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Elliott J. Robin L. Fairbairn also understood that it was difficult to attack the eyes directly due to our natural flinch response.

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The same holds true for the TC strike in as much as the target for this in say a frontal attack as suggested by Fairbairn, is the general jaw and facial area, impacting hard with a clawed palm heel leaving the eyes as an incidental secondary target and a reliable chance of impacting an eye. With that said our goal for this piston like strike should be to simply shake the brain through maximum impact, therefore any where around the head and skull will make a suitable target area.

The second method that is worth a mention here is Kelly MacCann's method of striking from a hands high kind of fence using a whipping motion as if throwing a baseball. Simply drop your body weight forward and whip the hand straight down and through the target whilst maintaining a clawed palm formation. The target here is the facial area using the face smash to plunge through.

Both methods have merit but I personally like the piston style better and I like to use it as a multiple strike by first striking with my strong rear hand and following up by closing on my opponent in order to clinch with him using my off hand so that he can't get away from me. This is then followed by pumping further strikes into my target whilst maintaining my grip and using forward pressure. My thinking here is to hit hard, harder, hardest as I move forward replacing my aggressor's foot steps with my own.

As far as clinching is concerned it really doesn't matter what I grab, his shoulder, the back of his head, even his clothing all work fine so long as I can get a grip of him and prevent his retreat.

William Baker

This is a great method to use as a pre-emptive attack that will only cease when the man is down or as a reaction to say a straight punch where you would strive to cover, clear his arm and counter with multiple piston strikes whilst maintaining your grip on whatever's available. It also works well when grabbed on say your upper arm sleeve or lapel where you can trap his limb to keep him close and smash in with your free striking hand until the job is done.

Drill 1: For our first drill we will practice with a partner using control, the aim here is to strike with the TC off your rear hand as a starter for ten followed by closing on your aggressor and. Here your follow up strikes will depend on the energy your opponent gives you; for example if the first shot hits the face driving his head straight back your next target would be multiple chin-jabs straight up and under his jaw. Or as another example; let's say that as your first strike goes in he turns his head away slightly so that you impact the side of his head, that's fine now as you close and grab your next target area will be the side and back of his skull as this is the energy he has given you.

In this case you will notice how you will have to articulate your elbow slightly outward in order to clear his shoulder and to allow maximum impact to and through the target area. Again remember forward pressure is the key. Have your partner vary his response to the first shot and adapt your follow up strikes based on that. Drill 2: After controlled partner practice it is important that we train for impact, after all we want to train our muscle memory to go with the majority and for Combatives this must be maximum impact through our target.

Have your partner hold a single focus pad and hit will your best shot off your rear hand, from here close on him and grab the back of his pad holding wrist, from here fire in 3 further TC strikes using the concept of hard, harder, hardest making sure that you use forward pressure and drop step for each of your strikes. Remember you should replace your partner's foot steps with your own. A good gauge is if you start at the front edge of a mat you should finish at the back of it. Debrief: I will finish by showing you a method that I have used on the door a couple of times in live situations both times called for a slight hold off in power due to the fact of striving for damage limitation but worked real well none the less.

I mention this in order to demonstrate the versatility of this most basic and functional of Combatives strikes the Tiger's Claw, indeed a worthy addition to your tool box. Cupped Hand Blow: This is basically an open hand slap that can be used in a variety of ways. There is a slight cupping of the hand that is achieved by allowing the fingers and thumb stay together in a relaxed curve. This cupping action magnifies the impact of the strike. The target area is the entire side of the head. The ear and the side of the neck are particularly vulnerable but any where on the side of the face with produce a deep shock force to the central nervous system.

This is due to the impact received by the large number of nerve endings in the facial area. From a natural position that allows you to control the space between you and your potential aggressor, simply throw the cupped hand blow from the side of your hip straight to the target allow your body to move in the direction of the strike by whipping in your hips just before the blow lands. This shot is best set up by using dialogue to ask a question with the hands held as if talking in exclamation; such as '' look mate are you gonna calm down?

Method of practice: This is also known as the double ear box or the thunder-clap. This strike is thrown from hands down by your sides, straight to the target which includes both ears and both sides of neck. If you throw the strike from a fence you will need to cock yours hands slightly before you strike. The best way to disguise this set up is to turn your palms out slightly as you ask your opponent a brain engaging question this will also act as a trigger for your attack which will eliminate any indecision of when to strike on your part.

