Attitude: A relatively stable belief or feeling about a concept, person or object.
Attitudes can often be inferred by observing behaviours. Related to definition of values. Collaboration: A recognized relationship among different sectors or groups, which have been formed to take action on an issue in a way that is more effective or sustainable than might be achieved by the public health sector acting alone.
Communication skills: These are the skills required by public health professionals to transmit and receive ideas and information to and from involved individuals and groups.
Communication skills include the ability to listen, and to speak and write in plain language; i. Community participation: Procedures whereby members of a community participate directly in decision-making about developments that affect the community. It covers a spectrum of activities ranging from passive involvement in community life to intensive action-oriented participation in community development including political initiatives and strategies. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion emphasizes the importance of concrete and effective community action in setting priorities for health, making decisions, planning strategies and implementing them to achieve better health.
They provide expert advice and support to front line providers and managers although they may also work directly with clients. Core competencies for public health: Core competencies are the essential knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary for the practice of public health. They transcend the boundaries of specific disciplines and are independent of program and topic.
They provide the building blocks for effective public health practice, and the use of an overall public health approach. Culturally-relevant and appropriate : Recognizing, understanding and applying attitudes and practices that are sensitive to and appropriate for people with diverse cultural socioeconomic and educational backgrounds, and persons of all ages, genders, health status, sexual orientations and abilities. Determinants of health: Definable entities that cause, are associated with, or induce health outcomes.
Public health is fundamentally concerned with action and advocacy to address the full range of potentially modifiable determinants of health — not only those which are related to the actions of individuals, such as health behaviours and lifestyles, but also factors such as income and social status, education, employment and working conditions, access to appropriate health services, and the physical environment. These, determinants of health, in combination, create different living conditions which impact on health.
Disease and injury prevention: Measures to prevent the occurrence of disease and injury, such as risk factor reduction, but also to arrest the progress and reduce the consequences of disease or injury once established. Disease and injury prevention is sometimes used as a complementary term alongside health promotion. A public health system core function. Diversity: The demographic characteristic of populations attributable to perceptible ethnic, linguistic, cultural, visible or social variation among groups of individuals in the general population.
Empowerment: A process through which people gain greater control over decisions and actions affecting their health. Empowerment may be a social, cultural, psychological or political process through which individuals and social groups are able to express their needs, present their concerns, devise strategies for involvement in decision-making, and achieve political, social and cultural action to meet those needs.
See definition health promotion. Equity in health is not the same as equality in health status. Inequalities in health status between individuals and populations are inevitable consequences of genetic differences and various social and economic conditions, or a result of personal lifestyle choices. Inequities occur as a consequence of differences in opportunity, which result, for example in unequal access to health services, nutritious food or adequate housing.
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In such cases, inequalities in health status arise as a consequence of inequities in opportunities in life. Ethics: The branch of philosophy dealing with distinctions between right and wrong, and with the moral consequences of human actions. Much of modern ethical thinking is based on the concepts of human rights, individual freedom and autonomy, and on doing good and not harming.
The concept of equity, or equal consideration for every individual, is paramount.
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In public health, the community need for protection from risks to health may take precedence over individual human rights, for instance when persons with a contagious disease are isolated and their contacts may be subject to quarantine. Evaluation: Efforts aimed at determining as systematically and objectively as possible the effectiveness and impact of health-related and other activities in relation to objectives, taking into account the resources that have been used.
Evidence : Information such as analyzed data, published research findings, results of evaluations, prior experience, expert opinions, any or all of which may be used to reach conclusions on which decisions are based. Front line provider: Public health staff who have post-secondary education and experience in the field of public health. Front line providers have sufficient relevant experience to work independently, with minimal supervision. Front line providers carry out the bulk of day-to-day tasks in the public health sector.
They work directly with clients, including individuals, families, groups and communities. Responsibilities may include information collection and analysis, fieldwork, program planning, outreach activities, program and service delivery, and other organizational tasks. Health planning : A set of practices and procedures that are intended to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of health services and to improve health outcomes.
This important activity of all health departments commonly includes short-term, medium-term, and long-range planning. Important considerations are resource allocation, priority setting, distribution of staff and physical facilities, planning for emergencies and ways to cope with extremes of demand and unforeseen contingencies, and preparation of budgets for future fiscal periods with a feasible time horizon, often 5 years ahead, sometimes as far ahead as 10 or even 15 years.
Health policy: A course or principle of action adopted or proposed by a government, political party, organization, or individual; the written or unwritten aims, objectives, targets, strategy, tactics, and plans that guide the actions of a government or an organization. Policies have three interconnected and ideally continually evolving stages: development, implementation and evaluation. Policy development is the creative process of identifying and establishing a policy to meet a particular need or situation.
Policy implementation consists of the actions taken to set up or modify a policy, and evaluation is the assessment of how, and how well, the policy works in practice. Health policy is often enacted through legislation or other forms of rule-making, which define regulations and incentives that enable the provision of and access to health and social services.
Health program : A description or plan of action for an event or sequence of actions or events over a period that may be short or prolonged. More formally, an outline of the way a system or service will function, with specifics such as roles and responsibilities, expected expenditures, outcomes, etc. A health program is generally long term and often multifaceted, whereas a health project is a short-term and usually narrowly focused activity. Health promotion: The process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve their health. It not only embraces actions directed at strengthening the skills and capabilities of individuals, but also action directed towards changing social, environmental, political and economic conditions so as to alleviate their impact on public and individual health.
The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion PDF Document describes five key strategies for health promotion: build healthy public policy; create supportive environments; strengthen community action; develop personal skills; and re-orient health services.
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Health protection: A term to describe important activities of public health, in food hygiene, water purification, environmental sanitation, drug safety and other activities, that eliminate as far as possible the risk of adverse consequences to health attributable to environmental hazards. Information : Facts, ideas, concepts and data that have been recorded, analyzed, and organized in a way that facilitates interpretation and subsequent action. Investigation: A systematic, thorough and formal process of inquiry or examination used to gather facts and information in order to understand, define and resolve a public health issue.
Leadership: Leadership is described in many ways. It involves inspiring people to craft and achieve a vision and goals.
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Leaders provide mentoring, coaching and recognition. They encourage empowerment, allowing other leaders to emerge. Lifelong learning: A broad concept where education that is flexible, diverse and available at different times and places is pursued throughout life. It takes place at all levels—formal, non-formal and informal—utilizing various modalities such as distance learning and conventional learning. Typically, they have staff who report to them. In other situations, managers with public health experience and qualifications are expected to bring more content knowledge.
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Mediate: A process through which the different interests personal, social, economic of individuals and communities, and different sectors public and private are reconciled in ways that promote and protect health. Reconciling such conflicts in ways that promote health may require considerable input from public health practitioners, including the application of skills in advocacy for health.
Mission : The purpose for which an organization, agency or service exists, often summarized in a mission statement. Partnerships: Collaboration between individuals, groups, organizations, governments or sectors for the purpose of joint action to achieve a common goal. The concept of partnership implies that there is an informal understanding or a more formal agreement possibly legally binding among the parties regarding roles and responsibilities, as well as the nature of the goal and how it will be pursued.
Performance standards : The criteria, often determined in advance, e. Google Libros. Conseguir libro impreso. A Dictionary of Hygiene and Public Health. Alexander Wynter Blyth. Alexander Wynter Blyth Vista completa - A dictionary of hygiene and public health Alexander Wynter Blyth Vista completa -