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The fire season length for human-started fires was 50 days longer than the lightning-started fire season 93 days compared to 43 days , a twofold increase. While lightning-driven fires tend to be heavily concentrated in the summer months, human-ignited fires were found to be more evenly distributed across all seasons. Overall, humans added an average of 40, wildfires during the spring, fall and winter seasons annually—over 35 times the number of lightning-started fires in those seasons.

The most common day for human-started fire by far, however, was July 4, with 7, total wildfires started on that day over the course of the year period. The new findings have wide-ranging implications for fire management policy and suggest that human behavior can have dramatic impact on wildfire totals, for good or for ill. Letztendlich stecken die Ozeanzyklen dahinter. Pressemitteilung via Science Daily :. An international team of climate researchers from the US, South Korea and the UK has developed a new wildfire and drought prediction model for southwestern North America.

Extending far beyond the current seasonal forecast, this study published in the journal Scientific Reports could benefit the economies with a variety of applications in agriculture, water management and forestry. Over the past 15 years, California and neighboring regions have experienced heightened drought conditions and an increase in wildfire numbers with considerable impacts on human livelihoods, agriculture, and terrestrial ecosystems. This new research shows that in addition to a discernible contribution from natural forcings and human-induced global warming, the large-scale difference between Atlantic and Pacific ocean temperatures plays a fundamental role in causing droughts, and enhancing wildfire risks.

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The new findings show that a warm Atlantic and a relatively cold Pacific enhance the risk for drought and wildfire in the southwestern US. It was tested with a month forecasting time for wildfire and for drought. Widlansky, Magdalena A. Balmaseda, Lowell Stott.

Multi-year predictability of climate, drought, and wildfire in southwestern North America. Scientific Reports, ; 7 1 DOI: Effects of climate oscillations on wildland fire potential in the continental United States The effects of climate oscillations on spatial and temporal variations in wildland fire potential in the continental U. Relative to the mean, the largest impacts of ENSO are observed in the northwest and southeast. Climate impacts on fire potential due to ENSO are found to be most closely associated with variations in relative humidity.

The connections established here between fire potential and climate oscillations could result in improved wildland fire risk assessment and resource allocation. While the warm phase of ENSO promotes drier and warmer than normal conditions across the region during winter and spring that favor widespread fire activity the following summer, a reduction in VLFs was found during the warm phase of ENSO during summer concurrent with the fire season. This paradox is primarily tied to an anomalous upper level trough over the western U.

Collectively, these features result in widespread increases in precipitation amount during the summer and a curtailment of periods of critically low-fuel moistures that can carry wildfire. Pressemitteilung der University of Colorado von The study authors, who looked at 1. Only 16 percent of the study area showed a shift from historically low-severity fires to severe, potential crown fires that can jump from treetop to treetop. The idea that modern fires are larger and more severe as a result of fire suppression that allowed forest fuels to build up in the past century is still prevalent among some , said CU-Boulder geography Professor Thomas Veblen, a study co-author.

A paper on the subject was published Sept. The study was funded by the National Science Foundation. In addition, tree-ring evidence from the new study shows there were several years on the Front Range since the s when there were very large, severe fires. The authors looked at more than 1, fire-scarred tree samples and nearly 8, samples of tree ages at forest sample sites from Teller County to Larimer County. The study is one of the largest of its kind ever undertaken in the western United States.

The team was especially interested in fire records before about , when effective fire suppression in the West began in earnest. Along the Front Range, especially at higher elevations, homeowners and fire managers should expect a number of high-severity fires unrelated to any kind of fire suppression and fuel build-up, said Schoennagel. Im Jahr brannte es in Kalifornien. Pressemitteilung :. For the years to , the team found four periods, each lasting at least 55 years, where the frequency and extent of forest fires clearly differed from the time period before or after.

However, the shifts from one fire regime to another did not correspond to changes in temperature or moisture or other climate patterns until temperatures started rising in the s. Finding that fire activity and human land use are closely linked means people can affect the severity and frequency of future forest fires through managing the fuel buildup and other land management practices — even in the face of rising temperatures from climate change, she said.

Taylor of Penn State, Carl N. Skinner of the U. Stephens of the University of California, Berkeley.

The team combined the fire history recorded in tree rings from 29 sites all along the Sierra Nevada with a 20th-century record of annual area burned. The history spanned the years to Other researchers already had shown that in the Sierra, there was a relationship between forest fire activity and the amount of fuel buildup. Team members wondered whether human activity over the year period had changed the amount of fuel available for fires. By using a technique called regime shift analysis, the team found four distinct time periods that differed in forest fire activity.

The first was to After , fire activity doubled. Fire activity dropped to pre levels starting in Starting in , fire activity was less frequent than any previous time period. In , fire activity started increasing again. However, the frequency of forest fires did not closely track climatic conditions, particularly after The researchers reviewed historical documents and other evidence and found the shifting patterns of fire activity most closely followed big changes in human activity in the region. Before the Spanish colonization of California, Native Americans regularly set small forest fires.

The result was a mosaic of burned and unburned patches, which reduced the amount of fuel available to fires and limited the spread of any particular fire. However, once the Spanish arrived in , Native American populations rapidly declined because of disease and other causes.

In addition, the Spanish government banned the use of fire. Without regular fires, fuels built up, leading to more and larger fires. The influx of people to California during the Gold Rush that began in reduced fire activity. The large numbers of livestock brought by the immigrants grazed on the grasses and other plants that would otherwise have been fuel for forest fires. In , the U. After that, fire activity dropped to its lowest level since Starting in the s, as the climate warms, fire frequency and severity has increased again.

Today we see more canopy-killing fires. Im australischen Bundesstaat Victoria sind Welchen Anteil hatte der Klimawandel an der Brandkatastrophe? Buschfeuer hat es in Australien stets gegeben. Zum Beispiel Ende des Jahrhunderts in New South Wales. Eine klassische Fehlleistung, die einem Inhaber einer solchen Position nicht unterlaufen sollte. Die Provinzregierung verwehrt sich gegen derartige Fehlinterpretationen.

Handelsbatt vom Abstract :. Variability, trends, and drivers of regional fluctuations in Australian fire activity Throughout the world fire regimes are determined by climate, vegetation, and anthropogenic factors, and they have great spatial and temporal variability. The availability of high-quality satellite data has revolutionized fire monitoring, allowing for a more consistent and comprehensive evaluation of temporal and spatial patterns. It is found that Australian fire activity is decreasing during summer December—February or stable, with high temporal and spatial variability.

These decreasing fire regions are relatively highly populated, so we suggest that the declining trends are due to improved fire management , reducing the size and duration of bush fires. We show that there is considerable potential throughout Australia for a skillful forecast for future season fire activity based on current and previous precipitation activity, ENSO phase, and to a lesser degree, the IOD phase. This is highly variable, depending on location, e.

