In the Freudian view, destructive forces are present in all individuals, but they do not always find ready release, for their expression is inhibited by superego, or conscience. In typical experimental manipulations, they frustrated the subject to see whether he would administer higher shocks when angry.
But the effect of these manipulations was minuscule compared with the levels obtained under obedience. That is to say, no matter what these experimenters did to anger, irritate, or frustrate the subject, he would at most move up one or two shock levels, say from shock level 4 to level 6. This represents a genuine increment in aggression. Penalties and threats were forever around the corner, and the victims themselves had been thoroughly vilified and portrayed as being unworthy of life or human kindness.
Finally, our subjects were told by authority that what they were doing to their victim might be temporarily painful but would cause no permanent damage, while those Germans directly involved in the annihilations knew that they were not only inflicting pain but were destroying human life. So, in the final analysis, what happened in Germany from to can only be fully understood as the expression of a unique historical development that will never again be precisely replicated.
For the studies are principally concerned with the ordinary and routine destruction carried out by everyday people following orders. In this respect, they are no better and no worse than human beings of any other era who lend themselves to the purposes of authority and become instruments in its destructive processes. The reader is referred to several treatises on this subject Taylor, ; Classer, ; Halberstam, Now let us return to the experiments and try to underscore their meaning.
The behavior revealed in the experiments reported here is normal human behavior but revealed under conditions that show with particular clarity the danger to human survival inherent in our make-up.
Laski wrote Within the ambit of that definition, those of us who heedlessly accept the commands of authority cannot yet claim to be civilized men. Our business, if we desire to live a life not utterly devoid of meaning and significance, is to accept nothing which contradicts our basic experience merely because it comes to us from tradition or conventionor authority. It may well be that we shall be wrong; but our self-expression is thwarted at the root unless the certainties we are asked to accept coincide with the certainties we experience.
That is why the condition of freedom in any state is always a widespread and consistent skepticism of the canons upon which power insists. Jun 16, El book. I really wish I had read this book last year when I first started learning about Milgram's work for my Psychology A Level. It gave me a truly deep understanding of his agent theory and over all the studies. If you are about to do an A Level in the UK in psychology and have a bit of extra time I would highly recommend reading this book!
Oct 13, Jorgen Peterson rated it it was amazing. Everyone should read this book. I'll send it to you Saum. It took me a while until I got around to reading a summary of the actual experiments done by Milgram and others. Before I ever opened this book I read quite a bit of criticism e. It should be noted that any experiment that attracts as much attention as Milgram's did is bound to receive abundant criticism and Milgram unlike other pseudo scientific authors of today, responds to all the crit It took me a while until I got around to reading a summary of the actual experiments done by Milgram and others.
It should be noted that any experiment that attracts as much attention as Milgram's did is bound to receive abundant criticism and Milgram unlike other pseudo scientific authors of today, responds to all the criticism that I've heard of before in this particular edition. After getting this part out of the way, I will come to the reason this book is a must-read for every person. Whatever you may think of the validity of the experiment and it's interpretation, taking the time to reflect on why we obey and arguably when we should choose to disobey must be of central interest to anyone.
It is important to read and think about the questions addressed by Milgram for the same reason as it is important to get more insight into mechanisms behind racism and other forms of discrimination. If one believes to never discriminate against anyone, it is certain that this person is fooling only himself. No one is above their human nature and understanding and reflecting about mechanisms that are at play within us is the first step to improvement. If people think that more than 60 years after Milgrams original experiment it is of little importance to us today, it's best to recall Guantanamo, the use of emetics, or the anti-gay movement in Russia.
So, if you haven't done so: read this book! And to achieve this our morality and conscience would almost always make themselves scarce, allowing us to focus on one thing and one thing only: are we following the order properly? Imagine all of us doing this - following orders closely and rigorously without having to get bogged down with all these stupid morals and harmful senses of guilt.
This is the hierarchical mechanism that allows us to arrive at where we are at today. Nov 03, Dani rated it it was amazing Shelves: psychology , non-fiction , violence , psychopathy. Though severly restricted by antiquated research paradigms i. The famous take away and dominant narrative of the experiment can be summed up in this quote "With numbing regularity, good people were seen to knuckle under to the demands of authority and perform actions that were ca Though severly restricted by antiquated research paradigms i.
