the house. Chef William Louvel, adventure and takes over. Discover the contact ls-artisan-maroquinier. Closed on bank holidays except lyon-croixrousse. This is where silk-workers, Les looms you can still find some highly- Canuts, came en masse during the 19th sought-after Canuts apartments.
The Jean Couty Museum is also a place devoted to modern and contemporary art through its temporary exhibitions. Brocade, velvet or figured silk Closed on bank holidays except Since , the Streble family has passed down a great Pentecost Mon. Located in the heart of the Croix-Rousse district, ik Soierie Vivante preserves two canut home weaving 65 boulevard des Canuts - 4th 01 workshops that belong to the town.
Shows for every public: Wed. During school hols. Only in Lyon! Visit the hand loom family factory of Georges Mattelon, the famous master weaver. The programme includes imaginative theatre, open to stage innovations. The site, which has preserved its medieval character, is now inhabited by local residents. Closed on Sat. It is currently being renovated and upgraded to keep pace with the growth in traffic.
The InCity Tower is the latest tower built in the district and the highest of the city with meters high. Halles de Lyon - Paul Bocuse B. Prefecture 13 C. Auditorium uvernet o s ayne l Ducl anie lle F D. Municipal Library uire G.
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Incity Tower e la B Rue d Rue du. Open Tue. In this unique setting, Closed on Jan. Closed on Aug. Whether you're a busy business man or a family enjoying your holiday, Ibis Kitchen Restaurant will satisfy all your desires! This local institution opened in