Das arktische Meereis ist in den letzten Jahrzehnten geschmolzen. Ende sah die Entwicklung wie folgt aus Arktis, blaue Kurve :. Abbildung 1: Entwicklung der Meereisbedeckung in der Arktis blau und Antarktis rot. Quelle: Climate4You. Laut einigen Vorhersagen, sollte das arktische Meer schon heute eisfrei sein. So hatte Al Gore dem Eis nur noch 5 Jahre gegeben, bis es vollends verschwindet. Eine Fehlprognose wie wir heute wissen. Genauso schlimm waren die Vorhersagen von Peter Wadhams. Ganz falsch. Ein Mann der bewusst die Pferde scheu machte.

Till Wagner und Ian Eisenman untersuchten in den Geophysical Research Letters , wie es zu diesen krassen Fehlprognosen kommen konnte. False alarms: How early warning signals falsely predict abrupt sea ice loss Uncovering universal early warning signals for critical transitions has become a coveted goal in diverse scientific disciplines, ranging from climate science to financial mathematics.

There has been a flurry of recent research proposing such signals, with increasing autocorrelation and increasing variance being among the most widely discussed candidates. A number of studies have suggested that increasing autocorrelation alone may suffice to signal an impending transition, although some others have questioned this. Here we consider variance and autocorrelation in the context of sea ice loss in an idealized model of the global climate system. The model features no bifurcation, nor increased rate of retreat, as the ice disappears. Furthermore, instrumentation and control systems are being connected with general power plant networks to make process information available to administrative personnel.

This increases the risk of accidental or intentional access from outside the system e. Firewall systems are used to prevent such outside access. A firewall is the sole gateway between two networks which are to be kept separate, and is used to filter and control access to the protected network. Cryptography and personal chip cards are also used to provide additional protection. Auch werden Rechnersysteme zum Messen, Steuern und Regeln sogenannte Instrumentation and Control Systems mit allgemeinen Kraftwerksnetzen verbunden, um Prozessinformationen auch in der Verwaltung zugaenglich zu machen.

Damit waechst die Gefahr von zufaelligen oder beabsichtigten Eingriffen von aussen z. Zum Schutz vor solchen Eingriffen von aussen werden sogenannte Firewall-Systeme eingesetzt. Ein Firewall ist der alleinige Uebergang zwischen zwei zu trennenden Netzen und dient zur Filterung und Kontrolle der Zugriffe auf ein zu schuetzendes Netz. Ergaenzende Schutzmassnahmen sind der Einsatz kryptographischer Verfahren, sowie persoenlicher Chipkarten. Untertitel als Mittel zum Fremdsprachenerwerb.

Checklisten und zum anderen um Evaluationsverfahren. Climate change and the Lower Weser region.

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Teilprojekt: Oekologischer Komplex. B: Klimasensitivitaet der Unterweser und ihrer Vorlaender. The climate sensitivity of the aquatic, amphibic and terrestrial compartments of the lower Weser region was analyzed. This region, located between Bremen and Bremerhaven in northern Germany, is part of a bigger natural reserve 'Unterwesermarsch'. Vegetation and land use were mapped at the biotype level, and forecasts of changes to be expected were attempted on the basis of a regionalised climate scenario.

Climate-induced changes in the topology of the headlands and in the morphology of the lower Weser river could not be taken into account. Die Vegetation und die Nutzung des Gebietes wurde flaechendeckend auf der Ebene von Biotoptypenkartierungen erfasst. Prognosen der Flaechenbilanzen und der kuenftigen Veraenderung der Biotoptypen und der Fauna des Vorlandes und der Unterweser wurden auf der Grundlage eines regionalisierten Klimaszenarios vorgenommen. Klimabedingte Veraenderungen der Topografie der Vorlandbereiche und der Morphologie der Unterweser konnten innerhalb der vorliegenden Studie nicht beruecksichtigt werden.

High-performance ceramic filters for energy engineering. Final report; Filter aus Hochleistungskeramik fuer die Energietechnik. Westerheide, R. Ein Hauptziel der Entwicklung war, die moegliche Anwendungstemperatur zu steigern. Um dieses Ziel zu erreichen, wurden die Arbeiten zusammen mit Rohstoffherstellern, Entwicklern und Herstellern von keramischen Werkstoffen und Bauteilen, sowie mit Firmen, die ueber entsprechende Moeglichkeiten zur Qualifizierung unter Realbedingungen verfuegen, durchgefuehrt. Um die Hochtemperaturbestaendigkeit der Filtermaterialien unter Beruecksichtigung der Korrosionsbestaendigkeit, der Festigkeit und des Druckverlustes von Filtermaterialien zu erhoehen, wurden verschiedene Wege gewaehlt.

Einer dieser Wege war die Optimierung der Bindephase des Siliziumcarbidmaterials. Andere Wege konzentrierten sich auf Variationen des Grundmaterials oder die Bewertung alternativer Bindungsmoeglichkeiten, wie zum Beispiel die Reaktionsbindung von RSiC oder eine Sinterung von granuliertem, feinkoernigen Siliciumcarbidpulver. Zusaetzlich wurden auf oxidischen Keramiken basierende Filtermaterialien entwickelt. Die Arbeiten wurden ergaenzt durch die Modellierung der Mikrostruktur, die Untersuchung von betriebsbedingten Materialalterungen und die Entwicklung von Beschichtungen und Beschichtungsverfahren.

Natural biogenic solid fuels - environmentally relevant characteristics and possible influences. Final report; Naturbelassene biogene Festbrennstoffe - umweltrelevante Eigenschaften und Einflussmoeglichkeiten. Arbeitsgruppe Festbrennstoffe. Eine Datenbank fuer naturbelassene biogene Festbrennstoffe wurde errichtet.

Hierfuer wurde ein relationales Datenbankmodell gewaehlt. Dessen Struktur wurde so angelegt, dass neben den eigentlichen Messgroessen auch eine Vielzahl weiterer Eigenschaften und Informationen zum Brennstoff sowie seine Herkunftsmerkmale und die verwendeten Analyseverfahren festgehalten werden konnten. Die in den eigenen Versuchsserien zustande gekommenen Analyseergebnisse wurden durch weitere Daten aus einer umfangreichen Recherche Befragung sowie aus Literaturangaben ergaenzt, so dass insgesamt ca. Optimization of the DEC-air handling process. Die Untersuchungen wurden sowohl experimentell als auch theoretisch durchgefuehrt.