The famous take away and dominant narrative of the experiment can be summed up in this quote "With numbing regularity, good people were seen to knuckle under to the demands of authority and perform actions that were callous and severe. Wouldn't it make sense to analyse these participants - their upbringing, value system, neurological makeup, social status - as thoroughly as possible instead of concentrating on the depressingly large majority of obedient "good" people?
View 2 comments. An in depth look at a the classic examination of people and their willingness to obey to others. This book is a look at the classic experiment that occured on the Yale campus in the the early s.
There were many other experiments done testing certain parameters within the original design set up by Milgram. It goes "it is not so much the kind of person a man is as the kind of situation in which he finds himself that deter An in depth look at a the classic examination of people and their willingness to obey to others. It goes "it is not so much the kind of person a man is as the kind of situation in which he finds himself that determines how he will act. Feb 27, Ahmed Al sanhani rated it it was amazing. It is really annoying knowing that we are more likely to commit horrible things and yet we don't shoulder the responsibility of our actions because we are basically ordered to do so.
This reminds me of one of the verses in Holy Qur'an saying that individuals are fully responsible of their own every action regardless of the authority over them. And what's more annoying is that disobeying authority is hard. To me, being aware of this at least will help me to avoid being in a position requiring me It is really annoying knowing that we are more likely to commit horrible things and yet we don't shoulder the responsibility of our actions because we are basically ordered to do so. To me, being aware of this at least will help me to avoid being in a position requiring me to obey orders harmful to others.
Jun 03, Yingtai rated it it was amazing Shelves: psychology. I thought I knew all about this experiment from reading other sources, but of course I was wrong. Milgram carried out something like 16 variations of the experiment, and he thought really hard and insightfully about it. He doesn't just quote Freud, Kohlberg, Asch and other psychologists of his time, but also philosophers like Hannah Arendt.
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I will say the first half describing the experiments is more worth reading than the second half discussion , which I skimmed. Mar 06, Tadas Talaikis rated it it was amazing Shelves: social , psychology , best. Revolutionary experiment, showing us more of reality on human behavior. Everyone should know it, because time goes and nothing changes, every time appears the "superleader" promising fantastic holly lands and those p-zombies are going on. Human morals are contradictory since the start of life: "don't beat smaller children" at one hand, and "do as I say!
Sep 02, Thom Dunn rated it it was amazing Shelves: sciencelit , classic , manifesto-polemic , psychotherapy , americaamerican , zeitgeist , anthropology , education , film-seen , manners. It's fair to say that no one graduates from a good college without learning of Milgram's Behavioral Study of Obedience.
This is the book that all libertarians and potential libertarians, or "consistently pro-freedom individuals" should read, if they want to understand how and why government, the law, and society are broken. I don't recommend the more popular in libertarian circles " Human Action " by Mises for this purpose, even though that is a fine book as well.
A popular question among scientists of the time was "How could average people in Germany behave so immorally? Milgram's research, beautifully detailed in this book, fully answers this question, by revealing that most people in most societies are not moral, nor are they educated with the bare minimum knowledge required to produce even basic social organizations that could be identified as "western civilization" or "liberal democracy.
Many different people from all walks of life responded, some with the goal of helping scientific research, others with the goal of being paid a few dollars. Once they showed up, they entered a room in which several other people were gathered, who seemingly entered the study as they had. Actually, though, everyone except the subject is a confederate of the experiment. At that point, a "scientist" enters the room also a confederate of the experiment , and states that he's conducting an experiment to determine whether mild punishments, in the form of escalating electrical shocks, help reinforce learning.
He announces that due to experimenter bias, he cannot be the one administering the shocks, so the crowd will be divided into two groups, of "teachers" and "learners. The dials on the electrical shock equipment go from mild to " volts," marked as "danger, XXX. A series of 18 follow-up experiments was performed to indicate why they did so, and Milgram found that the perception of "legitimate authority" determines why people will obey immoral orders.
First and foremost, the research in this book reveals the poor hierarchical prioritization of the most important decisions at their detail level, the level of the individual, in society. Second, it is mutually-inclusive of a scientific world-view, which incorporates an understanding of the brain as the basis for emergent human social networks, including government it is not mystical, nor "advocating" or "labeling" anything unproven as "accepted". Third, the book places Milgram's research within the relevant cybernetic model of its day Norbert Wiener , which is still both relevant and revelatory, 66 years later.
