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First of all in Krishna Consciousness we do not say that plants do not have a soul, plants do have a soul. So you are incorrect to make such judgements so quickly. Humans, Animals, Plants, Reptiles, Trees etc all have a soul according to the Vedic Scriptures, they are all conscious and living entities. We offer only vegetarian food to the Lord because this is what the Lord asks for, he did not say offer me meat.

Translation: If one offers Me with love and devotion a leaf, a flower, fruit or water, I will accept it. No, it is not ok to eat meat as there is so much violence gone into the animal before killing the animal. The plants and vegetables do not feel that much pain, hence devotees try to live by giving very minimum pain to a life as they are aware of the Karmic reactions.

Even if you consider economically, it is better and healthier to be a vegetarian rather than a animal eater. If you want to practise spiritual life then you must develop compassionate to all living entities, how can one say they Love God and slit throats on the other side and also encourage violence. So it is not the people who needs to get over it, you need to get over meat eating and find out the goal of life.

First of all if you like to say something like this then make sure you back it up with a proper authority, where does it say that meat made the apes and then into humans? If something had happened in the future then why cant it still happen today? People say we have evolved from animals, well animals are still here why cant we see them changing into humans now? The Vedic scriptures gives us this information that the Soul is transmitigating from one body to another.

Feeding your turtle

As the embodied soul continuously passes, in this body, from boyhood to youth to old age, the soul similarly passes into another body at death. A sober person is not bewildered by such a change. Bhagavad Gita 9. There are 8,, 8 million thousands species of life. So my friend it is you who needs to get a clue and do not speculate on life with your limited knowledge. Just because you cannot conceive the presence of a soul does not mean that animals and other living entities do not have a soul. They are all conscious, being born, remaining for some time and eventually die.

If you observe entities properly they all have symptom of life so this concludes they have a soul and killing them for eating purposes is certainly not a good idea. If you have read the article then you would know that by eating meat causes so much Karmic reactions. A very interesting read clearing up all the misconceptions some people may have! Just one little query, quoting from the article above:.

Please explain about the red lentils, are red lentils also known as — masoor dal? And are these also not offered and eaten by devotees? Yes red lentils are also known as masoor dal, you can eat other coloured ones but not the red masoor dal. Also we do not cook and offer this to the Lord and its not to be eaten by devotees. Hi if the Dr advises you must eat meat for health and you live in a western world UK example. Where it I easier to obtain meat products for optimum health what should you do? Look after your health or look after you faith.

If you cannot maintain a healthy vegetarian diet in a western world then what must you do if you are given a advice vice to eat meat to help you be healthier and you live in a western world where it is hard to eat a vegetarian diet and where you find very little success in doing so however you find on a daily basis that there is meat options which are healthy and make you feel more healthier after eating and show that your body is recovering from illness then are you allowed in hinduism to eat meat because it is helping your body recover hence making you happy thank you.

Regarding your questions, first of all it is incorrect to think by eating meat is an healthier option than being a vegetarian. If you read about health and meat so many people are having health problems due to consumption of meat. In a recent news a new study from the Harvard School of Public Health suggests that eating any amount or type of red meat significantly increases risk of premature death, cancer, and heart disease.

Anaemia, appendicitis, arthritis, breast cancer, cancer of the colon, cancer of the prostate, constipation, diabetes, gall stones, gout, high blood pressure, indigestion, obesity, piles, strokes and varicose veins are just some of the well known disorders which are more likely to affect meat eaters than vegetarians. Add to those hazards the fact that if you eat meat you may be consuming hormones, drugs and other chemicals that have been fed to the animals before they were killed and you can see the extent of the danger.

No one knows precisely what effect eating the hormones in meat is likely to have on your health. Some farmers use tranquillisers to keep animals calm. Others routinely use antibiotics so that their animals do not develop infections. When you eat meat you are, inevitably, eating those drugs. Vernon Coleman. You can eat so many other Vegetarian food like Dhal, Soya beans etc. We have to give up this weakness and follow the principles of human life.

If people have certain illness then they should try Ayur Vedic treatment which is more natural, many health problems can be sorted via performing Yoga and taking herbal medicines. There are other alternatives rather than just eat meat for health purposes. To recover the body we can also do many exercises, go to the gym, go for a jog and carry on eating vegetarian spiritual food a devotee is to offer to Krishna foodstuffs prepared from vegetables. This will make you more happier. If one offers Me with love and devotion a leaf, a flower, fruit or water, I will accept it.

Bhagavad-gita 9. One who loves Krishna will give Him whatever He wants, and he avoids offering anything which is undesirable or unasked. Thus meat, fish and eggs should not be offered to Krishna. If He desired such things as offerings, He would have said so. Vegetables, grains, fruits, milk and water are the proper foods for human beings and are prescribed by Lord Krishna Himself.

Whatever else we eat cannot be offered to Him, since He will not accept it. Thus we cannot be acting on the level of loving devotion if we offer such foods. In the Third Chapter, verse thirteen, Sri Krishna explains that only the remains of sacrifice are purified and fit for consumption by those who are seeking advancement in life and release from the clutches of the material entanglement. Those who do not make an offering of their food, He says in the same verse, are eating only sin. In other words, their every mouthful is simply deepening their involvement in the complexities of material nature.

But preparing nice, simple vegetable dishes, offering them before the picture or Deity of Lord Krishna and bowing down and praying for Him to accept such a humble offering enables one to advance steadily in life, to purify the body, and to create fine brain tissues which will lead to clear thinking. Above all, the offering should be made with an attitude of love.

Krishna has no need of food, since He already possesses everything that be, yet He will accept the offering of one who desires to please Him in that way. The important element, in preparation, in serving and in offering, is to act with love for Krishna. Srila Prabhupada. So my friend act for Lord Krishna and not for your own desire and sensual pleasures.

Just by practising Bhakti Yoga we can achieve everything even a good health. The main purpose of human life is develop our love for Lord Krishna, that is Hinduism that is Sanatan Dharma. I pray to Lord Krishna and do chant the Maha Mantra. But my hands also provide meat to my dog. What should I do? Sometimes I boil chicken with rice to give to my dog. I am a strict vegetarian but my dog is not. Should I not give my dog chicken? And just stick to giving him his dog food, which also has chicken in it? Please help. Regarding your question, according to the scriptures it is wrong to eat and give meat to anyone.