Aufbauend auf Leistungsmessungen wurden Simulationsmodelle entwickelt, die mittels experimenteller Daten verifiziert wurden. Im Rahmen des Forschungsvorhabens wurden die Leistungsdaten der Komponenten Sorptionsregenerator und Befeuchter optimiert. Der notwendige Energieverbrauch zum Betreiben dieser Komponenten kann auf einem exergetisch besseren Niveau zur Verfuegung gestellt werden.

Die Befeuchtungsleistung laesst sich bei einer Verringerung des Wasserverbrauches konstant halten. Die Komponenten wurden fuer eine Markteinfuehrung hinsichtlich ihrer Leistungsparameter verbessert. Fuer die Fa. Klingenburg bestehen nunmehr gute Voraussetzungen fuer die breite Anwendung und Vermarktung.

Die Leitlinie stellt allgemeine Aspekte der Pharmakokinetik sowie der regulatorischen Begrifflichkeiten dar. Die Bedeutung der galenischen Grundlagen und die Problematik bei einer Substitution gegeneinander verschiedener Grundlagen werden dargestellt. Praxisnahe Beispiele helfen dabei, das Gelernte rasch umzusetzen. Dabei kommen dem Autor Michael Inden seine umfangreichen Schulungs- und Entwicklererfahrungen zugute - und Ihnen als Leser damit ebenso.

Verschiedene Kapitel sind Java 8 und seinen Neuerungen gewidmet. Dort wird ein fundierter Einstieg in die umfangreichen Erweit Status seminar on BMBF-funded research projects in ecotoxicology. Research projects in the field of ecotoxicology are presented, with particular regard to aquatic and terrestrial ecotoxicology. The report covers pollutant effects on plancton and fish and pollutant monitoring in streams.

The effects, distribution and mobility of PAH, PCB and other pollutants in soils and pollutant concentrations in microorganisms are gone into. Schwerpunkte hierbei sind die aquatische Oekotoxokologie und die terrestrische Oekotoxikologie. Polycrystalline silicon film solar cells on insulator devices. Final report; Duennschichtsolarzellen aus kristallinem Silicium auf Glassubstraten. Werner, J.

  • The Cherry Orchard.
  • KOSMOS Conference - Navigating the Sustainability Transformation in the 21st Century?
  • News und Termine.
  • Philosophie des émotions : Les sages nous aident à en faire bon usage (Mieux vivre avec la philosophie) (French Edition).
  • Extreme Events - Building Climate Resilient Societies.
  • Univ.-Prof. Dr. Christian P. Hoffmann.

Dieses Verfahren wurde seit einer Anpassung des Arbeitsplanes im Jahr im Vorhaben verfolgt und konnte die damaligen hohen Erwartungen sogar noch uebertreffen. Es wird in einem Anschlussvorhaben weiterentwickelt, um unter anderem belastbare Fakten zu Fragen der industriellen Anwendbarkeit zu sammeln. Die direkte Herstellung effizienter polykristalliner Siliciumsolarzellen auf Glassubstraten bei Temperaturen zwischen und C erwies sich als aeusserst schwierig und vermutlich unmoeglich.

Der Durchgang von Korngrenzen durch den pn-Uebergang begrenzt in diesem Korngroessenbereich die erreichbare Ausgangsspannung prinzipiell auf inakzeptabel niedrige Werte. Die thermokatalytische Abscheidung hot-wire CVD nanokristalliner Si-Filme nc-Si fuer den Einsatz in gestapelten, mikromorphen Solarzellen konnte dahingehend optimiert werden, dass Schichten mit ausschliesslicher -Textur erzielt wurden. Solche Schichten zeigen stabile elektronische Eigenschaften; Veraenderungen durch die Aufnahme von atmosphaerischem Sauerstoff, Wasser usw.

Der Einsatz in Solarzellen scheint jedoch der geringen Abscheiderate wegen wenig sinnvoll. Hier zeigte sich, dass Schichten guter elektronischer Qualitaet in hot-wire CVD aehnlich niedrige Abscheideraten erfordern wie in plasmagestuetzten Verfahren. The background aerosol in the lower stratosphere and the tropospheric aerosol in the Alps. Final report; Das Hintergrundaerosol der unteren Stratosphaere und das troposphaerische Aerosol der Alpen. As a contribution to the German Aerosol-Lidar Network lidar backscatter measurements have been carried out at Garmisch-Partenkirchen in a wide range of the atmosphere from next to the ground to altitudes beyond 30 km.

The investigations, on one hand, were devoted to establishing a climatology of the aerosol extinction coefficient for the northern Alps and to prolonging the long-term measurement series of the stratospheric aerosol. On the other hand, aerosol was used as a tracer of polluted air masses in atmospheric transport studies orographically induced vertical transport, advection of Saharan dust, as well as aerosol advection from the North american boundary layer and from large-scale wild fire in the United States and Canada.

These transport processes given the seasonal cycle of the aerosol throughout the troposphere. In the free troposphere a pronounced spring-time aerosol maximum was found. The stratospheric aerosol concentration had decayed to a background-type level during the reporting period. As a consequence, the influence of smaller aerosol contributions could be distinguished such as the eruption of the volcano Shishaldin Alaska and aircraft emissions. Die Arbeiten dienten zum einen der Erstellung einer Klimatologie des Aerosol-Extinktionskoeffizienten fuer die Nordalpen sowie der Verlaengerung der seit erstellten Langzeitmessreihe des stratosphaerischen Aerosols.

Zum anderen fanden atmosphaerische Transportstudien statt, bei denen das Aerosol als 'Tracer' fuer Luftverschmutzung verwendet wurde orographisch induzierter Vertikaltransport, Advektion von Saharastaub und Aerosoladvektion aus der nordamerikanischen Genzschicht und von grossflaechigen Waldbraenden in den U. Diese Transportprozesse bestimmen den. New, mechanically textured high-efficiency solar cells of low-cost silicon foil material. Final report; Neuartige, mechanisch texturierte Hochleistungssolarzellen aus kostenguenstigem Siliziumfolienmaterial. The project investigated the efficiency increase of solar cells made of multicrystalline silicon.

Since , Constance University has been working on a texturing process based on fast rotating profile tools. The technology is a low-cost grinding technology and will enhance the efficiency of multicrystalline Si solar cell processes in industrial applications. Combined with innovative cell concepts semi-transparent POWER solar cells, rolling pressure metallization, innovative cell connection , the process has considerable technology transfer and marketing potential.

The project intended a systematic improvement of the results achieved so far on the basis of new ideas and full exploitation of the available technological potential in the field of wafer, foil and thin film processes. Daraus ergab sich die Fragestellung der Steigerung des Solarzellenwirkungswirkungsgrades insbesondere auf diesen Materialien. Zwei wesentliche Aspekte sind dabei zu beruecksichtigen: eine effiziente Oberflaechentextur und eine angepasste Prozessoptimierung inklusive Volumenpasssivierung.