This is a good tactic to use with all your strikes and should be bought into play any time you practice your basic strikes on impact equipment such as the heavy bag or the focus- pads. Double cupped hand blow. The Swivel Punch This is a punch delivered with a vertical fist accompanied by momentum and full body weight. This punch was developed by U. Charlie who weighed no more than lbs was known for his powerful swivel punch, one time he dealt with a lb plus karate man who came to Charlie's school in New York and challenged him to a match fight.

Charlie gave him a NY telephone directory and asked the man if he could first demonstrate his swivel punch, the man agreed and held the phone book against his chest as Charlie proceeded to punch him clear across the room. The man picked himself up, bowed graciously and left. Here is the legendary Charlie Nelson following up with his swivel punch after preceding the punch with a chop up and under the nose.

This could be used to a frontal assailant or to someone slightly to your flank as if you were approached from the side. In this example I am punching with my left hand and my right lead foot is moved in a circle to the out side of your opponent's right foot as you. Punch with a vertical fist as if punching through the centre of your opponent's chest. The sharp swivel of the body and the snap of the hips a split second before the punch is delivered off a recoil from the shoulder allows the full transference of body weight through the target.

The mechanics of the punch are quite similar to Peter Consterdine's double hip vertical punch. Here are a couple of examples of the swivel punch in application the first as a pre-emptive strike and the second as a reaction to a double grab by seizing one hand and punching the solar plexus with the other. Here is an example of the shin kick used to counter a hair grab, place both hands on top of the aggressor's hand to trap it in place from here smash the inside edge of your boot straight into his shin bone being sure to drop body weight and stomp through the target.

Method of practice: The shin kick is delivered by taking a slight step forward with your non-kicking leg followed by stomping forward and slightly downward with the inside boot edge of your kicking foot. The kick is aimed at the aggressor's shin any where from just above the ankle to just below the knee cap.

The purpose of the slight step preceding the kick is to allow you to get body weight and momentum behind it. Performed correctly the shin kick will quite literally either blow the aggressor's legs out from under him or severely hyper extend his knee resulting in a fight stopping injury. Cycling: Use your lead hand as an off hand face smash straight into any available target followed by a hammer-fist strike, followed by another face smash and another hammer-fist.

Both hands are sent out in a piston like fashion. The off hand is striking and manipulating the head as the hammer-fists hones in for the strike. Here is an example of cycling, shoot in an off-hand face smash to a hammer-fist strike then continue striking in a multiple fashion. Your off hand manipulates the aggressor into position for your hammer-fist blows. Mobile phone sequence 1: In this example an aggressor has encroached on our space, we have a phone in our hand and.

From here we are going to use a little deception by asking the aggressor a question as we open the hands as if talking in exclamation. From here we explode forward with exactly the same motion as for the double slap only this time we are adding the top edge of the phone to strike one side of the head whilst simultaneously slapping the other side of the head with the other hand.

Mobile phone sequence 2: In this sequence we are taking our basic gross motor strikes and applying them to an improvised weapon. In this case we are using a continuous attack using the bottom edge of a mobile phone for a series of cycling Hammer-fist strikes until the threat is eliminated. Here I am controlling space with my fence but have suddenly felt my aggressor crash forward in an attempt to close me down; my lead fence hand acts as a sensory antenna and in this case collapses into a cross cover as I fire my chin-jab straight up his centre line.

The cross guard has also placed me in a chambered position for the Ax hand strike to follow as I flank my opponent. From here I maintain a grip on my aggressor as I finish the altercation with hard multiple Tiger's claw strikes to the back of his skull. Job done! In this sequence demonstrated on a Spar-Pro dummy by CQB instructor John Deacon; John starts with a chin-jab then in one motion he rips down on the lip and throws a lead elbow strike.

Notice how all strikes are powered by correct body mechanics employing drop step and hip torque. Here we can see the same sequence in application with a partner. Note that no sequence attack is ever set in stone. They can all be equally as effective used in part, as in the top three photographs or as the whole sequence as depicted here. Each of these attacks are simply random sequences that flow together in a logical way how you continue your attack after your initial pre-emptive strike will depend on the energy you receive from the recipient. Pre-emptive attack sequence two: Here we see my student Neil working a nice little pre-emptive flow on one of our home made training dummies.

