If you are a wise man, train up a son who will be pleasing to God. If he is straight and takes after you, take good care of him. Do everything that is good for him. He is your son, your Ka begot him. Don't withdraw your heart from him. But an offspring can make trouble. If your son strays and neglects your council and disobeys all that is said, with his mouth spouting evil speech, then punish him for all his talk.
God will hate him who crosses you. His guilt was determined in the womb. He who God makes boatless cannot cross the water. If you are a guard in the storehouse, stand or sit rather than leave your post and trepass into someones else's place. Follow this rule from the first. Never leave your post, even when fatigued. Keen is the face to him who enters announced, and spacious is the seat of him who has been asked to come in. The storehouse has fixed rules. All behaviour is strictly by the rule. Only a God can penetrate the secure warehouse where the rules are followed, even by privileged persons.
If you are among the people then gain your supporters by building trust. The trusted man is one who does not speak the first thing that comes to mind; and he will become a leader. A man of means has a good name, and his face is benign. People will praise him even without his knowledge. On the other hand, he whose heart obeys his belly asks for contempt of himself in the place of love. His heart is naked.
His body is unanointed. The great hearted is a gift of God. He who is ruled by his appetite belongs to the enemy. Report the thing that you were commissioned to report without error.
Chapter I - The Gods Of Egypt
Give your advice in the high council. If you are fluent in your speech, it will not be hard for you to report. Nor will anyone say of you, "who is he to know this? They should be silent upon hearing the report that you have rendered as you have been told. If you are a man who leads, a man whose authority reaches widely, they you should do perfect things, those which posterity will remember. Don't listen to the words of flatterers or to words that puff you up with pride and vanity.
If you are a person who judges, listen carefully to the speech of one who pleads.
Don't stop the person from telling you everything that they had planned to tell you. A person in distress wants to pour out his or her heart, even more than they want their case to be won. If you are one who stops a person who is pleading, that person will say "why does he reject my plea? The means for getting a true and clear explanation is to listen with kindness. If you want friendship to endure in the house that you enter, the house of a master, of a brother or of a friend, then in whatever place you enter beware of approaching the women there.
Unhappy is the place where this is done. Unwelcome is he who intrudes on them. A thousand men are turned away from their good because of a short moment that is like a dream, and then that moment is followed by death that comes from having known that dream. Anyone who encourages you take advantage of the situation gives you poor advice. When you go to do it, your heart says no. If you are one who fails through the lust of women, then no affair of yours can prosper. If you want to have perfect conduct, to be free from every evil, then above all guard against the vice of greed.
Greed is a grievous sickness that has no cure. There is no treatment for it. It embroils fathers, mothers and the brothers of the mother. It parts the wife from the husband. Greed is a compound of all the evils. It is a bundle of all hateful things. That person endures whose rule is righteous, who walks a straight line, for that person will leave a legacy by such behavior. On the other hand, the greedy has no tomb. Do not be greedy in the division of things. Do not covet more than your share. Don't be greedy towards your relatives. A mild person has a greater claim than the harsh one.
Poor is the person who forgets his relatives. He is deprived of their company. Even a little bit of what is wanted will turn a quarreler into a friendly person. When you prosper and establish your home, love your wife with ardor. Then fill her belly and clothe her back.
Caress her. Give her oitments to soothe her body. Fulfill her wishes for as long as you live. She is a fertile field for her husband. Do not be brutal. Good manners will influence her better than force. Do not contend with her in the courts. Keep her from the need to resort to outside powers.
Her eye is her storm when she gazes. It is by such treatment that she will be compelled to stay in your house. Help your friends with things that you have, for you have these things by the grace of God. If you fail to help your friends, one will say you have a selfish Ka. One plans for tommorow, but you do not know what tomorrow will bring.
The right soul is the soul by which one is sustained. If you do praiseworthy deeds your friends will say, "welcome" in you time of need. Don't repeat slander nor should you even listen to it. It is the spouting of the hot bellied. Just report a thing that has been observed, not something that has been heard secondhand. If it is something negligible, don't even say anything. He who is standing before you will recognize your worth.
Slander is like a terrible dream against which one covers the face. If you are a man of worth who sits at the council of a leader, concentrate on being excellent. Your silence is much better than boasting. Speak when you know that you have a solution. It is the skilled person who should speak when in council.
Speaking is harder than all other work. The one who understands this makes speech a servant. If you are mighty and powerful then gain respect through knowledge and through your gentleness of speech. Don't order things except as it is fitting. The one who provokes others gets into trouble.
Don't be haughty lest you be humbled. But also don't be mute lest you be chided. When you answer one who is fuming, turn your face and control yourself. The flame of the hot hearted sweeps across everything. But he who steps gently, his path is a paved road. He who is agitated all day has no happy moments but he who amuses himself all day can't keep his fortune.
Do not disturb a great man or distract his attention when he is occupied, trying to understand his task. When he is thus occupied, he strips his body through the love of what he does. Love for the work which they do brings men closer to God. These are the people who succeed in what they do.
Teach the great what is useful to them.
Footnotes and references:
Be an aide to the great before the people. If you let your knowledge impress your leader, your substenance from him will then come from his soul. As his favorite's belly is filled, so will your back be clothed and his help will be there to sustain you. For you leader whom you love and who lives by useful knowledge, he in turn will give you good support. Thus will the love of you endure in his belly. He is a soul who loves to listen. If you are an official of high standing, and you are commissioned to satisfy the many, then hold to a straight line. When you speak don't lean to one side or to the other.
Beware lest someone complain, saying to the judges, "he has distorted things", and then your very deeds will turn into a judgement of you. If you are angered by a misdeed, then lean toward a man on account of his rightness. Pass over the misdeed and don't remember it, since God was silent to you on the first day on your misdeed.