Bei dem an der Universitaet Konstanz seit in der Laborentwicklung befindlichen Texturierungsverfahren auf Basis schnellrotierenden Profilwerkzeuge handelte es sich um eine vielseitig verwendbare Technologie, die zum einen als reines mechanisches Schleifverfahren kostenguenstig erscheint und zum anderen zu Wirkungsgradsteigerungen bei industrienahen multikristallinen Silizium-Solarzellenprozessen fuehrt. Das vorliegende Vorhaben verfolgte eine systematische Verbesserung der bereits erzielten Ergebnisse. Technical and economical optimization of wood gasification in a circulating fluidized bed.

Final report; Technische und wirtschaftliche Optimierung der Vergasung von Holz in der zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht. The project's objective was the optimization of a novel process for high efficient combined heat and power production from solid biomass. The processed air blown wood gasification in a pilot scale circulating fluidized bed was added by a catalytic tar reformer which would yield a tar-free gas quality suitable for IC-engine operation.

Major efforts were taken for technical improvement of the tar reformer, especially concerning temperature control and cleaning devices which is important for keeping constantly a high activity. Pure natural timber did not yield chemical deactivation at the catalyst whereas the gasification of waste wood yielded decreasing activity which could be partly reversed by special measures taken.

Further optimization of the process considered a better automation and improvement of the engine's flue gas emissions. Also a detailed economic consideration and evaluation of the entire process has been carried out. As a result the novel process should have economic advantages compared with conventional technology.

Durch luftgeblasene Vergasung von Holz im Pilotmassstab in einer zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht und anschliessender katalytischer Teerspaltung konnte ein niederkalorisches Brenngas erzeugt werden, welches zum Betrieb eines Motoren-Blockheizkraftwerks geeignet war. Im Rahmen der Verfahrensoptimierung wurde der katalytische Teer-Reformer, insbesondere in Bezug auf Temperaturfuehrung und die zum Aktivitaetserhalt wichtige Abreinigungsvorrichtung, verbessert. Bei der Vergasung von Naturholz wurde keine chemische Desaktivierung festgestellt. Beim Altholzeinsatz wurde ein ueberwiegend reversibler Aktivitaetsverlust verzeichnet und begruendet.

Geeignete Gegenmassnahmen wurden untersucht und beschrieben. Weitere Optimierungen betrafen die Anlagensteuerungstechnik im Hinblick auf die. Das Unsichtbare sichtbar machen. In ihrer Schrift Die Wohnungsfrage ist Frauensache! Jahrhunderts und zum Neuen Bauen auf. Engine 3E. Final report; Engine 3E. Further, the design of the new combustion chamber was to be conventional in order to retain the possibility of converting existing propulsion systems to the new technology.

Das Programm wurde am Juli begonnen und endete am Juni Darueber hinaus sollte das aeussere Design der zu entwickelnden Brennkammer sind von konventionellen Brennkammern nicht unterscheiden, um die Moeglichkeit der Umruestung von alten Triebwerken mit der Brennkammern der neuen Technologie offen zu halten.

Momentaufnahmen nicht mehr existierender kultureller Objekte darstellen und die 3. Smart market. From smart grid to the intelligent energy market; Smart Market. Vom Smart Grid zum intelligenten Energiemarkt. Fachbereich Betriebswirtschaft; Doleski, Oliver D. Dare more market. The Bundesnetzagentur has shown with its highly regarded benchmark paper on smart grids and markets leads the way towards more market in the energy sector. The therein required differentiation in a network and market sphere contributes to greater transparency on the consumer side and enables a gid releaving shift in energy consumption.

The book focuses on actors and roles in the modified market circumstances as well as components and products of a future Smart Markets. Finally, to the reader concrete business models are offered.

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Authors from science and practice give in this book answers on how the interaction of Smart Grid and Smart Market works. Die Bundesnetzagentur hat mit ihrem vielbeachteten Eckpunktepapier zu intelligenten Netzen und Maerkten diesen Weg in Richtung mehr Markt in der Energiewirtschaft gewiesen. Die darin geforderte Differenzierung in eine Netz- und Marktsphaere traegt zu mehr Transparenz auf der Verbraucherseite bei und ermoeglicht eine netzentlastende Verlagerung des Energieverbrauchs.

Schliesslich werden dem Leser konkrete Geschaeftsmodelle angeboten. Measurement of various hydrocarbons as precursors of photooxidants relevant to human biometeorology KOVOX. Abschlussbericht zum Teil 2. Further, a wide range of anthropogenic and biogenic hydrocarbons, which are important groups of precursors of photooxidants and potential pollution factors, were measured in the framework of another research project KOVOX - Measurement of various hydrocarbons as precursors of photooxidants relevant to human biometeorology. Amongst other work this included the discrimination of forest and non-forest, demarcation of cleared areas within forests, discrimination of different forest types, and assessment of the influence of foliation.

The chief steps of the study were the preparation of radar data, accompanying aerial photo evaluation for the extraction of training and verification areas, and detailed signature analysis. This can be attributed to the very heterogeneous and small-scale structure of the area and the absence of topographically coded X, C, and L band data. This permitted using the mask of the local angles of incidence to reduce the influence of relief.

In this case distinguishability within wooded regions was also enhanced. A general finding was that ground resolution as it presents to the user is clearly poorer than the nominal resolution. What impressed us most was the high degree of weather-independence of the radar data. All data handled in this study were recorded under conditions that would have made photography impossible. Zu loesende Teilaufgaben waren u.

Die zentralen Arbeitsschritte waren die Aufbereitung der Radardaten, die begleitende Luftbildauswertung zur Extraktion von Trainings- und Verifizierungsgebieten und die detailierte Signaturanalyse. Als Gruende hierfuer werden die sehr heterogenen und kleinraeumigen Strukturen des Gebietes und das Fehlen von gelaendegeokodierten X, C- und L-Banddaten angesehen.

Dadurch war eine Verminderung des Reliefeinflusses unter Einsatz der Maske der lokalen Einfallswinkel moeglich. Auch zeigte sich in diesem Fall eine erhoehte Unterscheidbarkeit innerhalb der bewaldeten Gebiete. Generell bleibt jedoch festzustellen, dass die tatsaechliche Bodenaufloesung fuer den Nutzer deutlich hinter der nominellen Aufloesung zurueckbleibt.