Usually I like to check the arm on the chin-jab but with this example I found it works better to slap the off hand into the lower back to help break his structure. This was similar to the method taught by Drexel Biddle. From here he drops steps violently forward and throws a sharp, snappy downward hammer-fist strike to the high line off the lead hand. I got this from Richard Dimitri who said that one of his students had broke a guy's nose to great effect with this little shot certainly good enough for our starter for ten.

From here I found that a wheeling elbow with the opposite arm flows real well as a follow up. Note; that if after the first shot your aggressor starts to stumble back out of range; then you must step forward to catch him as you elbow, so that now you land with the same leg forward as for your elbow strike. From here flank with an off hand tiger's jab and finish with cycling. In other words you are going to trap, jam or seize the said part of the body in order to prevent it being used against you in a Combative sense.

Or as a means to remove a temporary obstruction. In traditional systems this is often practiced from a reference point or from within the confines of a sensitivity drill such as chi-sau or Hubud. Such drills along with reference point trapping are very useful for developing the attribute of tactile sensitivity. Just take a look at some of old Chinese or Filipino masters whose speed and strength has long since left them and you will see that the attribute of tactile awareness has stayed with some of these guys into their 90's. This is of course completely secondary and irrelevant to the importance of gross motor Combative skill.

With that said I personally found tactile awareness extremely useful on the door particularly if I was working off the fence in a tactile way or actually escorting someone out in more of a coaxing manner with light touch. From here if they started to walk most would simply just keep walking, but if the subject decided to become Combative I would instantly feel their intention and more often than not found I was one jump a head of them, in terms of response simply because I was hands on.

Don't misunderstand me if the threat was high enough it would rarely get to the point of getting hands on in a tactile sense. In such a scenario I would make sure that my first touch to the recipient was significant, so ballistic striking was the order of the day there. In terms of actually trapping or immobilising the individual, anytime that you stifle someone's movement you are trapping.

Inspite of the fact that trapping is often ridiculed and dismissed as impossible to pull off in a live situation you will often see examples of the same in real fights. If someone punches someone else in the face and the shot has not put them down, then out of sheer desperation and instinct to prevent getting punched again the pair will quite often clash. This is an attempt to stifle movement which will often unknowingly trap limbs. You can see similar examples in the ring every time two boxer's clinch they do so in an attempt to stifle the action of getting punched.

In a live confrontation such a clash is only there for a. Trapping can work in such a situation where a punch has been momentarily met with a flinch response, in other words the arm comes up and there is this co-heision for a split second.


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This signifies about 2 percent of the confrontation, in other words it may or may not happen. If it does and you have tactile awareness down as a developed and instinctive attribute then this is the point that you might pull off a trap. Bearing in mind of course the objective is not to trap, the objective is simply just to hit; but in such an example you may have to remove a temporary barrier in order to do so. If you practice good situational control i.

We often train this in class along with aggressive role play and the response is usually to power slap his arm clear and explode into a continuous attack off that. I have pulled off something similar on the door and quite literally blasted the guy clear off the entrance step and shut the door on him so yes trapping can work under certain conditions.

Example one:. In this example Simon is using a pointing finger gesture and his body language is aggressive. This kind of threat is often used as a probe preceding an attack; in this case a punch off the right hand. My hands are up in a natural non-aggressive fence which will allow me to operate before things escalate. My first motion is to slap Simon's hand aside momentarily trapping it to my shoulder; whilst simultaneously throwing a cupped hand blow to his right side high line, as I flank to avoid his right hand.

From here I snap him toward me into a tight clinch by pulling sharply from where my hands are. In this case my left is behind his neck and my right is in the crook of his elbow. Now I am in a strong position to control him and finish with my Close Quarter tools in this case multiple knees. Note that right from the off; my response is instantaneous and immediate for the simple reason that from this pointing threat display things can progress to the assault in a heart beat.

Therefore as soon as the barrier is cleared my only objective is to rag him into the clinch and strike. Example two: Here my aggressor has suddenly thrown up his hands into a guard after my attempt to diffuse the situation has failed. The indication is clear that my aggressor now wants to fight. Working from my same hands high fence I have taken a movement from Wing Chun called Jut Sau where I make a small and explosive slapping motion with both hands to take his guard hands down. This acts as a momentary distraction whilst clearing the high line for a Thunder clap to both ears.