There is also an option to make your dog vegetarian. There are many people who feed their pets vegetarian food only, some also give Prashadam sanctified food. If your pet suffers due to you not feeding them properly you can also be held responsible as you took that responsibility of that living entity to look after them. So it is a risky business. This will contaminate your house. Anyway you can try feeding your dog approved vegetarian food and see how it reacts to this.

This should be done under supervision of a veterinarian. After switching a dog to vegetarian food, you should have the dog examined one to two months later to have general health evaluated. There is no scientifically known reason why dogs cannot live full, healthy lives on a vegan diet. Furthermore, a homemade or commercial vegetarian food can avoid the potentially detrimental health effects of many meat-based commercial foods. Such a diet would also greatly reduce the risks of cancer, strokes, heart attacks, and other comment diseases and disorders.

Fox, D. If you would like to switch a dog to vegetarian food, only purchase food that has been tested and meets all nutritional standards for dogs. There are many brands that offer this certification, and you can find the most variety at feed stores or at large pet stores. There are also books devoted to making vegetarian foods for dogs. If this is unacceptable for personal reasons, you may be better off not adopting a dog unless the animal has had proven success with a vegetarian diet. I cannot really decide for you as you will have to do some research yourself on making your dog vegetarian.

But a dog can also definitely eat vegetarian food provided you are following the guidelines. If it works then this is the best option, try also feeding dog Prashadam so the dog will benefit spiritually. We have to remember that the soul resides in every species and we have to somehow help them spiritually also. In Vedic times people did not bring dogs or animals inside the house as this would contaminate the house, also by keeping a pet there is every chance of becoming attached to it and thinking of it all the time. I have been deeply influenced by the teachings of Sri Bhagavad Gita.

I have turned a better person than I was previously and recommending the book to all those I know. I have given up Non vegetarian food and garlic and onions since then. I wish to share my experince regarding the same. But since I actually started studying it, I have given up totally as instructed in the book. I started cooking for myself separately because my family eats meat.

But my family continued to have non vegetarian food and I was not happy with it as I have to share the same vessels with my family and the nonvegetarian food smell that I previously enjoyed started to make my stomach sick and I actually was close to throwing up at one instance.

I was still on day 10 of Gita and I put the book infront of me, put my hands together bowed my head and my eyes were already in tears. But I cant see my family having meat and adding bad karma to their life. Please I beg You to make my family give up meat. I cant stand the smell of the non vegetarian curries and gravies they are cooking.

Earlier I used to enjoy and my mouth would water, but not anymore ever since I started styding Gita. Please make my family give up meat. Please cleanse their bodies of the sins of eating meat. This is what my prayer was, but ofcourse in my mother tongue. I did not inform my fmqaily about this prayer. And to be honest, I was not expecting this prayer to come true, as my family is light years away from giving up meat. I did not join them as I had to complete my study of Gita and I told them I will join them next time.


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That night after they returned, they told me that they performed a special puja to Lord Narasimha and priest told my Mom to give up meat totally. She said the rest of the family can have meat outside if they want to, but she is not touching meat, or eggs or anything non vegetarian all her life from now.

Can anyone believe this!!! I rushed to my room, put the cover page of Bhagavad Gita infront and cried and thanked Lord Krishna. It was just 3 days back that I prayed for it. I have never told my family till date about my prayer. I got what I wanted. I cannot forger this all my life. I tell this incident to all my friends everything so that they read the book with faith. SInce my Mon stoppped cooking meat at home, the rest of the family too turned vegetarian. They dont have meat outside at all.

They dont miss meat at all. Though I failed to convince then to give up onion and garlic. But I am happy. We cannot eat a chair or mobile or a sponge or a nonliving thing to live. They have no life. Living things have to eat living things to survive. Everything that lives has a soul. So he recommends and okays these foods for humans. I am happy to hear how things worked out for you at the end. Bhagavad Gita is the direct word of God and it is absolute truth, it applies to everyone regardless who they are.

Now that you and your family have become Vegetarians try taking a step forward or start with yourself first to chant the Hare Krishna Maha Mantra and practise Bhakti Yoga at home. Just keep strong faith in Krishna and always chant his holy names. Sir, thoughtful analysis indeed. Infact for a long time the thought of the severe pain these animals undergo had been haunting me. This resulted in me giving up beef eating at 24 years of age.

By 30 , complete stop to chicken and fish. But egg , onion and garlic … i still eat. Your analysis prompts me seriously to stop these too. But 1 doubt… we all know in each and every passing second of time, a lot of living beings all around the world are suffering intense pain especially for eating purpose. One major factor behind this brutality is that people are of the impression that they will not get the punishments for their doings because of several reasons. One reason is that authoritative people of semitic religions advocates their followers that these things are allowed in their holly books.

It is sure that if severe meat eaters are intimated about the consequesnces, there would really be great changes as whole. But who will take initiatives? After all who can dare to threaten God? You have said it very accurately that even when a sharp nail hurts our body we react to the pain and scream so just imagine what sort of pain these animals have to suffer in the slaughter houses. Those people who eat meat does not have a clue that the animals also have a soul in them and they do feel pain and pleasure like humans.

Regarding your first question, many religion scriptures has been misunderstood and or has been interpreted to suit their own needs. Actually all scriptures holy books emanates from Vedas but it is preached according to time place and circumstances. Now this has been misinterpreted to kill the innocent animals and eat them. The general mass of people are misguided and the whole world is suffering due to this. People need to wake up and see the truth and practise a life of non-violence and devotion to the Supreme God Lord Sri Krishna. Those religions who advocate meat eating is for people with a degraded consciousness or animal consciousness, they will not be able to understand the higher dimensions of devotion to God.

They will believe in God but at the same time have all the demonic qualities.

Le Cellier Steakhouse

Regarding your second question, it is duty of everyone to take up this initiative and preach about devotion to God and vegetarianism. Yes no one can threaten God. Also the all-powerful, kindful almighty himself does time to time interfere directly and frequently in these matters, he says in the Bhagavad Gita Whenever and wherever there is a decline in religious practice, O descendant of Bharata, and a predominant rise of irreligion — at that time I descend Myself.

Bhagavad Gita 4. Sometimes the Lord himself personally descends, sometimes he comes as incarnations and sometimes he sends his devotees like Srila Prabhupada to preach pure devotional service on earth. Also the Lord comes and gives us his message or sometimes through the prophets and devotees, but people due to free will still ignore the message and engage in sinful activities. In a very recent incarnation Lord Krishna appeared as Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu who spread the chanting of:.

Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu spread the religion of this age which is to chant the names of God in the form of the Hare Krishna Maha Mantra. This was the Lords weapon to kill the demonic mentality of people in this degraded age of Kali Yuga. Just by chanting this mantra it will counteract all the negative influence of this world and people would become pure and develop Love of God. The Lord is non-different to is name, he is present whenever his names are chanted.

I have read and understood it with great pleasure. As far as I am concerned, most of them might not have animal extracts, however I could be wrong. Hari Krishna. I am happy to hear you have started chanting the Hare Krishna Maha Mantra, please keep chanting as it will purify the unclean heart and develop Love of God. Regarding your question on what is the view on taking multivitamins and other supplements?

Well that you will need to check in the ingredients when you buy the product. You can always check and make sure that the product does not contain any animal extracts. I dont know in detail of each supplements so it is advised you to check with the staff working at the shop. May be you can check on the internet which ones are suitable for vegetarians. Generally vitamins are good for health so you can continue to take this but just check the suitability.

After this I have changed my decision of eating meat, onions and garlic. It was really good to know the actual truth which is necessary for this life. I have another doubt if Brahmans have higher knowledge and power by birth than any others. Are they superior from all others. Do all humankind are equal before Almighty? Please reply to this. Thank you for your comments on this article. The Brahmans are not generally born with higher knowledge and powers, they have acquired this through their penance and austerities.

No body attains anything without going through some sort of austerity in life, even in spiritual life there is austerity to achieve higher realm. There are four divisions in society, Lord Krishna says in the Bhagavad Gita that he has created this system According to the three modes of material nature and the work associated with them, the four divisions of human society are created by Me. And although I am the creator of this system, you should know that I am yet the nondoer, being unchangeable. There is a natural system of social organization which can bring about a peaceful society where everyone is happy.

This system is described in the timeless Vedic literature of India and it is called Varnasrama dharma. The purpose of the Varnasrama social system is to provide a structure which allows people to work according to their natural tendencies and to organize society so that everyone, regardless of their position, makes spiritual advancement. The practical application of the Varnasrama system is to divide the society according to four occupational and four spiritual orders of life. There are four qualities of work, the brahmanas are the intellectual and priestly class, the Kshatriyas are the government, the military and the administrative classes, the vaisyas are farmers and businessmen, and the sudras are workers.

There are also four spiritual divisions, brahmachari — celibate student life, grihastha — married life, vanaprastha — retired life and sannyasa — renounced life. If this system is properly implemented under the direction of qualified brahmanas the result will be peace and prosperity throughout the world. So Brahmanas are superior in a sense that they have a very important role to play in the society and to guide the society in the right direction which is towards spiritual life or Krishna Consciousness. Even in any organisation there is a Director, Manager, Supervisor and then the Staff members.

So there is some sort of hierarchy but the goal is to work for one organisation. Similarly there are different classes of people i. Brahmans are like the heads of the society as they guide people, now if there are no brahmanas then who will guide the society? That is why there can be chaos in the society due to lack of spiritual knowledge and guidance. The classification of society into brahmanas, kshatriyas, vaisyas and sudras is very scientific.

In the human social body, the brahmanas are considered the head, the kshatriyas are the arms, the vaisyas are the belly, and the sudras are the legs. At the present moment the body has legs and a belly, but there are no arms or head, and therefore society is topsy-turvy. It is necessary to re-establish the brahminical qualifications in order to raise the fallen human society to the highest standard of spiritual consciousness. Dear sir, What does geeta says about watching and doing nothing to protect and save these animals. It is the duty of every living being to protect the innocent and those that are most vulnerable.

Just because the animals cannot protest like humans it does not mean that they should be slaughtered. Animals should definitely be protected from any harm, being kind and helpful to the weak is a human characteristic. The scriptures certainly say that one should not kill animals, but what to do in a Godless civilisation. The Government needs to take up this initiative and stop animal killing altogether.

It is the governments duty to punish these people who are maintaining slaughter houses and those who are selling and buying meat. If you can help then you become Krishna Conscious and try to preach this message to other people. This way it will certainly help the humanity at large, people are doing all this nonsense things because the root cause is lack of true spiritual knowledge.

This Krishna consciousness movement is helping people to revive their original consciousness which is to be Krishna consciousness. By loving God we will automatically love all the living entities, when we truly love God then that love reflects as being compassionate to others and also by helping them to become God Conscious. This way you will remain free from Karma and your conscious will stay clear. Thank you for your answer.

Recently i got in contact with an indian brahmin and he gave a totally different view on this. According to him if any person is in any miserable condition then it is all due to his karma of this life or the previous life. If any person eats meat in this life and in next life he is subject to get slaughtered as a pig or goat.

BUT if we interfere this process then he becomes free of this bad karma treatment. Whatever the Brahmin has said to you is correct, yes everyone is suffering or enjoying according to their own karma, this may be from this life or from previous many lives. Whatever sin we may perform the seed gets implemented and it gradually fructifies and the results are that we suffer for the sin which we had performed. Some religions do not believe in Karma, but then how do they explain someone who is born with some defect?

This is when the Vedic knowledge gives us a deeper insight and explains that the person in their previous lives must have performed some bad Karma and the reaction is taking place now. This continues until they break the cycle of repeated birth and death and this is only possible by absolute spiritual knowledge and surrendering unto God with love and devotion.

Yes God has his laws and that is how the material nature is working. Lord Krishna says in the Bhagavad Gita:. This material nature, which is one of My energies, is working under My direction, O son of Kunti, producing all moving and non-moving beings. Under its rule this manifestation is created and annihilated again and again. Someone may do a crime and hide from the government laws but they cannot escape from the laws of nature, that person will be punished. Everything is witnessed and controlled by the supreme Lord and his energies.

Firstly, yes those who slaughter animals will also get the same punishment in their next life, they will also have to go through the same process just to balance the Karma out. I would like to take few things further to what the Brahmin has said. Just to let you know that not everyone can interfere with other peoples karma, but a devotee being surrendered to God can be empowered by the Lord to do such a task. The devotee can interfere up to an extent and impart spiritual knowledge.

A devotee is full of compassion and he cannot see other people suffer so they intervene and tries to help that person come to a spiritual platform. A devotee is taking up this service just to help the fallen conditioned souls otherwise who is going to help the people who are in ignorance? Secondly, regarding donating to a person in misery will return in misery is also correct.