Fourth, all of the material in this book is highly destructive to totalitarianism, and to the illegitimate collectivist state apparatus. Combined with Clay Conrad 's book on jury nullification of law Jury Nullification The Evolution of a Doctrine , this book provides the very most powerful arguments against state power that currently exist.
Because it directly observes how people respond to authority without knowing they are being observed for that reason, it is the primary and first book to produce honest data about the destructive psychological cause of empowered, dominant, illegitimate authority. Further, this is the work that equates libertarianism with basic human morality possessed by all empaths , who comprise the majority of society. For those who work in politics, this reveals a viable pathway toward restoring lost limits on government power. The arguments for liberty implied by the research in this book work on all humans, members of all political parties.
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This is why it has become so popular to denigrate the work done by Milgram, in Academia: he's right. Moreover, he's right in a way that burns their sacred power structures like flash paper on contact with a lit match. What are the implications for Libertarians and the broader movement to restore individual liberty in the USA?
Stop arguing for "individual rights" based on "God's will. If we want to combat totalitarianism, we need to address the people responsible for totalitarianism from a position that recognizes their core beliefs as "possibly legitimate. I appreciate the fact that Mises' "Human Action" is mutually-inclusive of science as well.
However, at around 1, pages, most people simply will not read " Human Action " from cover-to-cover.
Nor will many people read Adam Smith's "Wealth of Nations" from cover-to-cover. Nor was the underlying science of psychology itself greatly experimentally advanced in those works. Economics is a science that emerges from the collective decisions that are studied in psychology. This book will reach people --especially socialists of all sorts-- in a way that Orwell's "" reached them: it will speak to whatever core of empathy and compassion they contain at the very center of their psychological makeup.
Without being able to confidently deny that a person would be a willing "executioner" in a new morality-testing situation, a person cannot claim to be moral in any meaningful sense of the term. The result of reading this book will leave intelligent socialists on thin ice, if they wish to remain socialists. It shows how the emergence of political evil, as revealed by Andrzej Lobaczewski Political Ponerology , cannot emerge without obedience to unjust authority. This book is a masterpiece that leads the way to a resurgence of life-saving classical liberal democracy depicted in F.
Hayek's The Road to Serfdom. It's worth buying for that introduction alone, in order to place the book in its proper context. Zimbardo freely admits that Milgram was more intelligent than he was, and has kept Milgram's legacy alive, in a series of excellent YouTube videos including one titled "The Psychology of Evil" that keep Milgram's work in the public eye.
It is my sincere hope that Philip Zimbardo , Steven Pinker , and the many others who have quoted Milgram's work will register to vote as Libertarians, join the National Libertarian Party, advocate jury nullification, and participate in the next Libertarian Party National Convention, before it is too late for America to avoid collapse into totalitarianism. What America most needs is a small network of super-intelligences to correct the externally-controlled and neutralized trajectory the Libertarian Party and broader libertarian movement is currently following.
For more on the freedom movement in the USA, please read Vin Suprynowicz 's Send in the Waco Killers Essays on the Freedom Movement There is no useful "granular, detail-level" political "point of measurement" for libertarians who have an economic focus. The general public doesn't understand basic economics, so referring them to economics texts is useless. To his credit, Milgram does reference Mises' book " Bureaucracy " in this book, and also deals with the arguments in favor of anarchy.
Milgram's work is consistent with a proper, "corrected" variant of Ayn Rand 's "objectivism," as it is consistent with Lysander Spooner 's " The Unconstitutionality of Slavery. Konkin III 's "Counter-economics" that excludes electoral non-participation. Obedience to Authority informs those interested in electoral struggles about the obstacles they must actually overcome, if they want to win freedom to the extent it can be won at the ballot box.
Again: This book should be read by all Americans, and its concise nature and brevity make this possible. It is possible to assign this book as high-school reading material, and it should certainly be so assigned. It is certainly in the "top " most important books ever written in terms respectful of the Jewish admonition, "Never Again. Feb 28, Sharon Lin rated it it was amazing Shelves: social-science , psychology.
This review has been hidden because it contains spoilers. To view it, click here. The book is quite an interesting account of the event, the message implied is also intriguing. He is required to pick the correct word from a few choices after listening to the list of phrases. The result is truly astonishing. Milgram than goes on to alter a few variables and repeat the experiments, which revealed some interesting facts. Generally speaking, people are more likely to obey when they are closer to the authority, but less likely to obey if they need to get in contact with the victim.