Am meisten beeindruckt hat uns die hohe Wetterunabhaengigkeit der Radardaten. Alle hier bearbeiteten Daten entstanden unter Wetterbedingungen, bei denen optische Aufnahmen unmoeglich waren. Comparative studies on ultrasonic, friction, laser and resistance pressure welding of NiTi shape memory alloys with high-alloy steels. The quality of the welds was analyzed using mechanical-technological, fractographic, metallographic and electron microscopy analysis. Die Qualitaet der Fuegeverbindungen wird mit Hilfe mechanisch-technologischer, fraktographischer, metallographischer und elektronenmikroskopischer Untersuchungen bewertet.

Key aspects of the project were a development and examination of measures for the improvement of biomass-retention-systems of high-performance anaerobic systems b the improvement of early detection for overloading of anaerobic reactors. The lab-scale plant of the preliminary research project was taken for the implementation of the lab-scale trials. Mutual cooperation visits exchange of project status, teaching of Russian personnel with regard to industrial waste water treatment and appropriate chemical analysis completed the project. Furthermore, another application was prepared by the two project directors.

The research concerning the retention of biomass by filtration was performed with the aid of three lab-scale reactors, one equipped with a downstream filter, one with additional equipment of activated carbon and a third as a reference reactor. Regarding the particulate COD the plant with the filtration provided the lowest effluent concentrations, however COD-peaks where measured under back-flushing. Concerning the diluted COD the plant with activated carbon achieved the best results whereas an occupation of the activated carbon could be observed with increasing trial duration.

Sustainable use of KLIMAZWIEBEL

Due to the positive results of the lab-scale trials and the poor sedimentation characteristics of the pumice stone used in the full-scale plant, the alternative application of filter sand ought to be taken into consideration. In all runs plant 2 performed better than plant 1. Concerning the detection of states of overloading the pH-value, biogas production and the methane content were found to serve as a reliable indicator-parameter. Future research activities should focus on and push forward the online-acquisition of data for indicator-parameters.

Study on the safety during transportion of radioactive materials. Coverage of the inspection conditions for packages. Final report work package 3; Untersuchungen zur Sicherheit bei der Befoerderung radioaktiver Stoffe. Abdeckungsgrad der Pruefbedingungen fuer Versandstuecke. Abschlussbericht zum Arbeitspaket 3. The report summarizes the state of science and technology and the inspection request according to the transport regulations SSR The studies concerning different transport modes are evaluated with respect to accident data: air transport, maritime transport, rail transport and road transport.

It has been shown that not enough appropriate information is available to quantify the accident probability. The IAEA transport regulations are considered to cover the thermal and mechanical loads to a large extent. Final report; 2D-FE-Verfahren fuer die Kennfeldberechnung von vielstufigen Turbinen mit unter- und ueberkritischen Stufendruckverhaeltnissen mit variabler Kuehlluftzufuhr. Throughflow calculations have proved to be useful tools for flow field analysis and performance prediction of multistage turbines during the design process.

The advantages of this method are a very limited effort necessary for preparation and a short calculation time combined with sufficient accuracy. For the design of modern gas turbines it is necessary to consider the influence of modern cooling systems in these computations. The throughflow method presented here is based on the finite element method and includes extensions which consider radial transport processes and the influence of modern cooling systems.

In order to calculate modern gas turbines with complex cooling systems the method considers arbitrary combinations of convection cooling, coolant ejection at the trailing edges, film cooling and coolant ejection at the end walls. The mixing of hot gas and coolant is calculated by simplified conservation laws.

The raising mass flow due to coolant addition is considered by a modified definition of the stream function or in case of the coolant ejection at the end walls by modified boundary conditions. For a simpler application of the throughflow method the mass flow can be automatically adapted during the calculation in order to achieve a given pressure ratio.

Due to the definition of the stream function in use, the mass flow can be corrected directly. Therefore the continuum equation is satisfied in the whole flow field during the calculation and the computing time is reduced. The reliability of the method is verified by calculations of a 1. In the 1. The cooling system of the high temperature gas turbine consists of a combination of convective cooling and coolant ejection at the trailing edges. For both machines the calculations agree very well with the measurements.

Um dieser Aufgabe bei der Auslegung des Turbinenteils einer Gasturbine gerecht zu werden, muessen die Verfahren sowohl alle wesentlichen stroemungsmechanischen Einfluesse als auch die Einfluesse moderner Systeme zur Bauteilkuehlung beruecksichtigen. Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit der Modellierung von Sekundaerstroemungseinfluessen, radialen Transportprozessen und Kuehlungseinfluessen in einem auf der Methode der Finiten-Elemente basierenden Meridianstroemungsverfahren.

Zur Beruecksichtigung der Einfluesse komplexer Kuehlungssysteme koennen beliebige Konfigurationen von konvektiver Kuehlung, Ausblasung an den Schaufelhinterkanten, Filmkuehlung sowie Ausblasung an Nabe und Gehaeuse vorgegeben werden. Der Mischungsprozess zwischen Hauptmassenstrom und Kuehlluft wird mit Hilfe vereinfachter Bilanzgleichungen berechnet. Massenstromaenderungen werden entweder durch Aenderung der Definitionsgleichungen der Stromfunktion oder im Fall von Ausblasungen in den Randzonen durch geaenderte Randbedingungen an den Seitenwaenden beruecksichtigt. Um bei einem vorgegebenen Druckverhaeltnis den Massenstrom berechnen zu koennen, wird eine Druckregelung implementiert.

Die Druckregelung passt den Massenstrom waehrend der Berechnung an das geforderte Druckverhaeltnis an. Die Kontinuitaetsgleichung ist zu jedem Zeitpunkt der Berechnung erfuellt, wodurch die Rechnung beschleunigt wird. Zur Ueberpruefung des Verfahrens wird eine 1,5-stufige Versuchsturbine mit lokaler Kuehlgasausblasung vor der Beschaufelung sowie der Turbinenteil der Hochtemperatur-Gasturbine V Die Hochtemperatur-Gasturbine wird durch eine Kombination von Konvektionskuehlung und Hinterkantenausblasung gekuehlt. Die berechneten Stroemungsgroessen zeigen fuer beide Maschinen eine gute Uebereinstimmung mit experimentellen Daten bzw.

Development and comparison of the effectivity of oxidation processes initiated by radicals, created by heterogeneous catalysis and by high pressure process for the reduction of persistent organic sewage pollutants. Final report; Entwicklung und vergleichende Bewertung der Leistungsfaehigkeit von radikalisch initiierten oxidativen Verfahren auf Traegerkatalysator- und Hochdruckbasis zum Abbau persistenter organischer Wasserschadstoffe. Persistente and highly toxic sewages with an extremely high content of substances are still a problem in the waste water management. Wet oxidation offers a possibility to reduce the pollutant content in the water.

Comparative experiments of the efficiency of oxidation initiated by radicals were carried out, using as heterogeneous catalysis on strap catalyst base as cavitation. The tested catalytic systems worked especially effectively for high pollutant concentrations. Aromatic hydrocarbons could be reduced more effectively than aliphatic ones. The conception for a technical plant was developed including cost estimate.