This is more elaborately explained in the Bhagavad Gita where it explains that charity falls under three modes which are: charity in Goodness, charity in Passion and Charity in Ignorance. Lord Krishna says in the Bhagavad Gita So yes if we give some money to someone and that person misuses the money in wrong things example meat eating, alcohol etc. So one should be careful where and who they donate their money. Generally everyone should donate and do some sort of charity but donate to people who are truly spreading God Consciousness and helping people spiritually this will definitely benefit the donor.

There is a page about charity on this site if you like to read, you can follow the link teaching, vedic philosophy then charity. Just like Jesus who freed people from their sins, but people have taken advantage of this and continuing doing all sinful activities thinking that Jesus will take their sin. But this is very immature understanding of people, a self-realised person will think why should I let my saviour suffer, I will not sin from today. When Srila Prabhupada the founder acharya of the Hare Krishna movement came to the west to preach he initiated so many disciples all around the world so that they can start a new spiritual life ahead.

A devotee then leads a pure God conscious life. So someone might then ask what happens to all the Karma when we surrender to the Lord? Well Lord Krishna promises this in the Bhagavad Gita when he says Abandon all varieties of religion and just surrender unto Me. I shall deliver you from all sinful reactions.

Do not fear. Bhagavad Gita The Lord can do anything and he will surely protect those that a surrendered unto him. I hope this has cleared few things, if you have any more questions please do not hesitate to contact me. Very interesting article and thankyou. The mother suffers when the calf is taken away from the mother to feed humans — absurd. We do not need it, like milk.

I am not sure how the conclusion of building a better brain occures from drinking cows milk when after all, cows are not known for their mental gymnastics. Goats milk offers much more, but I prefer to shy away from any kind of animal milk quite frankly. However, I do like much of the article — I have found much strength in eating organic food, no animal products, quality exercise, clean water, sunshine and community spirit and family — I am rarely ill, exceptional vitality in comparison to other 45 year olds — I will stick with what works for me.

When I am , I will be still full of vitality. The topic of milk is very authoritative and needs to be understood thoroughly. Just by taking the calf away from the mother does not necessarily mean killing it or not bringing it back to the mother. Just like a child when distance from its mother for a short while does not bring pain to the mother.

Eventually the calf one day will grow up and the mother being old will eventually leave, how long they are going to remain together? Scientifically the milk itself has so many nutrients and does help in the development of human body. Even in Vedic times milked has always been used humanly and has helped to maintain the body. Also my argument is that even when a child is born they naturally only drink milk and can only drink milk why? The mother naturally gives milk from her breast to the child, why does the mother produce milk only?

This is natural and God created system so it must have a reason. So it is reasonably accepted that when the child grows they naturally want to carry on drinking milk which the cows then provide. So the question here is why do we, as humans, continue to drink milk? We continue to drink milk for its nourishment on all levels from mental to physical to emotional to spiritual. Milk alone has countless benefits and a strong healing power. Milk promotes Ojas, your strength, immunity, and intellect.

Ultimately, milk provides us with those benefits and nutrition that is pretty much hard to find anywhere else. To simply phrase it, we are supposed to drink milk throughout our lives for its nutritional values that nourishes and enhances our quality of life by increasing the strength within our inner core and supports our immunity. There are only benefits after benefits from drinking milk.

If you pay close attention, those children who grow up drinking lots of milk, have a tendency to be healthier and have stronger immune systems. Milk is an excellent source for calcium, phosphorous, iron, carbohydrates, protein, fat, vitamins A, B12, and C. Also, intuitively, for centuries, the human race has been drinking milk.

Just like we eat our vegetables, we should drink our milk. According to the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, studies have shown that drinking milk can improve kidney functioning and reduce the risk of heart disease. Healthy men and women supplemented with 1, mg of calcium per day — the amount in four glasses of milk — reduced their risk of bone fractures by 72 percent. Ayurveda has also laid out the countless benefits of drinking milk.

Ojas, as you may already know is the finest product of digestion and it represents your immune system, strength, and vitality.

Animals Made Of Fruits and Vegetables

Drinking milk promotes and enhances the Ojas. Milk directly nourishes the life forces and also nourishes all the tissues of the body. It increases strength, promotes life span, excellent for the eyes and intellect, reverses the aging process, heals wounds, and increases virility. Furthermore, milk is used for irritable bowel syndrome, excessive thirst, is good for hyperacidity, great for heart disorders, urinary tract problems, hemorrhoids, and bleeding tendencies. Milk is excellent for emaciation, anemia, and fatigue due to excess physical exertion.

Milk can be hard to digest. Therefore, if you have trouble digesting milk, boil the milk with some fresh ginger and then drink it. Boiling the milk makes the milk lighter and easier to digest. The ginger will aid in the digestion of the milk. There are many more benefits than what has been mentioned. Milk is one of the greatest nutritional drinks out there and it is recommended for everyone.

Ayurveda continues to say that milk is the first drink of life and therefore, it should be continued throughout life. These days they treat cows and other animals so badly, just for the sake of making volumes they inject them with all sort of chemicals which produces more fat and milk in the animals. Also when the animal is killed due to the fear they produce so many toxins which go inside the meat. We need to establish the Vedic principles which certainly are more natural and pure.

The body is temporary and will eventually die but the soul will continue to move according to our Karma, nobody knows how long they will live for so we should also adopt something for spiritual wellbeing. I have question Sir. If u eat lower animals like chicken and fish only is it less sin that eating higheranimals like lamb pig etc. I have seen a YouTube video fro Sri Prabudhas about if you are obliged to eat meat you must eat the lower animals.

Can you explain of obliged is if your Dr advises to eat due to health or if ur health improves with eating chicken and fish. My questions are those of many any young Hindus who are stuck between health and religious. And also the convenience of eating chicke aand fish in the UK. How much dhal can you eat. How much cheese how much soya before u get sick it and can easily buy a m and s salad with chicken which is health promoting as low infats and high in iron protein etc … A Westerners view here who wants to be a good Hindu but struggles to keep his health optimum at cost of con convenience….

Regarding your further questions about eating meat, well the first understanding is that there is a soul in every species of life regardless of high or low. We should not eat meat at all, as a Hindu you should know better about the existence of a soul in every living entities. Whether you eat chicken, fish or insects the main point is that by eating such things violence is necessary and this causes bad karma in this life and life after. We do not have the right to harm or take their life span, they are living according to their own nature. If a lion gets ill would it be ok to give your human body for them to eat and get the lion cured?