In addition, people tends to obey more if they are under surveillance or constant influence of authority, but need not to get in contact with the victim. In the extreme case, such high level of obedience can lead to massacre, as in the case of Germany during WWII. Once a person gives himself up to an evil authority, killing becomes extremely easy to him. Hence it is no wonder why financial crimes or corruption could happen in such vast scale within a system. This book serves as a reminder for its reader to beware on unjust authority.
Rethinking One of Psychology's Most Infamous Experiments - The Atlantic
It is only blindly following orders that brings disasters. May 07, James Hall rated it it was amazing. Happy to have this book recommended to me, it was a great insight into how obedience work and why. It makes a lot of sense that it comes naturally to many people to obey authority, as we have done so for millions of years, in the hierarchies we have survived in. What was surprised, on the other hand, is to what extent people were willing to administrate shocks and especially those being aware of the danger of the volts. After reading the book, and even while reading the book, I couldn't help to as Happy to have this book recommended to me, it was a great insight into how obedience work and why.
After reading the book, and even while reading the book, I couldn't help to ask myself, how would I have conducted myself in the very same situation. First thought was of course that I surely wouldn't have gone to the extreme level and that I would have broken off when the learner, asked for the experiment to stop. Quickly, I thought that was a silly thought, and thinking to myself, because you now know of the experiment, you, first of all, couldn't be a subject in it. So, you would have to put yourself in a different situation, with real circumstances and consequences.
Like in Nazi Germany, would I then have followed troop and obeyed, after all, there was much more on the line than just obedience to authority, death was a very real and certain possibility for defiance. Think is, you will never know until you are in a similar situation, but I hope the knowledge in the book will stay with me in every face of authority. Not that I to begin have been the person to follow authorities or laws to point, if I find rules ridicule I don't mind breaking them, regardless of the consequences.
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I typically act as I like to live unless the consequences are far greater than the satisfaction of breaking a minor law. My friends often tell me just to obey these small simple little laws to make my life easier, but that only makes me want to break them even more. And it is in a way, the same with this experiment, once they have gone beyond a certain point, it is like there are no turning back, admitting the truth now is simply too painful.
That makes it much easier for the subject to leave all responsibility to the experimenter, and just mindlessly go on torturing the learner. I know that there are more aspects to the experiment, but I won't get into it, as I'm no scientist and Stanley makes a much better case for his on experiment than I ever could. These were just a few of my thoughts that raised to the surface. This book begins with a detailed explanation of Milgram's experiment.
It goes through each condition in which subjects were placed to determine whether or not they would obey the authority present. This part is pretty boring, but if you can get through it and manage to stay engaged, it gets really good during the analysis portion. Milgram explains how we behave in these circumst This book begins with a detailed explanation of Milgram's experiment.
Milgram explains how we behave in these circumstances and why. The concept of strain is one that I found particularly interesting, especially given the nature of tech companies and how it feels to be an employee at such a company. He made one slight change in the protocol, in deference to ethical standards developed since He stopped when a participant believed he had administered a volt shock. He also screened out people familiar with the original experiment.
View all New York Times newsletters. Seventy percent of his participants administered the volt shock and had to be stopped. That is less than in the original experiment, but not enough to be significant. Much has changed since The civil rights and antiwar movements taught Americans to question authority. Institutions that were once accorded great deference — including the government and the military — are now eyed warily. Yet it appears that ordinary Americans are about as willing to blindly follow orders to inflict pain on an innocent stranger as they were four decades ago.
Professor Burger was not surprised. These include having the authority figure take responsibility for the decision to administer the shock, and having the participant increase the voltage gradually. It is hard to say no to administering a volt shock when you have just given a volt shock. The results of both experiments pose a challenge. If this is how most people behave, how do we prevent more Holocausts, Abu Ghraibs and other examples of wanton cruelty? Part of the answer, Professor Burger argues, is teaching people about the experiment so they will know to be on guard against these tendencies, in themselves and others.
There are studies that show this, thousands and thousands of studies that document the many unsavory aspects of most people. If the guards at Abu Ghraib were just following orders, then anyone was capable of torture. Who do you listen to? The question, he conceded, applies as much to the study of Milgram today as it does to what went on in his lab. What he provided instead was a difficult and deeply uncomfortable set of questions—and his research, flawed as it is, endures not because it clarifies the causes of human atrocities, but because it confuses more than it answers.
People have tried to knock it down, and it always comes up standing. We want to hear what you think about this article.