The reduction of pollutants by cavitation was fundamentally lower than by using the heterogeneous catalysis way. Without addition of an oxidation agent i. The pollutant reduction increased at higher pollutant concentration. A complete elimination of all pollutants could not be obtained in none of the examined cases neither at model nor at real sewages.

Especially the long reaction times 6 to 24 h of the cavitation process in comparison with those, necessary for the catalytic reaction 2 to 6 h are hindering a technical realization of the cavitation process, which seems to be doubtful for this and other reasons. So the use of cavitation in industrial scale sewage cleaning plants under the parameter conditions tested in the project has no chance to be realized as by technically as by economical reasons.

Studies on the safety of the transport of radioactive materials. Part 1. Final report on the working package 4; Untersuchungen zur Sicherheit bei der Befoerderung radioaktiver Stoffe. Teil 1. Berechnung von Aktivitaetsgrenzwerten - Q-Modell. Abschlussbericht zum Arbeitspaket 4. With this program not only the already known nuclides listed in the IAEA Transport Regulations SSR-6 should be recalculated, but one should also be able to calculate new radionuclides. Within the development of the calculation program many lacks of the documentation and problematic issues of the used so called Q system where found and are discussed in this report.

At the end some points for a possible improvement of the Q system are presented. Investigations on the safety of radioactive materials transport. Calculation of activity limits - permitted limits. Berechnung von Aktivitaetsgrenzwerten - Freigrenzen. One aim of this project R was the analysis of the methods for the calculation of exemption values and the development of software for the calculation following the EU Principles and Methods of Radiation Protection 65 RP In this document, the development and underlying model is described.

A comparison of the newly calculated values with the tabulated values of RP 65 shows a very good agreement. During the development a lot of deficiencies of the RP 65 documentation became evi-dent, precluding the expansion of the program for the calculation of new exemption values. Especially the methods for the calculation of nuclide specific parameters could not be reproduced partly. Heat recovery from the compressed air of activation tanks at Herdorf sewage plant. Final report; Waermerueckgewinnung aus der Druckluft von Belebungsanlagen am Beispiel der Verbandsklaeranlage Herdorf.

Heat is removed from the compressed air of the activation tanks via a separate air cooler installed in the compressed-air line leading to the activation tank.

The heat recovered will heat up the sludge in the digestion tank or will be fed into the heating system of the plant. The following goals are defined: Savings of heating oil; Saving of digestion gas as completely as possible; Power generation from the saved gas in a cogeneration unit; Power supply to the public grid. Die Nutzung der Verlustwaerme soll durch Abgriff der Waerme ueber einen separaten Luftkuehler erfolgen, der direkt in der Druckluftleitung zum Belebungsbecken installiert ist.

Die auf diese Weise zurueckgewonnene Waerme soll zur Rohschlammaufheizung im Faulungsprozess dienen bzw. Discussion of the applicability of overdammed fixed-bed reactors in nitrification processes; Beitrag zum Einsatz von ueberstauten Festbettreaktoren zur Nitrifikation. The investigation aimed at developing a dimensioning method for overdammed fixed bed nitrification reactors with plug flow which takes account of the reactor height. Further, information was to be obtained for assessing sudden loads and for comparing energy consumption with the data of conventional activated sludge plants.

Ferner sollten Erkenntnisse zur Beurteilung von Stossbelastungen sowie zum Energiebedarf im Vergleich zu herkoemmlichen Belebungsanlagen gewonnen werden. Multimedia CD-Rom on hydrogen and fuel cells. This CD-Rom contains well-presented information with informative illustrations, as well as a large download section with publications, reports, and presentations in. There is also a list of links to selected websites, with short explanations. Dose management in radiology. Review of the technological status; Dosismanagement in der Radiologie.

Ein Ueberblick zum Stand der Technik. Additionally, a medical physics expert has to be consulted for each radiological examination above a defined threshold. A complete recording of the dosage administered from all modalities and optimization of the radiological procedures should result in a reduction of the total dosage. This can be achieved by automated systems that incorporate not only the detection of the dose parameters but also the evaluation and analysis of these data.

When provided with warning levels such a system should be able to inform or warn the operator when dose thresholds have been exceeded or even better inform the operator about possible excess dosages before an examination. A practicable use of such systems is only possible by close cooperation of medical personnel, medical physicists and information technology IT administrators. Various systems are available commercially or free but an individual adaptation of these systems is useful and necessary, depending on the requirements of the radiology practice or hospital. Ausserdem muss zu jeder Modalitaet in einem bestimmten Ausmass ein Medizinphysikexperte hinzugezogen werden.

Entwicklungen der letzten Jahre. Classical destructive test methods are fixed part of industrial sectors for decades such as aerospace, automotive, railway and power plants. A high degree of standardization of procedures, and training in form of an ISO standard are present, but not in non-destructive testing of civil engineering ZfPBau.

Except for the rebound hammer NDT methods in civil engineering are not standardized. Also of personnel qualifications can be found in regulations very few requirements, although it is obvious that this is an indispensable prerequisite for the proper application of the procedures and reliable inspection results. In this contribution experiences with a presented training concept in which the construction inspector will trained to DIN in a two-day course. Here are the necessary conditions worked out, such as the creation of suitable test bodies or the definition of necessary course content for establishing training courses.

Auch zur Personalqualifikation finden sich in Regelwerken nur sehr wenige Anforderungen, obwohl es offensichtlich ist, dass dies eine unverzichtbare Voraussetzung fuer die richtige Anwendung der Verfahren und zuverlaessige Pruefaussagen ist. In diesem Beitrag werden Erfahrungen mit einem Ausbildungskonzept vorgestellt, bei dem Bauwerkspruefer nach DIN in einem zweitaegigen Lehrgang ausgebildet werden. Dabei werden die notwendigen Voraussetzungen heraus gearbeitet, wie z.

Dabei soll besonderes Augenmerk auf Fragen der Professionalisierung und der Entwicklung von Standards gelegt werden. Thermodynamic analysis of a fuel-cell-system for automotive transportation; Thermodynamische Analyse eines Brennstoffzellensystems zum Antrieb von Kraftfahrzeugen. Finally, a theoretical investigation identified the measures that should be taken to achieve sufficient cooling in countries with hot climates, e. It was found that it would be sufficient to raise the coolant temperature from 90 C to about C to ensure good performance in these climate zones.