If you are great after having been humble, if you have gained your wealth after having been poor, and then go to town that you know and that knows your former condition, don't put your trust in your newly acquired wealth which has come to you as a gift of God. If you do, one day someone there who is poor may very well overtake you. Accept the authority of your leaders then your house will endure in it's wealth.
Your rewards will come from the right place. Wretched is he who opposes his leader. One lives as long as he is mild. Baring your arm does not hurt it. Do not plunder your neighbor's house or steal the goods of one that is near you, lest he denounce you before you are even heard. One who is argumentative is a mildless person. If he is also known as an aggressor, then that hostile man will have trouble in the neighborhood.
If you examine the character of a friend, don't ask other people, approach your friend. Deal with him alone, so as not to suffer from his anger. You may argue with him after a little while. You may test his heart in conversation. If what he has seen escapes him, if he does something that annoys you, stay friendly with him and do not attack. Be restrained and don't answer him with hostility. Do not leave him and do not attack him. His time will not fail to come. He cannot escape his fate. Be generous as long as you live. What leaves the storehouse does not return. It is the food in the storehouse that one must share that is coveted.
One whose belly is empty becomes an opponent. Therefore, do not have an accuser or an opponent as a neighbor. Your kindness to your neighbors will be a memorial to you for years, after you satisfy their needs. Know your friends and then you prosper. Don't be mean towards your friends. They are like a watered field and greater than any material riches that you may have, for what belongs to one belongs to another. The character of one who is well born should be a profit to him. Good nature is a memorial.
Punish firmly and chastise soundly, then repression of crime becomes an example. But punishment except for crime will turn the complainer into an enemy. If you take a wife a good time woman who is joyful and who is well known in the town, if she is fickle and seems to live for the moment, do not reject her. Let her eat. The joyful person brings happiness.
If you listen to my sayings all of your affairs will go forward. Their value resides in their truth. The memory of these sayings goes on in the speech of men and women because of the worth of their precepts. If every word is carried on, they will not perish in this land. If advice is given for the good, the great will speak accordingly. This is a matter of teaching a person to speak to posterity. He or she who hears it becomes a master hearer. It is good to speak to posterity.
Posterity will listen. If an example is set by him or her who leads, he or she will beneficient forever, his wisdom lasting for all time. The wise person feeds the Ka with what endures, so that is is happy with that person on earth. The wise is known by his or her wisdom. The heart of the wise matches his or her tongue and his or her lips are straight when he or she speaks.
The wise have eyes that are made to see and ears that are made to hear what will profit the offspring. The wise person who acts with Maat is free of falsehood and disorder. Useful is hearing to a son who hears. If hearing enters the hearer, then the hearer becomes a listener. Hearing well is speaking well. Useful is hearing to one who hears. Hearing is better than everything else. It creates good will. How good is it for a son to understand his father's words. That son will reach old age through those words.
He who hears is beloved of God. He whom God hates does not hear. The heart makes of its owner hearer or a non-hearer. Man's heart is his life, prosperity and health. The hearer is one who hears what is said. He who loves to hear is one who acts on what is said.
The African Origins of Western - Ashby, Muata(1).pdf | Yoga | Ancient History
How good is it for a son to listen to his father. How happy is he to whom it is said "Your son, is a master of hearing. That hearer's rememberance is in the mouth of the living, those that are on earth and those who will be. If a man's son accepts his father's words then no plan of his will go wrong.
So teach your son to be a hearer, one who will be valued by the officials, one who will guide his speech by what he has been told, one who is regarded as a hearer. This son will excel and his deeds will stand out while failure will follow those who do not hear. The wise wakes up early to his lasting gain while the fool is hard pressed.
The fool who does not hear, he can do nothing at all. He looks at ignorance and sees knowledge. He looks at harmfulness and see usefulness. He doees everything that one detests and is blamed for it every day. He lives on the things by which one dies. His food is evil speech. His sort is known to the officials who say, "There goes a living death every day. A son who hears is a follower of Heru. It will go well with him when he has heard. When he old and has reached the period where he is venerated, then he will speak likewise to his own children, renewing then the teachings of his father.
Every man teaches as he acts. He will speak to the children so that they will speak to their children. He will set an example and not give offense. So if justice stands firm, your children will live. As to the first child who gets into trouble, when people see it, they will say about the child "that is just like him", and they will also say when they even hear a rumor about the child, "that is just like him too.
Any riches that you have are useless without the many. Don't say something and then take is back. Don't put one thing in place of another. Beware of releasing the restraints in you, lest the wise man say, "listen, if you want to endure in the mouth of the hearers, speak after you have mastered the craft. Conceal your heart. Control your mouth. Then you will known among the officials.
Be quite exact before your leader. Act so that no one will say to him "he is the son of that one. Then the officials who listen will say, "how good is the thing that comes from his mouth. When he came forth from his body, he told him all that was in his mind, and he does even more than he was told. The good son is the gift of God and exceeds what is told him by his leader. He will do right when his heart is straight. As you succeed me sound in body, a Pharoah, content with all that was done, may obtain many years of life. The things that I did on earth were not small.
I have had years of life. As a gift of the Pharoah, I have had honors exceeding those of the ancestors, by doing Maat until the state of veneration. Is is done, from its beginning to its end, as it was found in the writings of the ancestors and Diety. Most students of yoga are familiar with the yogic traditions of India consider that the Indian texts such as the Bhagavad Gita, Mahabharata, Patan- jali Yoga Sutras, etc. However, upon examination, the teachings currently espoused in all of the major forms of Indian Yoga can be found in Ancient Egyptian scriptures, inscribed in papyrus and on temple walls as well as steles, statues, obelisks and other sources.
