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Conventional Practice Sets Analog Circuits. Conventional Practice Sets Digital Circuits. Despite the increasing number of female leaders in the world, only a small fraction come from non-westernized cultures. It is important to note that although the barriers listed below may be more severe in non-western culture, it does not imply that westernized cultures do not have these barriers as well.
This aims to compare the differences between the two.
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Research and Literature Although there have been many studies done on leadership for women in the past decade, very little research has been done for women in paternalistic cultures. The literature and research done for women to emerge into a society that prefers males is lacking. This ultimately hinders women from knowing how to reach their individual leadership goals, and fails to educate the male counterparts in this disparity.
Maternity Leave Studies have shown the importance of longer paid maternity leave and the positive effects it has on a female employee's mental health and return to work. In Sweden, it was shown that the increased flexibility in timing for mothers to return to work, decreased the odds of poor mental health reports. In these non-western cultures that mostly follow paternalism, the lack of knowledge on the benefits of maternity leave impact the support given to the women during this important time in their life.
Society and Laws Certain countries that follow paternalism, such as India, still allow for women to be treated unjustly. Child marriage and minor punishments for perpetrators in crime against women, shape the society's view on how females should be treated. This can prevent women from feeling comfortable to speak out in both a personal and professional setting. Glass Ceilings and Glass Cliffs Women who work in a very paternalistic culture or industry e. This association is often due to the mentality that only males carry leadership characteristics. The glass cliff term refers to undesired projects that are often given to women because they have an increase in risk of failure.
These undesired projects are given to female employees where they are more likely to fail and leave the organization. To facilitate successful performance it is important to understand and accurately measure leadership performance. Job performance generally refers to behavior that is expected to contribute to organizational success Campbell, Campbell identified a number of specific types of performance dimensions; leadership was one of the dimensions that he identified.
There is no consistent, overall definition of leadership performance Yukl, Many distinct conceptualizations are often lumped together under the umbrella of leadership performance , including outcomes such as leader effectiveness , leader advancement, and leader emergence Kaiser et al. For instance, leadership performance may be used to refer to the career success of the individual leader, performance of the group or organization, or even leader emergence.
Each of these measures can be considered conceptually distinct. While these aspects may be related, they are different outcomes and their inclusion should depend on the applied or research focus. In evaluating this type of leader performance, two general strategies are typically used. Most theories in the 20th century argued that great leaders were born, not made. Current studies have indicated that leadership is much more complex and cannot be boiled down to a few key traits of an individual. Years of observation and study have indicated that one such trait or a set of traits does not make an extraordinary leader.
What scholars have been able to arrive at is that leadership traits of an individual do not change from situation to situation; such traits include intelligence, assertiveness, or physical attractiveness. The following summarizes the main leadership traits found in research by Jon P. Determination and drive include traits such as initiative, energy, assertiveness, perseverance and sometimes dominance. People with these traits often tend to wholeheartedly pursue their goals, work long hours, are ambitious, and often are very competitive with others.
Cognitive capacity includes intelligence, analytical and verbal ability, behavioral flexibility, and good judgment.
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Individuals with these traits are able to formulate solutions to difficult problems, work well under stress or deadlines, adapt to changing situations, and create well-thought-out plans for the future. Howell provides examples of Steve Jobs and Abraham Lincoln as encompassing the traits of determination and drive as well as possessing cognitive capacity, demonstrated by their ability to adapt to their continuously changing environments.
Self-confidence encompasses the traits of high self-esteem, assertiveness, emotional stability, and self-assurance. Individuals who are self-confident do not doubt themselves or their abilities and decisions; they also have the ability to project this self-confidence onto others, building their trust and commitment. Integrity is demonstrated in individuals who are truthful, trustworthy, principled, consistent, dependable, loyal, and not deceptive. Leaders with integrity often share these values with their followers, as this trait is mainly an ethics issue. It is often said that these leaders keep their word and are honest and open with their cohorts.
Sociability describes individuals who are friendly, extroverted, tactful, flexible, and interpersonally competent. Such a trait enables leaders to be accepted well by the public, use diplomatic measures to solve issues, as well as hold the ability to adapt their social persona to the situation at hand. According to Howell, Mother Teresa is an exceptional example who embodies integrity, assertiveness, and social abilities in her diplomatic dealings with the leaders of the world. Few great leaders encompass all of the traits listed above, but many have the ability to apply a number of them to succeed as front-runners of their organization or situation.