Der Fokus ist im Wesentlichen auf die Kuehlung des Brennstoffzellenstapelmoduls gelegt, wobei aufgrund der Vielzahl an Schnittstellen zwischen der Kuehlung und den anderen Teilsystemen Wasserstoff- und Luftversorgung auch eine ganzheitlichere Betrachtung erforderlich ist. This is apparent already in the establishment of museums: why are certain facts or events, rather than others, chosen? One such event is the Warsaw Uprising of The national, let alone the international, reception of such museums is not unequivocal. The Museum of the Warsaw Uprising shows an apparent contradiction between its image — strongly related to the politics of the Kaczynskis — and its popularity among the liberal-minded young.

Rather than glorifying nationalism and militarism, the presentation focuses on freedom and the readiness to fight for it. Archives, especially in post-communist countries, also play a significant role in shaping the way people think about their recent past. With the availability of documents from communist secret police, a wealth of new sources opened, and it is important how societies use them. In this respect the German GauckBirthler-Authority is regarded as exemplary.

Germany benefited from its earlier experience, and intended to compensate for its failure to deal with the Nazi past in the post-war era. German emphasis on the Stasi as part of its national history, rather than as the work of external forces, contrasts with the approach often taken by post-communist states, which prefer to represent communism as imposed on their countries from outside.

Perpetrators, Victims, Heroes The Friday evening panel On the Advantages and Disadvantages of Memory for Life took up another key question of the conference: who is the victim; who is the perpetrator? Collaboration might blur the distinction. Different pasts and their victims compete for public and political recognition. Compensation is given to victims of genocide or expulsion. This has not always been the case. While it is not surprising that nations, which have to re-construct their identity, try to legitimate themselves through national martyrdom, one must warn against the culture of victimhood.

At least a part of a national mythology needs to be positive. Ukrainians, for example, need a better focus than the Stalin-induced famine. Putting the Holocaust and the Holodomor on equal footing and trying to frame the latter as an example of genocide is seen as a possible entry ticket to the eu, while, at the same time, it could also acquit Ukrainians of charges of collaboration and complicity in the murder of Jews. Complicity is difficult to come to terms with. For the French it took a long time to confront their wartime behaviour, and communism did nothing to bring about a similar self-criticism in Eastern Europe.

Neither is it easy to face complicity with respect to communism itself, as became obvious in the case of Milan Kundera. History and Historians Even though we need more history, can the entire project be left in the hands of historians? Historians are already part of an established. Simple documents do not tell us everything about the complexity of historical situations, the motives of people and the choices they faced.

Furthermore, young historians involved in such institutions lack first-hand knowledge about the period they investigate and have a tendency to moral rigour which does not accept ambiguity. Exactly like the one I saw the other day, while travelling on a boat towards the Brijuni archipelago in the northern Adriatic near Pula. However, the difference was that for him, this paradise on earth became reality. Soon afterwards, the late president of the former Yugoslavia moved to a newly built residence in Vanga, one of fourteen islands.

After him, no one else had a chance to nurture the same dream. Ordinary mortals could no longer even visit the islands. It is said that the surveillance was so strict that even the fishing village of Fazana, on the mainland directly across from the archipelago, was populated solely by secret policemen and their families.

On my visit that day I learned that over the thirty or so years that Tito enjoyed the privilege of living there, he often managed to spend up to four months a year in Vanga and Veli Brijun, which he loved the most. I could find out all about his life in Brijuni in a photographic exhibition from on the first floor of the local museum. There, in hundreds of sepia coloured photos, I saw him in his role as head of state with his important visitors, as well as in his private moments.

I could also see that, during his stay in paradise, Tito not only relaxed. He spent his holidays working — as the head of state, chairman of the communist party and commander of the military. Stars fascinated Tito, and many popular personalities, from opera singers like Mario del Monaco, to Valentina Tereskova, the first woman in space, were invited to Brijuni too.

But he enjoyed visits by film stars the most — Elizabeth Taylor and Sofia Loren, to mention just two. While a foreign visitor would probably find this exhibition bizarre, for me it was a trip back to my childhood. Seeing a photo of Tito harvesting tangerines in his orchard, for example, I remembered our teacher telling us that he always sent these tangerines to orphanages — he was such a goodhearted person,. We kids could only try to imagine how heavenly these fruits tasted, as there were none to buy in Yugoslavia at the time.

On the ground floor of the museum there is another exhibition, a very strange one. It was the fashion at the time for visiting statesmen to bring presents, often wild, exotic animals that could not adapt to the local climate and soon died. They would then get stuffed and exhibited. So, while upstairs you can see Tito playing with a baby orang-utan, downstairs you can see the stuffed corpse of the wretched beast.

While upstairs he is photographed caressing a young leopard, on the floor below the visitor can see the same leopard staring at him with his glass eyes. Recently, in both Belgrade and Zagreb, a new book about Tito appeared that tries. A museum to Tito at his one-time summer residence glorifying the Yugoslav dictator is in stark contrast to a damning new biography.

Yet between the two extremes is an absence of objective history-writing in the former Yugoslavia. Slavenka Drakulic is a Croatian writer and journalist. She has written for various newspapers and magazines. The text consists almost entirely of quotations. He quotes private as well as official sources there is a long list at the end of the book and does not comment or interpret much. Not even his birth date is certain: Simic found 15 different ones.

Facts about his education are equally problematic: it is not quite clear what kind of school he went to, or whether he completed his schooling. It is not known where exactly he worked, or. In the former Yugoslavia, we still have too many myths and too much ideology instead of facts, of history to prove that this historical person, however important, was — to put it mildly — not unblemished. Simic has also written a book about the compromising documents about Tito he found in the Stalin archive in Moscow. Apparently, he gained promotion by informing on his comrades, many of whom ended up being executed.

His rise to the top of the communist party in Yugoslavia seems to be highly suspicious too, according to Simic. From the very beginning till the end of his political career, Tito was not only a manipulator and liar but a traitor, guilty of ordering the murders of his close collaborators and even friends — as. Tito appears as an ambitious, ruthless man not shy to commit criminal acts — the closest parallel probably being a Mafia don. Their reliability depends on the reliability of his sources, which can be verified and judged only by specialists, i.

Most other readers will only be able to read the book as a thriller. Tito deserves to be approached seriously. We owe this to him as an historical personality — and even more to ourselves. The handful of tourists and locals standing at the pier waiting for a boat did not even react to his presence as the president walked along the waterfront to his car.

My companion was impressed with his easy-going manner. Obviously, times have changed — unlike our attitude to history, which we still perceive as a mixture of legends and crime stories. While touring the Veli Brijun island and its museum, we debated the exhibition and the book, as the two extreme approaches to Tito. My journalist friend asked me why I thought that, after more than a thousands books written about Tito, there is not one meticulously researched, reliable biography of him. It is an excellent question to which there are many answers, though none are very convincing.