Yoga is the practice of mental, physical and spiritual disciplines which lead to self-control and self-discovery by purifying the mind, body and spirit, so as to discover the deeper spiritual essence which lies within every human being and object in the universe. Therefore, Ancient Egyptian religious practice, especially in terms of the rituals and other practices of the Ancient Egyptian Temple system known as Shetaut Neter the way of the hidden Supreme Being , also known in Ancient times as:.
In this sense, religion, in its purest form, is also a Yoga system, as it seeks to reunite the soul with its true and original source, God. The main recognized forms of Yoga disciplines are:. The disciplines of Yoga fall under five major categories. The important point to remember is that all aspects of Yoga can and should be used in an integral fashion to effect an efficient and harmonized spiritual movement in the practitioner. Therefore, while there may be an area of special emphasis, other elements are bound to become part of the Yoga program as needed. For example, while a Yogi practitioner of Yoga, as-pirant, initiate may place emphasis on the Yoga of Wisdom, they may also practice Devotional Yoga and Meditation Yoga along with the wisdom studies.
So the practice of any discipline that leads to oneness with Supreme Consciousness can be called Yoga. If you study, rationalize and reflect upon the teachings, you are practicing Yoga of Wisdom. If you develop your physical nature and psychic energy centers, you are practicing Serpent Power Kamitan-Uraeusor Indi-an-Kundalini Yoga, which is part of Tantric Yoga.
If you practice living according to the teachings of ethical behavior and selflessness, you are practicing Yoga of Action, Kamitan-Maat, Indian-Karma in daily life. If you practice turning your attention towards the Divine by developing lovefor the Divine, then it is called Devotional Yoga, or Yoga of Divine Love. One who has attained the culmination of Yoga union with the Divine is also called a Yogi. In this man-ner, Yoga has been developed into many disciplines which may be used in an integral fashion to achieve the same goal: Enlightenment.
Enlightenment is the term used to describe the highest level of spiritual awakening. It means attaining such a level of spiritual awareness that one discovers the underlying unity of the entire universe as well as the fact that the source of all creation is the same source from which the innermost Self within every human heart arises. This point of view is supported by the fact that there is documented scriptural and iconographical evidence of the disciplines of virtuous living, dietary purification, study of the wisdom teachings and their practice in daily life, psychophysical and psycho-spiritual exercises and meditation being practiced in Ancient Egypt, long before the evidence of its existence is detected in India including the Indus Valley Civilization or any other early civilization Sumer, Greece, China, etc.
The teachings of Yoga are at the heart of Prt m Hru. In ancient times, Egypt was divided into two sections or land areas. These were known as Lower and Upper Egypt. In addition, the Bible tells us that the stars will one day be replaced by a New Heaven Rev. Similarly, Yahweh tells Abraham that his descendents will be like the stars of heaven.
They are therefore not to become the stars but will, like the stars, be too numerous to count Genesis , Since the Cherubim only travel in the directions they face, this allegorically means that Cherubim can only progress forward in time. Therefore, through the allegorical Language of God, Ezekiel was given the knowledge that the great circles of movement that we can perceive through time and space are divinely created and controlled. In fact, Ezekiel clearly stated that the Cherubim had the appearance of a man, and the feet of calves Ezek.
Furthermore, the Cherubim had wings, suggesting the imagery for the heavenly replacement for the evil sign of Scorpio, which is Aquila the Eagle. These four fixed Zodiac signs serve as positional markers for the remaining eight signs, and the thirty-six ancient decan constellations. The Cherubim mentioned in Ezekiel place the lion's face depicting Leo on the right side and the Ox or Bull of Taurus on the left.
The lion's face would therefore be to our right, or in the east, and Taurus would be to our left, or in the west. This arrangement of Leo with Taurus opposite to it on the Zodiacal Wheel mimics the way the Tribe of Joseph was set west of, or directly opposite to, the Tribe of Judah in the east when the Israelites camped around the Desert Tabernacle. We will explore this Israelite connection to the Zodiac in a moment. For now, however, it is important to note that the signs are not arranged that way in the sky, but only in the Bible.
Interestingly, the scorpion symbol for Scorpio is totally absent in these heavenly visions of the Cherubim that depict the Mazzaroth or Zodiac. The reason for this is because the eagle is the natural enemy of the scorpion and the scorpion, representing something evil, cannot exist in the heavenly Holy P l ace where God dwe l ls. The powerful prophetic significance of the eagle replacing the scorpion and its connection to the United States and Israel in End Time prophecy will be partly discussed in Chapter Six. Far deeper explorations of this topic are also found in Books Three and Four.
Cherubim - Allegorical Bulls of Heaven Though this cannot be proven, the Bull of Heaven found in Mesopotamian art and literature may have been a reference to heavenly Cherubim, as well as the sign of Taurus. Incidentally, the connection of the Cherubim with a bull is partly why the Israelites when they fell into sin and made idols to worship - always chose to make idols in the form of bulls, or calves Exodus ; 1 Kings They would have either seen, or heard that there were representations of Cherubim on top of the Ark of the Covenant Exodus The image of a bull therefore allegorically represented the entire nation of Israel!
The Israelite desert encampment and its strikingly clear relationship to the Mazzaroth will be discussed a bit later. Though bull imagery can be associated with Cherubim, however, it is possible that the ancient Israelites were influenced by the Pagan practices of their Egyptian and Babylonian neighbors as well. Ptah, Amun, Hathor, and her nemesis Isis, for example, were all depicted as bovines in Egyptian art.