If you are not willing to offer your body to animals to eat why should they give you their bodies to cure your health? They are conscious and have a soul. Srila Prabhupada would not recommend to eat meat, but because people are going to sin anyway he is saying not to eat beef or anything related to cows as cows are auspicious and considered as our mother by providing us milk. Just because Dr says eat meat does not necessary mean you eat meat, you can eat other things which would have protein and other things which can help you recover.

Also it does not mean that you always continue to eat meat due to health reasons. As I explained you can enquire about Ayurvedic treatment for your problems. So please speak to a vegetarian Dr or an Ayurvedic Dr and they will give you certain treatment which would recover your health, I guarantee they would not say that meat is the only option for you to live. Also if possible do physical exercises and do yoga for curing your health. Congenital absence of the iris has likewise been transmitted for three generations, a cleft-iris for four generations, being limited in this latter case to the males of the family.

Opacity of the cornea and congenital smallness of the eyes have been inherited. Portal records a curious case, in which a father and two sons were rendered blind, whenever the head was bent downwards, apparently owing to the crystalline lens, with its capsule, slipping through an unusually large pupil into the anterior chamber of the eye. Day-blindness, or imperfect vision under a bright light, is inherited, as is night-blindness, or an incapacity to see except under a strong light: a case has been recorded, by M. Cunier, of this latter defect having affected eighty-five members of the same family during six generations.

The singular incapacity of distinguishing colours, which has been called Daltonism , is notoriously hereditary, and has been traced through five generations, in which it was confined to the female sex. With respect to the colour of the iris: deficiency of colouring matter is well known to be hereditary in albinoes. The iris of one eye being of a different colour from that of the other, and the iris being spotted, are cases which have been inherited. Sedgwick gives, in addition, on the. Herbert Spencer, 'Principles of Biology,' vol. Review,' April, , p. Osborne, 19 the following curious instance of strong inheritance: a family of sixteen sons and five daughters all had eyes "resembling in miniature the markings on the back of a tortoiseshell cat.

Finally, Dr. Lucas emphatically remarks that there is not one single faculty of the eye which is not subject to anomalies; and not one which is not subjected to the principle of inheritance. Bowman agrees with the general truth of this proposition; which of course does not imply that all malformations are necessarily inherited; this would not even follow if both parents were affected by an anomaly which in most cases was transmissible.

Even if no single fact had been known with respect to the inheritance of disease and malformations by man, the evidence would have been ample in the case of the horse. And this might have been expected, as horses breed much quicker than man, are matched with care, and are highly valued. I have consulted many works, and the unanimity of the belief by veterinaries of all nations in the transmission of various morbid tendencies is surprising. Authors, who have had wide experience, give in detail many singular cases, and assert that contracted feet, with the numerous contingent evils, of ring-bones, curbs, splints, spavin, founder and weakness of the front legs, roaring or broken and thick wind, melanosis, specific ophthalmia, and blindness the great French veterinary Huzard going so far as to say that a blind race could soon be formed , crib-biting, jibbing, and ill-temper, are all plainly hereditary.

Youatt sums up by saying "there is scarcely a malady to which the horse is subject which is not hereditary;" and M. Bernard adds that the doctrine "that there is scarcely a disease which does not run in the stock, is gaining new advocates every day. Osborne, Pres. Lawrence, 'The Horse,' p. Karkeek, in an excellent paper in 'Gard.

Chronicle,' , p. Burke, in 'Journal of R. Girou de Buzareignues, 'Philosoph. See following papers in 'The Veterinary:' Roberts, in vol. Marrimpoey, vol. Karkeek, vol. Bernard, vol. Samesreuther, on Cattle, in vol. But enough, and more than enough, has been said on disease. Andrew Knight, from his own experience, asserts that disease is hereditary with plants; and this assertion is endorsed by Lindley. Seeing how hereditary evil qualities are, it is fortunate that good health, vigour, and longevity are equally inherited. It was formerly a well-known practice, when annuities were purchased to be received during the lifetime of a nominee, to search out a person belonging to a family of which many members had lived to extreme old age.

As to the inheritance of vigour and endurance, the English race-horse offers an excellent instance. Eclipse begot , and King Herod winners. A "cock-tail" is a horse not purely bred, but with only one-eighth or one-sixteenth impure blood in his veins, yet very few instances have ever occurred of such horses having won a great race. They are sometimes as fleet for short distances as thoroughbreds, but as Mr.

Robson, the great trainer, asserts, they are deficient in wind, and cannot keep up the pace. Lawrence also remarks, "perhaps no instance has ever occurred of a three-part-bred horse saving his ' distance ' in running two miles with thoroughbred racers. On the Continent, Baron Cameronn challenges, in a German veterinary periodical, the opponents of the English race-horse, to name one good horse on the Continent which has not some English race-blood in his veins. With respect to blindness in horses, see also a whole row of authorities in Dr.

Lucas's great work, tom. Baker, in 'The Veterinary,' vol. Lindley's 'Horticulture,' p. Darvill, in 'The Veterinary,' vol. With respect to Robson, see 'The Veterinary,' vol. Lawrence on 'The Horse,' , p. A few special cases, however, deserve some consideration. It might have been anticipated, that deviations from the law of symmetry would not have been inherited. But Anderson 23 states that a rabbit produced in a litter a young animal having only one ear; and from this animal a breed was formed which steadily produced one-eared rabbits.

He also mentions a bitch, with a single leg deficient, and she produced several puppies with the same deficiency. From Hofacker's account 24 it appears that a one-horned stag was seen in in a forest in Germany, in two, and afterwards, from year to year, many were observed with only one horn on the right side of the head.

A cow lost a horn by suppuration, 25 and she produced three calves which had on the same side of the head, instead of a horn, a small bony lump attached merely to the skin; but we here approach the doubtful subject of inherited mutilations. A man who is left-handed, and a shell in which the spire turns in the wrong direction, are departures from the normal though a symmetrical condition, and they are well known to be inherited.

Polydactylism graduates 26 by multifarious steps from a mere cutaneous appendage, not including any bone, to a double hand. But an additional digit, supported on a metacarpal bone, and furnished with all the proper muscles, nerves, and vessels, is sometimes so perfect, that it escapes detection, unless the fingers are actually counted. Occasionally there are several supernumerary digits; but usually only one, making the total number six. This one may represent either a thumb or finger, being attached to the inner or outer margin of the hand. Generally, through the law of correlation, both hands and feet are similarly affected.