One of the more recent definitions of leadership comes from Werner Erhard , Michael C. Jensen , Steve Zaffron, and Kari Granger who describe leadership as "an exercise in language that results in the realization of a future that wasn't going to happen anyway, which future fulfills or contributes to fulfilling the concerns of the relevant parties This definition ensures that leadership is talking about the future and includes the fundamental concerns of the relevant parties.
This differs from relating to the relevant parties as "followers" and calling up an image of a single leader with others following. Rather, a future that fulfills on the fundamental concerns of the relevant parties indicates the future that wasn't going to happen is not the "idea of the leader", but rather is what emerges from digging deep to find the underlying concerns of those who are impacted by the leadership.
An organization that is established as an instrument or means for achieving defined objectives has been referred to as a formal organization. Its design specifies how goals are subdivided and reflected in subdivisions of the organization. Divisions, departments, sections, positions, jobs, and tasks make up this work structure. Thus, the formal organization is expected to behave impersonally in regard to relationships with clients or with its members. According to Weber's definition, entry and subsequent advancement is by merit or seniority. Employees receive a salary and enjoy a degree of tenure that safeguards them from the arbitrary influence of superiors or of powerful clients.
The higher one's position in the hierarchy, the greater one's presumed expertise in adjudicating problems that may arise in the course of the work carried out at lower levels of the organization. It is this bureaucratic structure that forms the basis for the appointment of heads or chiefs of administrative subdivisions in the organization and endows them with the authority attached to their position. In contrast to the appointed head or chief of an administrative unit, a leader emerges within the context of the informal organization that underlies the formal structure.
The informal organization expresses the personal objectives and goals of the individual membership. Their objectives and goals may or may not coincide with those of the formal organization. The informal organization represents an extension of the social structures that generally characterize human life — the spontaneous emergence of groups and organizations as ends in themselves.
In prehistoric times, humanity was preoccupied with personal security, maintenance, protection, and survival. Now humanity spends a major portion of waking hours working for organizations. The need to identify with a community that provides security, protection, maintenance, and a feeling of belonging has continued unchanged from prehistoric times.
This need is met by the informal organization and its emergent, or unofficial, leaders. Leaders emerge from within the structure of the informal organization. Their personal qualities, the demands of the situation, or a combination of these and other factors attract followers who accept their leadership within one or several overlay structures. Instead of the authority of position held by an appointed head or chief, the emergent leader wields influence or power. Influence is the ability of a person to gain co-operation from others by means of persuasion or control over rewards.
Power is a stronger form of influence because it reflects a person's ability to enforce action through the control of a means of punishment. A leader is a person who influences a group of people towards a specific result. It is not dependent on title or formal authority. Ogbonnia defines an effective leader "as an individual with the capacity to consistently succeed in a given condition and be viewed as meeting the expectations of an organization or society.
However, only authority of position has the backing of formal sanctions. It follows that whoever wields personal influence and power can legitimize this only by gaining a formal position in the hierarchy, with commensurate authority. Every organization needs leaders at every level. Over the years the philosophical terminology of " management " and "leadership" have, in the organizational context, been used both as synonyms and with clearly differentiated meanings. Debate is fairly common about whether the use of these terms should be restricted, and generally reflects an awareness of the distinction made by Burns between "transactional" leadership characterized by emphasis on procedures, contingent reward, management by exception and "transformational" leadership characterized by charisma, personal relationships, creativity.
In contrast to individual leadership, some organizations have adopted group leadership. In this so-called shared leadership , more than one person provides direction to the group as a whole. It is furthermore characterized by shared responsibility, cooperation and mutual influence among the team members. Others may see the traditional leadership of a boss as costing too much in team performance. In some situations, the team members best able to handle any given phase of the project become the temporary leaders. Additionally, as each team member has the opportunity to experience the elevated level of empowerment, it energizes staff and feeds the cycle of success.
Leaders who demonstrate persistence, tenacity, determination, and synergistic communication skills will bring out the same qualities in their groups. Good leaders use their own inner mentors to energize their team and organizations and lead a team to achieve success. Self-leadership is a process that occurs within an individual, rather than an external act. It is an expression of who we are as people. Mark van Vugt and Anjana Ahuja in Naturally Selected: The Evolutionary Science of Leadership present evidence of leadership in non-human animals, from ants and bees to baboons and chimpanzees.
They suggest that leadership has a long evolutionary history and that the same mechanisms underpinning leadership in humans appear in other social species, too. In a study Mark van Vugt and his team looked at the relation between basal testosterone and leadership versus dominance. They found that testosterone correlates with dominance but not with leadership.