In addition, pharaohs and Mesopotamian kings were associated with the strength of a bull. Many Mesopotamian and Egyptian deities also wore horned headdresses. Pharaohs sometimes appeared in Egyptian tomb art sporting bull or lion tails as a part of their royal regalia.
Many male Egyptian deities were also shown with these curious tails. They are also evident on the male figures in the Dendera Zodiac, suggesting that these figures may be deified human descendents of Adam or Noah. Since bulls and lions once represented human leaders, could the error of deifying our ancestors be behind the ancient, and modern deification of bulls, cows, or lions?
These celestial cows have great curved horns and wear solar headdresses identifying them as images of the sky goddesses Nut, Hathor, or Isis. Though there is no doubt that celestial cattle depicted goddesses at some point, there is evidence that the Ancient Egyptians saw them as more than sky goddesses. This means that Hathor housed the Sun on the horizon, and the Sun marks the time of year - and its position within the Zodiac - at the horizon.
There, a painting depicts figures representing the constellations of the Zodiac housed under the greatly elongated belly of the celestial sky goddess Nut. On one side of the ceiling, Nut is shown swallowing the Sun disk at sunset. Meanwhile, images of people and animals representing constellations are shown watching this drama unfold. On the other side of the ceiling, the same curving form of Nut is repeated with stars in her belly as she watches the re-born Sun progress through the daytime sky.
Unfortunately, though the bull, ox, and cow images that the Egyptians and Israelites chose to idolize had a holy application, they did not represent Yahweh but the Twelve Houses of Israel and, by extension, the Twelve Houses of the Zodiac in the whole starry expanse of the Mazzaroth.
As already mentioned, these images of winged bulls called Cherubim also represented the entire visible Universe. They worshipped the divine imagery of the Language of God in the heavens, as revealed in biblical prophecies and other ancient religious writings, instead of the one triune God that these sources also revealed to them. Celestial Crosses: Connected to Cherubs and Christ The four fixed signs of the Mazzaroth are exactly three signs apart and equidistant from each other. The new find, which includes the first Egyptian-style tomb known to have existed in Israel at that time, suggests that ancient Egypt exerted more control over neighboring regions than investigators have often assumed, contends project director.
Thomas E. Levy of the University of California, San Diego. Source: Science News, Oct 5, v n14 p 1. Title: Ancient Egyptian outpost found in Israel. Speaking out against the stronghold, which modern European and American Egyptologists have created, the Egyptologist, scholar and author, John Anthony West, detailed his experiences and those of others attempting to study the Ancient Egyptian monuments and artifacts who are not part of the accepted Egyptological clique.
He describes the situation as a kind of Fortress Egypt. He describes the manner in which, not only are the Ancient Egyptian artifacts closely protected from the examination of anyone outside this group, but also the interpretation of them as well. It is as if there is a propaganda machine, which, like the orthodox medical establishment, has set itself up as sole purveyors of the correct knowledge in the field, and thereby invalidates the findings of other scholars or scientists. In discussing the way in which mistakes made by scholars are treated, Mister West says the following: In academia, the rules vis--vis mistakes change according to location.
Only those within the establishment are allowed to 'make mistakes. Also, the treatment of any scholar who reads metaphysical import in the teachings, literature or iconography of Ancient Egypt is generally ridiculed by orthodox Egyptologists. For instance, anyone suggesting that the Great pyramids were not used as burial chambers mummies or remnants of mummies have never been discovered in them , but rather as temples, is openly called a Pyramidiot, West describes the ominous power that orthodox Egyptologists have taken to themselves and the danger this power poses to humanity: A tacit territorial agreement prevails throughout all Academia.
Biochemists steer clear of sociology; Shakespearean scholars do not disparage radio astronomy. It's taken for granted that each discipline, scientific, scholarly or humanistic, has its own valid self-policing system, and that academic credentials ensure expertise in a given field. With its jealous monopoly on the impenetrable hieroglyphs, its closed ranks, restricted membership, landlocked philosophical vistas, empty coffers, and its lack of impact upon virtually every other academic, scientific or humanistic field, Egyptology has prepared a near-impregnable strategic position for itself - an academic Switzerland but without chocolate, cuckoo clocks, scenery or ski slopes, and cannily concealing its banks.
Not only is it indescribably boring and difficult to attack, who'd want to? But if Swiss financiers suddenly decided to jam the world's banking system, Swiss neutrality and impregnability might suddenly be at risk. That is partially analogous to the situation of Egyptology. The gold is there, but its existence is denied, and no one is allowed to inspect the vaults except those whose credentials make them privy to the conspiracy and guarantee their silence.
To date, only a handful of astute but powerless outsiders have recognized that the situation poses real danger. But it's not easy to generate a widespread awareness or appreciation of that danger. If you think of Egyptologists at all, the chances are you conjure up a bunch of harmless pedants, supervising remote desert digs or sequestered away in libraries, up to their elbows in old papyrus. You don't think of them as sinister, or dangerous. The illuminati responsible for the hydrogen bomb, nerve gas and Agent Orange are dangerous; if you reflect upon it you see that the advanced beings who have given us striped toothpaste and disposable diapers are also dangerous Possibly they are the most dangerous of all; dangerous because false ideas are dangerous.
At any rate some false ideas are dangerous. Belief in the flat earth never hurt anyone though it made navigation problematic. Belief in a geocentric universe held back advances inastronomy but otherwise had certain metaphysical advantages. Academic Egyptology is dangerous because it maintains, in spite of Schwaller de Lubicz's documented scholarly evidence, and the obvious evidence of our own eyes and hearts when we go there, that the race responsible for the pyramids and the temples of Karnak and Luxor was less, advanced' than ourselves.