I have tabulated the cases recorded in various works or privately communicated. Paget has kindly translated for me passages. See , also, Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire's 'Hist. As it is, seventy-three hands and seventy-five feet were thus affected. This proves, in contradiction to the result arrived at by Dr. Struthers, 27 that the hands are not more frequently affected than the feet. The presence of more than five digits is a great anomaly, for this number is not normally exceeded by any mammal bird, or existing reptile. These facts are rendered, as Professor Huxley has observed, more remarkable from its being known in most cases that the affected person had not married one similarly affected.

In such cases the child of the fifth generation would have only nd part of the blood of his first sedigitated ancestor. Other cases are rendered remarkable by the affection gathering force, as Dr. Struthers has shown, in each generation, though in each the affected person had married one not affected; moreover such additional digits are often amputated soon after birth, and can seldom have been strengthened by use. Struthers gives the following instance: in the first generation an additional digit appeared on one hand; in the second, on both hands; in the third, three brothers had both hands, and one of the brothers a foot affected; and in the fourth generation all four limbs were affected.

Yet we must not over-estimate the force of inheritance. Struthers asserts that cases of non-inheritance and of the first appearance of additional digits in unaffected families are much more frequent than cases of inheritance. Certainly, when the hinder foot of a toad, as soon as it first sprouts from the tadpole, is dissected, the partially ossified cartilage of this tubercle resembles under the microscope, in a remarkable manner, a digit.

But the highest authority on such subjects, Gegenbaur Untersuchung. Struthers, in work cited, especially on intermissions in the line of descent. Huxley, 'Lectures on our Knowledge of Organic Nature,' , p. With respect to inheritance, see Dr. Geoffroy, 'Anom. Carlisle, in 'Phil. Walker, on 'Intermarriage,' , p. Sedgwick, in 'Brit. Additional digits have been observed in negroes as well as in other races of man, and in several of the lower animals. Six toes have been described on the hind feet of the newt Salamandra cristata , and, as it is said, of the frog.

It deserves notice from what follows, that the six-toed newt, though adult, had preserved some of its larval characters; for part of the hyoidal apparatus, which is properly absorbed during the act of metamorphosis, was retained. In the dog, six toes on the hinder feet have been transmitted through three generations; and I have heard of a race of six-toed cats. In several breeds of the fowl the hinder toe is double, and is generally transmitted truly, as is well shown when Dorkings are crossed with common four-toed breeds.

Thus the dog has properly four toes behind, but in the larger breeds a fifth toe is commonly, though not perfectly, developed. Horses, which properly have one toe alone fully developed with rudiments of the others, have been described with each foot bearing two or three small separate hoofs: analogous facts have been noticed with sheep, goats, and pigs.

The most interesting point with respect to supernumerary digits is their occasional regrowth after amputation. White 32 describes a child, three years old, with a thumb double from the first joint.

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He removed the lesser thumb, which was furnished with a nail; but to his astonishment it grew again, and reproduced a nail. The child was then taken to an eminent London surgeon, and the newly-grown thumb was wholly removed by its socket-joint, but again it grew and reproduced a nail. Struthers mentions a case of partial regrowth of an additional thumb, amputated when the child was three months old; and the late Dr.

Falconer communicated to me an analogous case which had fallen under his own observation. A gentleman, who first called my attention to this subject, has given me the following facts which occurred in his own family. He himself, two brothers, and a sister were born with an extra digit to each extremity. His parents were not affected, and there was no tradition in the family, or in the village in which the family had long resided, of any member having been thus affected.


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Whilst a child, both additional toes, which were attached by bones, were rudely cut off; but the stump of one grew again, and a second operation was performed in his thirty-third year. On the inheritance of other anomalies in the extremities, see Dr. Dobell, in vol. Transactions,' ; also Mr.

Sedgwick, in op. Dieffenbach 'Journ. Royal Geograph. Hilaire, 'Hist. Physiology,' , p. He has had fourteen children, of whom three have inherited additional digits; and one of them, when about six weeks old, was operated on by an eminent surgeon. The additional finger, which was attached by bone to the outer side of the hand, was removed at the joint; the wound healed, but immediately the digit began growing; and in about three months' time the stump was removed for the second time by the root.

But it has since grown again, and is now fully a third of an inch in length, including a bone; so that it will for the third time have to be operated on. Now the normal digits in adult man and other mammals, in birds, and, as I believe, in true reptiles, have no power of regrowth. The nearest approach to this power is exhibited by the occasional reappearance in man of imperfect nails on the stumps of his fingers after amputation. Simpson 34 has several times observed arms which had been cut off in the womb by bands of false membrane, and which had grown again to a certain extent.

In one instance, the extremity was "divided into three minute nodules, on two of which small points of nails could be detected;" so that these nodules clearly represented fingers in process of regrowth. When, however, we descend to the lower vertebrate classes, which are generally looked at as representing the higher classes in their embryonic condition, we find ample powers of regrowth. Spallanzani 35 cut off the legs and tail of a salamander six times, and Bonnet eight times, successively, and they were reproduced. An additional digit beyond the proper number was occasionally formed after Bonnet had cut off or had divided longitudinally the hand or foot, and in one instance three additional digits were thus formed.

Briggs and Mr. Buckland, when portions of the pectoral and tail fins of various fresh-.

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A thrush, however, was exhibited before the British Association at Hull, in , which had lost its tarsus, and this member, it was asserted, had been thrice reproduced: I presume it was lost each time by disease. Maty, , p. See an excellent discussion on this whole subject by Dr. Carpenter in his 'Princ. Spallanzani has made similar observations. From these several facts we may infer that supernumerary digits in man retain to a certain extent an embryonic condition, and that they resemble in this respect the normal digits and limbs in the lower vertebrate classes.

They also resemble the digits of some of the lower animals in the number exceeding five; for no mammal, bird, existing reptile, or amphibian unless the tubercle on the hind feet of the toad and other tailless Batrachians be viewed as a digit has more than five; whilst fishes sometimes have in their pectoral fins as many as twenty metacarpal and phalangeal bones, which, together with the bony filaments, apparently represent our digits with their nails.