From here I can clinch knee to the groin and snatch my opponent to the ground if the appropriate. Example three: Again here my aggressor has suddenly thrown up his hands into a guard after my attempt to diffuse the situation has failed. In this example I flank my aggressor by slapping his lead hand aside as I step forty five degrees to his flank. If facing him puts me at 12 O'clock then I am stepping to 2 o'clock in order to flank him. This method of using your foot work was a favourite of Charlie Nelson as was the follow up I am about to demonstrate. From here I maintain control of his arm and expose his flank and rear line for my attack.

Conclusion: So as you can see, possibilities for trapping or immobilising part or parts of your opponent's body do exist. But in conclusion I certainly would not prioritise training it as a priority over my basic hard skills and developing the ability to hit hard. Gross motor movement under pressure is where it's at. Anything else is incidental if not accidental so look at trapping as a small part of the equation but where possible always stick to your game plan; if you can't avoid, escape or de-escalate then hit the bastard first and finish it before it begins.

Dealing Wth Multiple Assailants. The priority in any potentially violent situation is always to avoid and escape. Being switched on and aware will allow you to spot most confrontations before they start. In a multiple assailant situation where escape is not available your only option is to be pre-emptive. If you wait to be attacked in the hope that you will be able to defend and then counter you will end up hospitalised or worse.

Every second that you delay you will end up fighting on more than one front. When they attack, it will be all at once and it will be ferocious. Your only chance is to hit first and to keep hitting until there is no more threat. You need to be single minded in your attacks and target selection, attack the eyes, throat, jaw and groin with viscious intent. Though the odds are stacked against you, don't succumb to negative thinking, determined tenacity is the order of the day.

Remember as a group, numbers alone give them the advantage that they need to over come a single defender. Using your options: Awareness is the greatest Self-defence tool that we have at our disposal. As said before your best option is always avoidance and escape.

You need to be street smart when you are out and about. The following scenario will give you a good idea of how being aware and street smart could really save your tail in a mass attack type of situation. The first intelligent thing to do is to position yourself where you can only be approached from the front an example might be to place your back to the bar or seat yourself with your back to the wall in a position where you could see a potential threat ahead of time.

An ashtray, a bottle, chair or bar stool all make excellent equalisers should such a desperate need arise. Here's the scenario; You've just witnessed some bloke head butt another patron. As soon as he hits the floor the attacker and his mate proceed to kick the man senseless and the whole affair is over in seconds. From here the initial aggressor starts to look around the room to see whose looking and just happens to make eye contact with you. He now considers the fact that because you have had the audacity to make eye contact with him that you are now a suitable candidate for a second victim.

He makes his approach which can only be frontal as you have positioned yourself with your back to the bar. After what you have just witnessed, you are aware that this is the start of a potentially violent confrontation. No dialogue is necessary. You must act now! You have already scoped the exit, if you can escape then now is the time. If not, act as soon as he approaches. Most fights will start with talking, as soon as he is in range he will be running his mouth off just before he attacks. Whether this is the case or not, don't talk, yell, cuss or push, just attack and hit first.

In this case you smash him in the face with the heavy ash tray that you noticed earlier placed next to you at the bar. This was a good shot. The first bloke is completely out of the game. Now if his mate starts, the encounter will now be a one on one, much better odds than the earlier two on one option. In this case you have managed to catch a hold of ash tray face before he hit the floor, using him as a barrier between you and his mate you ram him straight into the second aggressor shoving him backward into the nearest sharp edge.

From here you do a yard dash straight to and through the nearest exit to make your escape. This is only possible because you were aware and street smart.

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This scenario was fictional, but a plausible account of how having a game plan can save your hide in such a situation. We're not talking about being paranoid here, just street smart. If you practice this line of thinking when you are out and about it will soon become a habitual and natural part of your behaviour just like relaxed awareness. Practical drills : two against one In any situation where you are facing more than one individual it is absolutely vital that you gain a priority position. In the early interview stages of a confrontation those vital few seconds before the physical starts it is most probable that one of them usually the mouth, will engage you with some kind of introductory dialogue from a frontal position while his accomplice will move out to your flank in an attempt to blind side you with the classic sucker punch.

From here the second aggressor will join in almost instantly and the situation will quickly become critical.

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The obvious answer is to control both of them by using your fence. Understand that when doing so your fence is now divided and is only fifty percent as effectual due to the fact that you are now controlling on two fronts. This is why the need to be pre-emptive is so vital, every second that you delay you risk fighting on more than one front. Fighting two people at the same time is very difficult even if you possess the skills needed to do it.