As long as academic Egyptology prevails, children will be brought up with a totally distorted view of our human past, and by extension, of our human present. And millions of tourists will continue to visit Egypt every year, and have the experience of a lifetime vitiated and subverted by a banal explanation that the greatest art and architecture in the world to superstitious primitives. So the fabulous metaphysical gold of Egypt remains hidden; it's existence stridently denied. For orthodox Egyptology is really little more than a covert operation within the Church of Progress.
Its unspoken agenda is to maintain the faith; not to study or debate the truth about Egypt. Actually, a number of independent scholars have learned the hieroglyphs for themselves and produced alternative less insulting translations of some of the texts. But since these are either ignored or dismissed out of hand by orthodox Egyptologists, there is no way to know if these translations come closer to the real thinking of the ancients or if they are themselves no more than figments of the translators' imaginations, and in.
Noting further difficulties of sustaining independent or alternative Egyptology studies, West remains hopeful that the pressure to revise their unsupportable findings, not just from alternative Egyptologists, but also from geologists who bring to bear an irrefutable and exacting science to the dating of Ancient Egyptian monuments as opposed to the methods which other reputable sociologists and historians have found to be unreliable. Of the major methods accepted for establishing a chronology to understand the origins of civilization and the history of the world such as Astronomical Time, Geological Time, Archaeological Time and Political or Historical Time, the use of Scriptural chronology is recognized as being extremely uncertain because various local chronologies were used at different times by scriptural writers, and different systems were used by contemporaneous writers.
Almost no one can earn a living from it. Serious research is difficult to accomplish on a spare-time basis, and research requires access to the few major Egyptological libraries scattered around the world. In Egypt itself, excavation and all work on or in the pyramids, temples and tombs are controlled by the Egyptian Antiquities Organizations. No one without academic credentials can expect to obtain permission to carry out original work Infiltration from within is also peculiarly difficult.
At least a few people I know personally have set out to acquire degrees in Egyptology, hoping to devote themselves full time to Egypt and ultimately to legitimize the symbolist interpretation. So far, none have been able to stick out the boredom or dutifully parrot the party line for the years necessary to get the diploma, knowing better from the onset.
It seems unlikely that symbolist Egypt will ever establish itself from within its own ranks. But pressure from outside Egyptology but within academia could force a change. At some point they must express those views. African, African American and other African Egyptologists in the Diaspora faced the same problem when they brought forth evidences, which proved that the Ancient Egyptian civilization was originally created by African people, and that people of African descent played a crucial role in the development of Ancient Egyptian culture and its interactions with other world cultures.
This engendered a major storm of repudiation and ridicule beginning in the s. James, John H. Clarke, Yosef A. Catching orthodox Egyptology by surprise, however, Cheikh Anta Diop not only challenged their opinion about the African origins of Ancient Egyptian culture, religion and philosophy, but offered overwhelming proof to support his contentions at the Unesco conference in which he faced 18 of the at that time leaders of the orthodox Egyptological community.
Describing the evidence presented at the Unesco conference, scholar Asa G. Hilliard, described the proceedings as recorded by a news media reporter. Diop presented eleven categories of evidence to support his argument for a native black African KM T , including eye witness testimony of classical writers, melanin levels in the skin of mummies, Bible history, linguistic and cultural comparisons with the rest of Africa, Kamitan self descriptions, Kamitan historical references, physical anthropology data, blood type studies, carvings and paintings, etc.
There was consequently a real lack of balance in the discussions. No objections were raised to them. In ancient KM T the south and the north were always ethnically homogeneous. Professor Vercoutter's suggestion that the population of KM T had been made up of "black skinned whites" was treated as trivia. There were no data presented to show that Kamitan temperament and thought were related to M esopotamia.
The old Kamitan tradition speaks of the Great Lakes region in inner equatorial Africa as being the home of the ancient Kamitans. There was no evidence of large-scale migration between Kamit and M esopotamia. There were no M esopotamian loan words in Kamitan: therefore the two cultures could have no genetic linguistic relationship or be populated by the same people. For comparison purposes, mention was made of the fact that when documented contact with Kamit was made by Asian Hyksos around B.
No empirical data were presented at the conference to show that the ancient Kemites were white. Generally, there. M uslim Arabs conquered Kamit during the 7th century of the Common Era. Therefore, Arabic culture is not a part of Kamit during any part of the 3, years of dynastic Kamit.
Arabic only covered territory off the continent of Africa, mainly in adjacent Saudi Arabia, an area in ancient times that was as much African as Asian. Diop invented a melanin dosage test and applied it to royal mummies in the M useum of M an in Paris, mummies from the M arietta Excavations. All had melanin levels consistent with a "black" population. The symposium participants made a strong recommendation that all royal mummies be tested. To date there is no word that this has been done.
Diop struggled for the remaining years of his life to have access to the Cairo museum for that purpose, but to no avail. Hilliard Concludes: Significantly, it was at the urging of African scholars, led by Dr. Interestingly, the reporter's comments quoted above actually used one of the aspects of M AAT, "balance," to describe Diop and Obenga's work. We know this but have not required the open dialogue.
However, by that time the injury to the orthodox Egyptological position had been done. Since that time other evidences, such as those presented in this book and by other scholars, have steadily chipped away at the orthodox Egyptological dogmas. In this sense the struggle over the guardianship, or as some might consider ownership, over the prestige that comes with being able to consider oneself as an Ancient Egyptian Scholar will continue, because this is apparently a war of information in which western countries have taken the lead.
All kinds of information are valued, but the information on the origins of humanity and the metaphysics of spiritual evolution are both feared and awed by most ordinary human beings, and perhaps particularly the orthodox Egyptologists, because this information truly changes everything, from the concept of human origins to what is life all about.