So, again, in certain extinct reptiles, namely, the Ichthyopterygia, "the digits may be seven, eight, or nine in number, a significant mark," says Professor Owen, "of piscine affinity. We encounter much difficulty in attempting to reduce these various facts to any rule or law. The inconstant number of the additional digits—their irregular attachment to either the inner or outer margin of the hand—the gradation which can be traced from a mere loose rudiment of a single digit to a completely double hand—the occasional appearance of additional digits in the salamander after a limb has been amputated—these various facts appear to indicate mere fluctuating monstrosity; and this perhaps is all that can be safely said.

Nevertheless, as supernumerary digits in the higher animals, from their power of regrowth and from the number thus acquired exceeding five, partake of the nature of the digits in the lower vertebrate animals;—as they occur by no means rarely, and are transmitted with remarkable strength, though perhaps not more strongly than some other anomalies;—and as with animals which have fewer than five digits, when an additional one appears it is generally due to the development of a visible rudiment;—we are led in all cases to suspect, that, although no actual rudiment can be detected, yet that a latent tendency to the formation of an additional digit exists in all mammals, including man.

On this view, as we shall more plainly see in the. I may here allude to a class of facts closely allied to, but somewhat different from, ordinary cases of inheritance. Sir H. Holland 40 states that brothers and sisters of the same family are frequently affected, often at about the same age, by the same peculiar disease, not known to have previously occurred in the family. He specifies the occurrence of diabetes in three brothers under ten years old; he also remarks that children of the same family often exhibit in common infantile diseases the same peculiar symptoms.

My father mentioned to me the case of four brothers who died between the ages of sixty and seventy, in the same highly peculiar comatose state. An instance has been already given of supernumerary digits appearing in four children out of six in a previously unaffected family. Devay states 41 that two brothers married two sisters, their first-cousins, none of the four nor any relation being an albino; but the seven children produced from this double marriage were all perfect albinoes.

Some of these cases, as Mr. Sedgwick 42 has shown, are probably the result of reversion to a remote ancestor, of whom no record had been preserved; and all these cases are so far directly connected with inheritance that no doubt the children inherited a similar constitution from their parents, and, from being exposed to nearly similar conditions of life, it is not surprising that they should be affected in the same manner and at the same period of life.

Most of the facts hitherto given have served to illustrate the force of inheritance, but we must now consider cases, grouped as well as the subject allows into classes, showing how feeble, capricious, or deficient the power of inheritance sometimes is. When a new peculiarity first appears, we can never predict whether it will be inherited. If both parents from their birth present. See , also, Dr. Review,' July, , pp. We have seen that variegation is transmitted much more feebly by seed from a branch which had become variegated through bud-variation, than from plants which were variegated as seedlings.

With most plants the power of transmission notoriously depends on some innate capacity in the individual: thus Vilmorin 43 raised from a peculiarly coloured balsam some seedlings, which all resembled their parent; but of these seedlings some failed to transmit the new character, whilst others transmitted it to all their descendants during several successive generations. So again with a variety of the rose, two plants alone out of six were found by Vilmorin to be capable of transmitting the desired character.

The weeping or pendulous growth of trees is strongly inherited in some cases, and, without any assignable reason, feebly in other cases. I have selected this character as an instance of capricious inheritance, because it is certainly not proper to the parent-species, and because, both sexes being borne on the same tree, both tend to transmit the same character. Even supposing that there may have been in some instances crossing with adjoining trees of the same species, it is not probable that all the seedlings would have been thus affected.

At Moccas Court there is a famous weeping oak; many of its branches "are 30 feet long, and no thicker in any part of this length than a common rope:" this tree transmits its weeping character, in a greater or less degree, to all its seedlings; some of the young oaks being so flexible that they have to be supported by props; others not showing the weeping tendency till about twenty years old. MacNab, 45 seedlings from a magnificent weeping birch Betula alba , in the Botanic Garden at Edinburgh, grew for the first ten or fifteen years upright, but then all became weepers like their parent.

A peach with pendulous branches, like those of the weeping willow, has been found capable of propagation by seed. These facts, it might have been thought, would have been sufficient to render it probable that a pendulous habit would in all cases be strictly inherited. But let us look to the other side.

MacNab 48 sowed seeds of the weeping beech Fagus sylvatica , but succeeded in raising only common beeches. Rivers, at my request, raised a number of seedlings from three distinct varieties of weeping elm; and at least one of the parent-trees was so situated that it could not have been crossed by any other elm; but none of the young trees, now about a foot or two in height, show the least signs of weeping.

Rivers formerly sowed above twenty thousand seeds of the weeping ash Fraxinus excelsior , and not a single seedling was in the least degree pendulous: in Germany, M. Borchmeyer raised a thousand seedlings, with the same result. Nevertheless, Mr. Anderson, of the Chelsea Botanic Garden, by sowing seed from a weeping ash, which was found before the year , in Cambridgeshire, raised several pendulous trees.

But the crowning case, communicated to me by Mr. Rivers, which shows how capricious is the inheritance of a pendulous habit, is that a variety of another species of ash F. Rivers, transmit its character to one seedling out of above twenty thousand; whereas the weeping variety of a second species of ash, which could not, whilst grown in the same garden, retain its own weeping character, transmitted to its seedlings the pendulous habit in excess! Many analogous facts could be given, showing how apparently capricious is the principle of inheritance.

All the seedlings from a variety of the Barberry B. Not one out of a hundred seedlings of a variety of the Cerasus padus , with yellow fruit, bore yellow fruit: one-twelfth of the seedlings of the variety of Cornus mascula , with yellow fruit, came true: 50 and lastly, all the trees raised by my father from a yellow-berried holly Ilex aquifolium ,. Leighton, 'Flora of Shropshire,' p. Magazine,' vol. De Candolle, 'Bot. Vilmorin 51 observed in a bed of Saponaria calabrica an extremely dwarf variety, and raised from it a large number of seedlings; some of these partially resembled their parent, and he selected their seed; but the grandchildren were not in the least dwarfed: on the other hand, he observed a stunted and bushy variety of Tagetes signata growing in the midst of the common varieties by which it was probably crossed; for most of the seedlings raised from this plant were intermediate in character, only two perfectly resembling their parent; but seed saved from these two plants reproduced the new variety so truly, that hardly any selection has since been necessary.

Flowers transmit their colour truly, or most capriciously. Many annuals come true: thus I purchased German seeds of thirty-four named sub-varieties of one race of ten-week stocks Matthiola annua , and raised a hundred and forty plants, all of which, with the exception of a single plant, came true.