But fighting one person twice, by taking each one out with a clinical pre-emptive strike is relatively easy if you have the minerals, i. Priority positioning drill: The ideal when dealing with two individuals is to keep them in front of each other so that you are all positioned in a single line. You do this by positioning yourself to the flank of your frontal aggressor just as the second individual attempts to move to the side of you. This will allow you momentary control of the one in front whilst allowing you to keep the other one in plain view.

The first drill that we practice with this aim in mind involves three students, one playing the defender against two potential aggressors who will use verbal role play with frequent attempts to get to the defender's blind side as the defender counters this with the above mentioned method, accompanied by strong verbal commands in an attempt to create a verbal boundary. No physical contact will take place other than an occasional shove if one of the aggressor's touches your lead fence hand.

The sole purpose of this drill is to develop this priority positioning that will allow you to take pro-active action to control the situation. The student's would then switch roles so that they all get to practice. Figure 1. Shows the defender engaged from the front as the second aggressor makes a move to his flank for the blind side attack.

Figure 2. Shows the defender after the adjustment in positioning that will then place all three individuals in a line, giving you just enough time to deal with them one at a time.

This time you have not had the chance to be pre-emptive by attacking first instead one of your aggressor's has made the first move against you. This may be by either of them and their aggressive action might be an attempted ambush in the form of a shove, grab or sucker punch, the thing to bear in mind is that as soon as the physical starts the second aggressor will attack immediately, therefore your response should be to drop your head and cover by raising your arms as you rapidly close with him tying him up in a Thai style neck clinch.

The clinch may be on the one that has made the move toward you or you might clinch the other guy, whoever you can get hold of first is fine. From the clinch you will now zone away from the second aggressor again placing you in a position where you are dealing with one whilst watching the other. This drill is performed as a progression by first practicing the foot work by clinching and zoning away from the second guy who pursues you by moving around in an attempt to get behind you. Zone away from both positions shown then switch roles with your partner.

Working off the fence, clinch the neck of whoever is closest to you and zone away from the second aggressor so that you are dealing with one whilst looking at the other. In reality as soon as you zone to relocate your position, you would head-butting and kneeing the guy you are holding but for this drill just zone away from the 2nd man as he tries to close in on you 2 or 3 times just to get the idea of positioning.

This drill should be worked from the two positions shown below.

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From here you would shove him into the second aggressor in order to escape or reengage. The pressure is added by having the aggressor throw all out punches at your head wearing boxing gloves or whilst wearing a pair of focus pads, as you cover your head and close for the clinch. All the while you should be throwing rapids shots into your clinched body armoured aggressor. Zone away times as you.

Assuming that we are in the dialogue stage of those vital few seconds just before the physical starts and have already worked out who the immediate threat is, we will now strike him first with a single clinical pre-emptive strike before immediately turning to attack the second aggressor following with further strikes if needed. It is important to remember that you will only have an instant in which to take control of the situation therefore you only have only one shot to spend on the first aggressor before the second guy makes a move.

So the deal is that you go from this first strike straight into the second aggressor with a continuous attack until the threat subsides. Work with your partners attacking the one in the flank first then attacking to your previous front and vice versa. Use the following examples to get an idea and feel free to interchange whatever your preferred main artillery strikes may be.

From the above position turn to your flank with an elbow strike to the first assailant then turn back to the one in front as you fire in with multiple Ax hand strikes to the head and neck area. In this example the guy in front is taken out with an elbow strike then you turn to meet the second aggressor with a face smash and follow up with cycling hammer-fist blows into the second pad.

Sucker punch drill For this drill you will need three people, two of which are pad holders the defender is told to close their eyes as they are turned in a circle ten times until they start to feel dizzy, this action simulates instability and disorientation similar to the effects of being sucker punched from behind. From here the defender is let go of as he tries to clear his head, as the feeders attempt to close on him with the pads. The defender strives to respond as best he can with single impact strikes and again priority positioning. Be sure to have an extra person available for safety just to catch the defender should he fall over.

If he does fall the drill should continue and the defender must now fend from the floor and strive to get up on his feet quickly. Gang simulation drill: This drill requires a minimum of 7 people and a maximum of 15 all wearing focus pads, the defender is in the middle of the rest of the group who strive to keep the defender closed in from all directions. Simply place both open hands on your head and raise your elbows then move your arms and hands vigorously over your face, head and neck in order to protect this vital area from a continuous assault from the entire group who attempt to slap you from all directions with the pads.