It brings the whole Western paradigm under scrutiny. Reflect on what would happen if those people in positions of authority as well as lay people in religions, governments and schools were suddenly faced with the realization that their knowledge is deficient, and ordinary people begin to understand that they are higher beings who should not be taken advantage of. This is the power of understanding the glory and truth about Ancient Egypt. All humanity, not just Africans or Europeans, can be transformed through it, for the better, to bring about a world culture based on unity camaraderie.
The illusion which orthodox Egyptologists have promoted, and with which they have self-hypnotized themselves, will gradually give way to the truth, or else they will be left behind just as the M odel T left the horse drawn buggy behind and, electricity left oil lamps behind. The renowned Africologist, Basil Davidson, presented Dr. Diop briefly in Davidsons documentary program Africa. He commented on this ancient ethnography and remarked that it was rare, dismissing it as an anomaly.
However, the following picture of an Ancient Egyptian ethnography was discovered by Dr. However, it was not ascribed as an ethnography, which included Ancient Egyptians, but rather, unknown Abyssinians. Described by Petrie as the Four Races the picture is one of the ethnographies that have come down to us from Ancient Egypt.
It should be noted that the formal ethnographies are rare but depictions showing the Nubians and Egyptians as having the same skin coloration are indeed quite abundant. Petrie describes the face to the far left as being a Negro native African man. The next, from left to right, as a Syrian man, the third is described as an Abyssinian, and the last as a Libyan. In following along with this description by Petrie without having further insight into these classes of Ancient Egyptian art, it may go unnoticed that there is supposed to be an Ancient Egyptian person present.
Having assigned the other races, i. Syrian, Libyan, Abyssinian , the Egyptian person has been omitted in the description of the group. This picture is a variation of the previous picture discovered by Dr. If the picture is rendered as the original, it would mean that the first man on the left that Petrie is referring to as a Negro is actually an Ancient Egyptian man, and the other person of African descent, labeled as an Abyssinian man, would be the Nubian Ethiopian , since the practice of scarification, common to Nubia, is rare or unknown in Ancient Egypt.
The term Abyssinian refers to languages often distinguished as belonging to the subgroup of Hamitic languages. Ethiopia, formerly Abyssinia, is a republic in eastern Africa, currently bounded on the northeast by Eritrea and Djibouti, on the east and southeast by Somalia, on the southwest by Kenya, and on the west and northwest by Sudan. In ancient times the country was bounded in the north by Ancient Egypt. In ancient times Ethiopia and Egypt were strongly related. In fact, Ethiopia was the birthplace of the early Egyptians and also, according to Herodotus, the Indians as well.
They appeared the same to him at the time of his travels through those countries. Thus, the picture shows that the Ancient Egyptians looked no different from other Africans. It is unfortunate that as a result of the mishandling of the monuments due to destruction and neglect by the Arab peoples, the harsh elements and chemicals in the environment, the dams on the Nile River, and the push for tourism, many of the images that he saw can no longer be seen today in their original form, except for a limited amount of originals, like the one discovered by Dr.
Very few monuments and images retain their original color so the only other means currently available to view the images in their original forms are from drawings or pictures made by the early Egyptologists during their expeditions to Egypt. However, we have sufficient images and corroborating texts to say with certainty that the ethnicity of the original peoples who created the culture and civilization of the Nile Valley Ancient Egypt were the same in appearance as those people living in modern day Nubia, i.
Ancient Egyptian Depictions of Egyptians and Nubians One reason for the confusion about the ethnicity of the Ancient Egyptians is the misunderstanding about their depictions of themselves. The men were represented in their art in two distinct forms, the red or reddish-brown and the black, both of which are used interchangeably. This is what the early Egyptologists such as Champollion witnessed before the colors on many depictions had been damaged or lost. In recent times, Western Egyptologists have mistakenly or intentionally characterized these images as evidence of ethnic or racial difference between the Ancient Egyptians and Nubians.
However, the images from the Tomb of Seti I provide insight into this matter. Assyrian Descriptions of the Ancient Egyptians and Nubians. On a relief in the palace of the Assyrian king Assurbanibal , there is depicted the battle in which the Assyrians defeated the army of Kamit. The Assyrians men with long beards and conned hats took prisoners which included Kamitans and Nubians as well as the spoils of the victory back to their homeland. In this relief the Nubian and Kamitan soldiers are pictured equally, meaning that they did not recognize a racial difference, only the ethnic difference.
As far as the physical appearance of the Nubians and Kamitans the Assyrians pictured them as having the same completion. Thus, here we have independent corroboration from the ancient Assyrians as to the ethnic homogeny of the Nubians and Kamitans. Phillip was not an Egyptian by birth but by conquest and dictatorship. So he wanted the people to think of him as an Egyptian King and the practice was to depict Egyptians as red. However, otherwise we have seen Asiatics and others depicted as pale white. This means that the red color is not to denote a race or the color of the actual people but to demonstrate or differentiate one group of people from another for information purposes and not for segregation in the modern sense of Western Racism.
The Tomb of Seti I B. Note that the same labels are used to describe the Egyptians and Nubians in the pictures of both tombs. There are two more depictions from Ancient Egypt, which shed light on the ethnological iconography of the Ancient Egyptians. It provides us with the key to understanding the Kamitan depictions. At a time when Egypt and Nubia are competing with each other, Rameses symbolically brings tied up Nubian prisoners as offerings to Amun See below.
Figure 8: Below left late 20th century Nubian man. Figure 9: Bottom left-Ancient Egyptians musicians and Nubians dancers depicted in the Tombs of the Nobles with the same hue and features. Figure Below-left, Egyptian man and woman- tomb of Payry 18th Dynasty displaying the naturalistic style as people really appeared in ancient times. Below right- Egyptian man and woman-Theban tomb depicted in the colors red and yellow, respectively. Figure Below-left, Stele of Niptah - end of M iddle Kingdom man in red, woman in white with breasts exposed.