In saying this, however, it must be understood that I could distinguish only twenty kinds out of the thirty-four named sub-varieties; nor did the colour of the flower always correspond with the name affixed to the packet; but I say that they came true, because in each of the thirty-six short rows every plant was absolutely alike, with the one single exception.

Again, I procured packets of German seed of twenty-five named varieties of common and quilled asters, and raised a hundred and twenty-four plants; of these, all except ten were true in the above limited sense; and I considered even a wrong shade of colour as false. It is a singular circumstance that white varieties generally transmit their colour much more truly than any other variety. This fact probably stands in close relation with one observed by Verlot, 52 namely, that flowers which are normally white rarely vary into any other colour.

I have found that the white varieties of Delphinium consolida and of the Stock are the truest. It is, indeed, sufficient to look through a nurseryman's seed-list, to see the large number of white varieties which can be propagated by seed. The several coloured varieties of the sweet-pea Lathyrus odoratus are very true; but I hear from Mr. Masters, of Canterbury, who has particularly attended to this plant, that the white variety is the truest.

The hyacinth, when propagated by seed, is extremely inconstant in colour, but "white hyacinths almost always give by seed white-flowered plants;" 53 and Mr. Masters informs me that the yellow varieties also reproduce their colour, but of different shades. On the other hand, pink and blue varieties, the latter being the natural colour, are not nearly so true: hence, as Mr.

Masters has remarked to me, "we see that a garden variety may acquire a more permanent habit than a natural species;" but it should have been added, that this occurs under cultivation, and therefore under changed conditions. With many flowers, especially perennials, nothing can be more fluctuating than the colour of the seedlings, as is notoriously the case with verbenas, carnations, dahlias, cinerarias, and others. In most cases the extremely fluctuating colour of seedling plants is probably in chief part due to crosses between differently-coloured varieties during previous generations.

It is almost certain that this is the case with the polyanthus and coloured primrose Primula veris and vulgaris , from their reciprocally dimorphic structure; 55 and these are plants which florists speak of as never coming true by seed: but if care be taken to prevent crossing, neither species is by any means very inconstant in colour; thus I raised twenty-three plants from a purple primrose, fertilised by Mr.

Scott with its own pollen, and eighteen came up purple of different shades, and only five reverted to the ordinary yellow colour: again, I raised twenty plants from a bright-red cowslip, similarly treated by Mr. Scott, and every one perfectly resembled its parent in colour, as likewise did, with the exception of a single plant, 73 grandchildren. Even with the most variable flowers, it is probable that each delicate shade of colour might be permanently fixed so as to be transmitted by seed, by cultivation in the same soil, by long-continued selection, and especially by the prevention of crosses.

I infer this from certain annual larkspurs Delphinium consolida and ajacis , of which common seedlings present a greater diversity of colour than any other plant known to me; yet on procuring seed of five named German varieties of D. A distinguished botanist maintains that the annual species of Delphinium are always self-fertilised; therefore I may mention that thirty-two flowers on a branch of D. As with flowers, so with our domesticated animals, no character is more variable than colour, and probably in no animal more so than with the horse. Yet with a little care in breeding, it appears that races of any colour might soon be formed.

Hofacker gives the result of matching two hundred and sixteen mares of four different colours with like-coloured stallions, without regard to the colour of their ancestors; and of the two hundred and sixteen colts born, eleven alone failed to inherit the colour of their parents: Autenrieth and Ammon assert that, after two generations, colts of a uniform colour are produced with certainty. In a few rare cases peculiarities fail to be inherited, apparently from the force of inheritance being too strong.

I have been assured by breeders of the canary-bird that to get a good jonquil-. So again, if two crested canaries are paired, the young birds rarely inherit this character: 57 for in crested birds a narrow space of bare skin is left on the back of the head, where the feathers are up-turned to form the crest, and, when both parents are thus characterised, the bareness becomes excessive, and the crest itself fails to be developed. Hewitt, speaking of Laced Sebright Bantams, says 58 that, "why this should be so, I know not, but I am confident that those that are best laced frequently produce offspring very far from perfect in their markings, whilst those exhibited by myself, which have so often proved successful, were bred from the union of heavily-laced birds with those that were scarcely sufficiently laced.

It is a singular fact that, although several deaf-mutes often occur in the same family, and though their cousins and other relations are often in the same condition, yet their parents are very rarely deaf-mutes. To give a single instance: not one scholar out of , who were at the same time in the London Institution, was the child of parents similarly afflicted.

So again, when a male or a female deaf-mute marries a sound person, their children are most rarely affected: in Ireland out of children thus produced one alone was mute. Even when both parents have been deaf-mutes, as in the case of forty-one marriages in the United States and of six in Ireland, only two deaf and dumb children were produced. Sedgwick, 59 in commenting on this remarkable and fortunate failure in the power of transmission in the direct line, remarks that it may possibly be owing to "excess having reversed the action of some natural law in development.

With respect to the inheritance of structures mutilated by injuries or altered by disease it is difficult to come to any. Deutschlands,' b. Brent, a great breeder of canaries, informs me that he believes that these statements are correct. Sedgwick has given such full details on this subject, with ample references, that I need refer to no other authorities. In some cases mutilations have been practised for a vast number of generations without any inherited result. Godron has remarked 60 that different races of man have from time immemorial knocked out their upper incisors, cut off joints of their fingers, made holes of immense size through the lobes of their ears or through their nostrils, made deep gashes in various parts of their bodies, and there is no reason whatever to suppose that these mutilations have ever been inherited.

Adhesions due to inflammation and pits from the small-pox and formerly many consecutive generations must have been thus pitted are not inherited. With respect to Jews, I have been assured by three medical men of the Jewish faith that circumcision, which has been practised for so many ages, has produced no inherited effect; Blumenbach, on the other hand, asserts 61 that in Germany Jews are often born in a condition rendering circumcision difficult, so that a name is there applied to them signifying "born circumcised.

Nevertheless, Dr. Prosper Lucas has given, on good authorities, such a long list of inherited injuries, that it is difficult not to believe in them. Thus, a cow that had lost a horn from an accident with consequent suppuration, produced three calves which were hornless on the same side of the head. With the horse, there seems hardly a doubt that bony exostoses on the legs, caused by too much travelling on hard roads, are inherited.

Blumenbach records the case of a man who had his little finger on the right hand almost cut off, and which in consequence grew crooked, and his sons had the same finger on the same hand similarly crooked.