The idea is to keep damage and blows to your person to a bare minimum and your sole objective is to escape. Find a gap and blast through it verbalising and striking out as you go. Once you have been through once switch roles and let some one else have a go. This drill will quickly show you just how limited your options are in such a situation. Damage limitation is the key as you prioritise your escape. This is the only sensible decision in such a scenario. Here we see a number of feeders holding the pads as one defender covers and move until he finds a gap to escape through.

The use of Improvised weapons. In America unarmed Combatives are really only considered for use as a last resort, for example if you have no weapon or less than lethal option available then unarmed Combatives may be used as a transition to gaining a weapon or a less than lethal alternative. Look at law enforcement and Close Protection Operative's abroad and you will find that the first line of protection is a chemical spray or a baton unless circumstances dictate the threat or use of lethal force in which case a firearm would be drawn.

During WW2 unarmed Combatives were designed for those who were foolish enough to be caught with out a weapon. For the civilians in this country where the rules of engagement are very different, in that we are not allowed to carry any weapon by design or anything adapted to be used for the sole purpose as a weapon. With that said in dire circumstances where you feel that you are in danger for your safety it is perfectly acceptable to use anything to hand as an improvised weapon in the event of an emergency.

The key factor here, if this is to be your decided course of action, is that any improvised weapon will only be of any use to you if the item is already available to you for use in your strongest hand accompanied by an alert and switched on state of awareness and the intention to use it. A set of car or door keys can and should be held ready to use in your hand in preparation to enter your car or house as quickly and efficiently as possible accompanied by a good sense of awareness.

This is simply habitual street smart Self-Protection. If a woman is returning to her car after a hard day at the office and the environment has now changed in that it is now dark and some what deserted compared to how it was when she parked earlier in the day, then it would make sense that her keys were ready for use in her strongest hand in a manner that would allow them to be to be used for effective slashing and stabbing. That is, if an attacker approached her, her first response would be to use the keys as a weapon. There are many everyday items that could be used as an improvised weapon.

The main items we are going to cover here involve the use of keys, a pen and a mobile phone any of which could come in very handy if we found ourselves needing an equaliser. The thing to remember about the items mentioned is that they are not weapons by design nor have they been converted in any way to be used as one but could be should the need arise.

A pen, a key and a mobile phone are all legal to carry and make excellent improvised weapons in certain circumstances Keys: The keys can be used in a variety of ways, they can be placed between the fingers so that you can punch out to facial targets especially the eyes, they can be attached in a bunch to a Kubotan type key ring and used in a slashing manner, but we are going to use a single key in a simple manner in order to keep things easy.

This method requires a single car key or Yale type door key that is held along the index finger of your strongest hand with no more than half an inch of the end protruding this is then trapped in place with the thumb. From here the weapon can be used in a slashing and stabbing fashion to the soft target areas of the face, throat and groin. Key sequence:. Hold a single key as shown along the index finger and trap it in place with the thumb leaving about half an inch protruding for slashing and stabbing.

The following sequence makes use of a short sharp slash to a soft target area on the face followed by a drop stepping thrust to a facial target. Both items can be used in a pre-emptive manner or to force an escape in the event of you being seized or grabbed in some way. Strikes can be made behind the ear, up under the jawbone or in to the jugular notch to name just a few. The mobile phone can be used in a variety of ways with and with out an Ariel as can the pen. The method of use will depend on how you grip them.

The following pictures will show various methods of employing these items as weapons according to how they're held. The pointing grip and the hammer grip apply to both the pen and the mobile phone, where as the pinching grip and the across- palm grip developed by Self-Protection expert Jamie 0'Keefe apply specifically to the pen. The homes of promoters were sometimes in New Jersey, Connecticut, and even California. I hope that libraries will consider including my directory as a helpful resource for their patrons.

It will certainly save users much time and effort in their own research. I am a soon to be retired Duke Medical Center library researcher, who enjoys writing. I have been writing on Wikipedia for years and have begun to write ebooks. My pastimes include selling books on EBay, genealogical research, baseball Pittsburgh Pirates , collecting antique furniture and coins, and spending time with Kingsley, my cocker spaniel. See All Customer Reviews. Shop Books. Read an excerpt of this book! Add to Wishlist. USD 3.

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