Figure Nubians three figures prostrating and Egyptians standing figures are depicted with the same colors of their skin of alternating black and brown -Tomb of Huy. Figure Nubians and Egyptians are depicted with the same colors of alternating black and brown -Tomb of Huy Full Scene. The two pictures above are extremely important to our understanding of the ethnicity of the Ancient Egyptians, Nubians and Ethiopians. It is a rendition by French orientalist and architect Prisse d Avennes A. It is understood by orthodox Egyptologists to be the procession of Nubians who are bringing gifts of gold to Huy, the viceroy of Kush, for the Egyptian king Tutankhamun B.
E B. Note that the classic style of depicting Nubians with black or brown skin and the pronounced cheek line scarification -see example right as well as the feather on the head is maintained. In the same view, there are five figures standing behind the ones that are prostrating, who do not have the feathers or cheek lines, but do have the same skin tone and is represented in the classical style of depicting the Ancient Egyptians. Notice here that the depictions of the skin coloration of the Ancient Egyptians are the same as used for the Nubians brown and black. While Ancient Egyptians and Nubians are depicted individually in brown and black color, the alternating pattern of brown and black is also used to more easily differentiate individuals when people are depicted in close proximity.
Figure above right - Nubian depictions from Akhnaton period B. E Brooklyn M useum Photo by M. The Controversy Over the Race of the Ancient Egyptians Kamitans in European Scholarship and the Move to Refute the Testimony of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth century European Travelers to Egypt The move to deny the appearance of the Ancient Egyptians and promote the idea that they were not African at all has been put forth by many western writers, even in the face of the writings of the Ancient Egyptians themselves who attest that. They are ancestors of the Nubians, to the south, in Africa.
Their own depictions of themselves as dark or black skinned people. The descriptions of them as black people, by the Greek classical writers. The genealogies provided by the Ancient Egyptians themselves stating that their parents are Nubian such as Amunmhat I. Jean Fransois Champollion A. He described images of the Ancient Egyptians, created by them, in which they made themselves look like the Ethiopians, and concluded that they were of the same race as the modern day Nubians, who are black" skinned African peoples, saying in a letter to his brother that he wrote while in Egypt examining the reliefs and studying the hieroglyphs: We find there Egyptians and Africans represented in the same way.
In this same manner, Count Volney wrote after a trip to Egypt between and "Just think that this race of black men, today our slave and the object of our scorn, is the very race to which we owe our arts, sciences and even the use of speech! Just imagine, finally, that it is in the midst of people who call themselves the greatest friends of liberty and humanity that one has approved the most barbarous slavery and questioned whether black men have the same kind of intelligence as whites!
Documenting the observations of travelers such as Livingstone, and others J. A Rogers recorded the following statements by them in his book Sex and Race Vol. I: Livingstone said that the Negro face as he saw it reminded him more ofthat on the monuments of ancient Assyria than that of the popular white fancy. Flinders Petrie, famed Egyptologist says that the Pharaohs of the Xth dynasty were of the Galla type, and the Gallas are clearly what are known in our day as Negroes. He tells further of seeing one day on a train a man whose features were "the exact living, type" of a statue of ancient Libya, and discovered that the man was a American mulatto.
The following memoir recorded by Champollion-Figeac, the brother of Jean Fransois Champollion in denotes the problem, which the western researchers who recognized the importance of Ancient Egyptian civilization, were facing. It was obvious that the writings were beginning to reveal religion, philosophy and evolved culture, all of which contradict the basic tenets used to justify the denigration of the Negro race and their enslavement in Africa, Europe and the New World the Americas. Therefore, it became necessary to refute and even attempt to explain away the reason for the findings.
Since the Renaissance, travelers in the East, barely capable of fully appreciating the ideas provided by Egyptian monuments on this important question, have helped to spread that false notion and geographers have not failed to reproduce it, even in our day. A serious authority declared himself in favor of this view and popularized the error. Such was the effect of what the celebrated Volney published on the various races of men that he had observed in Egypt. In his Voyage, which is in all libraries, he reports that the Copts are descended from the ancient Egyptians; that the Copts have a bloated face, puffed up eyes, flat nose, and thick lips, like a mulatto; that they resemble the Sphinx of the Pyramids, a distinctly Negro head.
He concludes that the ancient Egyptians were true Negroes of the same species as all indigenous Africans. To support his opinion, Volney invokes that of Herodotus who, apropos the Colchians, recalls that the Egyptians had black skin and woolly hair. Yet these two physical qualities do not suffice to characterize the Negro race and Volney's conclusion as to the Negro origin of the ancient Egyptian civilization is evidently forced and inadmissible. It is recognized today that the inhabitants of Africa belong to three races, quite distinct from each other for all time: 1.
Negroes proper, in Central and West Africa; 2. Kaffirs on the east coast, who have a less obtuse facial angle than Blacks and a high nose, but thick lips and woolly hair; 3. M oors, similar in stature, physiognomy and hair to the best formed nations of Europe and western Asia, and differing only in skin color which is tanned by the climate. The ancient population of Egypt belonged to this latter race, that is, to the white race. To be convinced of this, we need only examine the human figures representing Egyptians on the monuments and above all the great number of mummies that have been opened.
Except for the color of the skin, blackened by the hot climate, they are the same men as those of Europe and western Asia: frizzy, woolly hair is the true characteristic of the Negro race; the Egyptians, however, had long hair, identical with that of the white race of the West. Firstly, Champollion-Figeac affirms that the ancient Egyptians had black skin and woolly hair.