This was replicated in a sample of managers in which there was no relation between hierarchical position and testosterone level. Many animals apart from apes are territorial, compete, exhibit violence, and have a social structure controlled by a dominant male lions, wolves, etc. However, we must examine other species as well, including elephants which are matriarchal and follow an alpha female , meerkats which are likewise matriarchal , sheep which follow castrated bell wethers and many others.
By comparison, bonobos , the second-closest species-relatives of humans, do not unite behind the chief male of the land. The bonobos show deference to an alpha or top-ranking female that, with the support of her coalition of other females, can prove as strong as the strongest male. Thus, if leadership amounts to getting the greatest number of followers, then among the bonobos, a female almost always exerts the strongest and most effective leadership.
Incidentally, not all scientists agree on the allegedly peaceful nature of the bonobo or with its reputation as a " hippie chimp". Leadership, although largely talked about, has been described as one of the least understood concepts across all cultures and civilizations. Over the years, many researchers have stressed the prevalence of this misunderstanding, stating that the existence of several flawed assumptions, or myths, concerning leadership often interferes with individuals' conception of what leadership is all about Gardner, ; Bennis, According to some, leadership is determined by distinctive dispositional characteristics present at birth e.
However, according to Forsyth there is evidence to show that leadership also develops through hard work and careful observation. In actuality, individuals who seek group consent and strive to act in the best interests of others can also become effective leaders e. The validity of the assertion that groups flourish when guided by effective leaders can be illustrated using several examples. For instance, according to Baumeister et al. However, the difference leaders make is not always positive in nature. Leaders who focus on personal gain by employing stringent and manipulative leadership styles often make a difference, but usually do so through negative means.
In Western cultures it is generally assumed that group leaders make all the difference when it comes to group influence and overall goal-attainment. Although common, this romanticized view of leadership i. For this reason, it is unwarranted to assume that all leaders are in complete control of their groups' achievements.
Despite preconceived notions, not all groups need have a designated leader. Groups that are primarily composed of women,   are limited in size, are free from stressful decision-making,  or only exist for a short period of time e. Although research has indicated that group members' dependence on group leaders can lead to reduced self-reliance and overall group strength,  most people actually prefer to be led than to be without a leader Berkowitz, Group members tend to be more contented and productive when they have a leader to guide them.
In most cases, these teams are tasked to operate in remote and changeable environments with limited support or backup action environments. Leadership of people in these environments requires a different set of skills to that of front line management. These leaders must effectively operate remotely and negotiate the needs of the individual, team, and task within a changeable environment.
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This has been termed action oriented leadership. Some examples of demonstrations of action oriented leadership include extinguishing a rural fire, locating a missing person, leading a team on an outdoor expedition, or rescuing a person from a potentially hazardous environment. This method of just-in-time action oriented development and deployment allowed remote plant sites to deploy up-to-date software patches frequently and without dependency on core team deployment schedules satisfying the clients need to rapidly patch production environment bugs as needed.
Carlyle 's " Great Man theory ", which emphasized the role of leading individuals, met opposition in the 19th and 20th centuries. Karl Popper noted in that leaders can mislead and make mistakes - he warns against deferring to "great men". Noam Chomsky  and others  have subjected the concept of leadership to critical thinking and have provided an analysis that asserts that people abrogate their responsibility to think and will actions for themselves.
While the conventional view of leadership may satisfy people who "want to be told what to do", these critics say that one should question why they are being subjected to a will or intellect other than their own if the leader is not a subject-matter expert SME. Concepts such as autogestion , employeeship , and common civic virtue , etc. Similarly, various historical calamities such as World War II can be attributed  to a misplaced reliance on the principle of leadership as exhibited in dictatorship.
The idea of leaderism paints leadership and its excesses in a negative light. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Leader disambiguation.
Basic types. Applied psychology. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Managerial grid model. Main articles: Fiedler contingency model , Vroom—Yetton decision model , path—goal theory , and situational leadership theory. Main article: Functional leadership model. Main article: Three Levels of Leadership model.
Main articles: Transactional leadership and Transformational leadership. Main article: Leader—member exchange theory. See also: Emotional intelligence. Main article: Leadership styles. Main article: Task-oriented and relationship-oriented leadership. Main article: Paternalism. This section relies largely or entirely on a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources.
February An integrative theory of leadership. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. Team Performance Management. Sanskrit Text Book -9th Grade. Government of Karnataka, India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 17 May