However, he and then goes on to say that these are not sufficient to characterize the Negro race. He thus contradicts himself later by saying frizzy, woolly hair is the true characteristic of the Negro race. Obviously this is a contradiction in terms that is inescapable. In an attempt to formulate a thesis that the Ancient Egyptians were essentially white people, like the best-formed Europeans, except for the color of the skin, blackened by the hot climate, he stumbles on his own argument which is unreasonable at the outset.
At no time previous or since has there been recognized anywhere on earth, a race of white-black people. This argument is based on observing the so-called three races of Africa of his time, as if these were representative of the ancient ethnicity of Africa and could have any baring on the question of the race of the Ancient Egyptians. This argument is of course contradictory and unworkable such as it is, but even more so when it is kept in mind that the Ancient Egyptians mixed with Asiatics and Europeans Greeks and even still the descriptions of the classical Greek writers unanimously considered them as what in the present day would be called Negros.
Also, the present day Copts, descendants of the Ancient Egyptians, of Champollion-Figeacs time were even then recognized as having Negroid features. By Champollion-Figeacs reasoning it would be necessary to conclude that Africans are white Europeans. The Kaffirs M uslim word for pagans being referred to are those people whom the M uslim Arabs found in Africa as they entered Africa from the Sinai Peninsula, which is the bridge between Asia M inor and Africa.
Through limited genealogies left by the M oors it has been determined that they were a mixture of Arab and African blood. Thus, the comparisons used by Champollion-Figeac are wholly useless for determining the race of the Ancient Egyptians, but they can however be used for comparisons to the Copts, who like the M oors, appeared to have a bloated face, puffed up eyes, flat nose, and thick lips, like a mulatto like the M oors, and also like the present day peoples of African descent living in the Diaspora African Americans, African Brazilians, Africans in Jamaica, etc.
When this kind of comparison is made it is clear that the mulatto arises from a combination of African and Semite Arab or European. This of course means that the African features, color of the skin, thick lips and woolly hair must have been present in the past if they are present in the current population of mixed peoples, that is to say, the population goes from black skin to lighter skin color and not the other way around. Except for the effects of climactic changes on populations over a long period of time thousands of years , which have been shown to cause changes in physical appearance, there is no record of Black populations arising from white populations.
Lastly, in the time of the Ancient Egyptians, before the coming of the Greeks, there were no Europeans in Africa at all. The only populations recognized by the Egyptians were themselves, the other Africans, the Libyans and the Asiatics, all of whom vary in skin tone from dark black to light brown coloration. So if there are any white people in present day Africa they are descendants of the documented influx of Greeks who came in as invading forces with Alexander the Great B.
In any case, when discussing the Ancient Egyptians of the Old and M iddle Kingdoms and the Pre-Dynastic Period, we are not discussing mulattos since the admixture with other ethnic groups had not occurred until the New Kingdom period, and even more so in the Late period, through contact with the conquering Asiatic and European forces. Therefore, to look at the images of the Egyptians during the mixture period and to say that these are representative of the Ancient Egyptian ethnic origins is the worst kind of scholarship. This is a tactic used by some Western and Arab scholars to escape the conclusion that the Ancient Egyptians were black.
How is this possible? In places such as the United States of America, the rule established by the white ruling class has always been that one drop of black blood make one black. This means that everyone from dark black skin color to the light brown or swarthy complexion, are recognized as being descendants of the African slaves, and are subject to being segregated and discriminated against. So they are trying to say that the Ancient Egyptians were either a mixed race or better yet, an indigenous Asiatic group that developed independently of the black Africans.
In any case, even in the late period the Greek classical writers witnessed the population of Kamit as being overwhelmingly black Nubian. So we are not talking about light skinned black people or dark skinned white people but dark skinned black people, like those who can be met even today A.
There were several prominent and respected Linguists and Egyptologists who affirmed that the Ancient Egyptians were African or Negros.
Sir Henry Rawlinson, prominent linguist and decipherer of the mideastern scripts and widely regarded as the father of M iddleEastern Studies, said "Seti's face is thoroughly African, strong, fierce, prognathous, with depressed nose, thick lips and a heavy chin I: Egyptian civilization, from its beginning to the Christian era, lasted for more than seven thousand years, that is, about four times as long as from "the birth of Christ" to the present, therefore, most of the records have been lost, and the little that remains must be pieced together.
There are often great gaps. Between the Bushman period of B. Some of the faces of the rulers of this dynasty are clearly Negroid. The founder of the Third Dynasty, Sa nekht, was a full blooded Negro, a type commonly seen in the Egyptian army today. Petrie says of him, "It will be seen how strongly Ethiopian the characters of it the portrait is even more so than Shabaka, most marked of the Ethiopian dynasty.
The type is one with which we are very familiar among the Sudanese of the Egyptian police and army; it goes with a dark brown skin and a very truculent character. In the late 19th century A. In our day the origin and ethnographic affinities of the population have inspired lengthy debate. First, the seventeenth and eighteenth century travelers, misled by the appearance of certain mongrelized Copts, certified that their predecessors in the Pharaonic age had a puffed up face, bug eyes, flat nose, fleshy lips.
And that they presented certain characteristic features of the Negro race. This error, common at the start of the century, vanished once and for all as soon as the French Commission had published its great work.
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They were the first Europeans in modern times to see the Ancient Egyptian reliefs and paintings and their reaction was the same as the Greek classical writers when it came to describing the peoples of Kamit and the rest of the Nile Valley. In fact, they did not base their assessment of the Ancient Egyptian ethnicity just by examining their descendants, the Copts, but on images left behind by the Kamitans, some that had been buried under the encroaching dessert sands, which for this reasons were preserved in very good condition.