For one, there has been no time to write it, because the country fell apart in several wars. Another is that the attitude towards the past in the Balkans is rather problematic in general. But — my friend insisted — perhaps now, thirty years after his death, the time has come for a serious biography that could be used by historians?

I could not agree more. Tito is just one ex-. Before we left, I wanted to take a swim in a stunning bay with ruins of a roman villa from the first century ad and a temple to Aphrodite. Legend has it that if you swim right under the temple, you will find perfect love. But I did not take a swim. I was afraid. One should not ask too much of life, I thought. What a strange idea on the island where, once upon a time, one man just snapped his fingers and got it all.

It is a sad fact that exactly thirty years since he departed from Brijuni for the last time, on 29 August , it remains to be seen who Tito really was. Monthly Lecture: Faisal Devji, September 16 aisal Devji started his lecture by explaining that al-Qaeda surprisingly does not create a distinct and negative picture of its supposed enemies in its rhetoric. Those seen as the foes to Islam are characterized just as Muslims themselves. Justification of militant activity is thus not easy to find as it is only perceived as the retaliation of the supposed persecution of Muslims or responses to infidel provocations.

Responsibility is no longer necessary in a global arena where. Devji stressed that there is only one militant phenomenon al-Qaeda would claim full responsibility for, that of martyrdom. This, however, is a fragile concept since sacrificial practices can be found any place where people dedicate themselves to a cause, be it humanitarian, environmental or other. Indeed, sacrificing oneself for humanity has its well-known and longstanding history in Christianity, with the story of Jesus dying for the sake of mankind.

Awakened by the rattle of gun fire but feeling very hazy, I first imagined that a national holiday was being celebrated with fireworks outside our walls. But the explosions were too close, right here within the room, next to me and overhead. The odour of gunpowder became more acrid, more penetrating.

Clearly, what we had always expected was now happening: we were under attack. As Kuromiya pointed out, these assassinations were an integral part of Soviet policy. Stalin used killings and terrorism strategically to achieve his political goals, i. Kuromiya emphasized that the. Even today, as the cases of Anna Politkovskaya and Alexander Litvinenko have shown, political killings occur in Russia. Im September ist ihr neuestes Buch Gleich, gleicher, ungleich: Paradoxien und Perspektiven von Frauenrechten in der Globalisierung erschienen.

This century-long arc reveals a path from epistemology through ontology to. Only in the s, as American initiative flagged under the burden of complex regulatory codes and corporate pressures, did a slowly unifying Europe attain the capabilities and influence to be a world leader in environmental protections. Within Europe, economic competition has often driven regulation, as member-states pressure their neighbours to adopt the same industrial standards and practices. The economic clout of a unified European market has been sufficient to influence manufacturing standards worldwide, even in countries where these standards have not obtained the force of law.

Europe has also been able to spearhead efforts to set and meet targets in emissions reduction, research and implementation of renewable energy technol-. The growing union, however, faces challenges within and competition once again for environmental leadership from abroad. Industrial and economic disparities between Western and Eastern Europe, as well as a general reluctance to revise agricultural policies, threaten both emissions targets. The threat of not keeping apace with international standards, which, especially in East Asia, are being continually raised, is perhaps unflattering but not as worrisome.

The worries for the future, argued Schreurs, are not whether Europe will lead but whether it and the international community together will meet their current commitments and adopt ever more comprehensive measures for environmental protection and restoration. By means of this picture, he illustrated his individual view of politics.

The earth is the only place where we can live and it is still adapted to our needs. He then proceeded to sketch the guidelines of green politics as he understands them: there should be a focus on the poor and weak people, thus emphasizing the moral aspect of politics, communitarianism, i. In short the lmp promises: Politics can be different!

An increase of unemployment, an unhealthy balance in the labour market, an educa-. The general public is disillusioned with democracy, and there is an evident decline of trust and participation in democratic procedures. Rauschenberger pointed out several causes for this lack of democratic awareness: too much immovability in the political field, no renewals in the traditional parties, long-term effects of a totalitarian past, and corruption.

In a group of Hungarian activists from environmental ngos founded lmp as a new green party to adopt a new political line in Hungary and to provide the voters with an alternative to the traditional parties. The remaining 90 billion Euros, resulting from so-called external costs, i. This is just one of the many examples of serious market distortions which are detrimental both to the economy and to the environment. Thus, Andras Lukacs argued in fa-.

Such a reform would include a tax shift from labour to the use of natural resources and the causing of pollution, the elimination of environmentally damaging subsidies and tax exemptions and the support of ecologically beneficial activities. Yet Lukacs knows only too well that state authorities take economic aspects more seriously than the protection of the environement.

His ngo caag carried out several campaigns against the pollution of the environment in Hungary, e. Demonstrations, advertisements in the media and the internet, billboards on the roads, letters to ministers, opinion polls, and a conference held in the parliament building were supposed to convince the government to introduce a nation-wide road toll for lorries. As a result, the Hungarian administration decided to introduce a bill in Nevertheless, the government introduced higher. Following the lecture, a discussion with Andras Lukacs took place.

Alexander van der Bellen blieb in seinem Kommentar allerdings skeptisch: Kopenhagen drohe zu schei-. Dass sie einen gleichberechtigten Austausch zwischen den Kulturen vorantreibt, kann aber mit gutem Grund bezweifelt werden. Notwendig, so Wenk, sei daher eine Hinterfragung der eurozentrischen und androzentrischen Perspektive des heutigen Kunstbetriebs und eine offene Thematisierung der kolonialistischen Vergangenheit von Kunstsammlungen. Jahrhunderts trete damit im Und doch hat Loos in zahlreichen Schriften ein Konzept von Moderne proklamiert, das kolonialen Vorstellungswelten verpflichtet ist.

After , artists in the West soon turned to abstraction while there was an anti-modernist attitude in the East under Soviet influence, where socialist realism was the approved art form. There was no contact between Eastern and West-. This attitude changed only in the 80s when artists like Richter and especially Kiefer addressed those issues and simultaneously criticised the present. In East Germany on the other hand, artists, due to the censorship, ignored contemporary political issues.

Huyssen concluded by criticising exhibitions about German art, which either condemned East German art or simply missed out on a discussion on politics. He recently published Other Cities, Other Worlds However, Valentin Inzko had to cancel due to political developments in the Balkan region. Fortunately, the iwm succeeded in finding a replacement: Wolfgang Petritsch, Austrian diplomat serving in ohr from — He served as the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina from to They then discussed the impact of a visa-free zone for all the Balkan countries.

Bosnia and Albania had been excluded since they do not fulfil the criterion of biometric passports. The question whether Bosnia and Herzegovina would gain eu candidate status if a new Constitution is implemented remained unresolved in the following discussion with the audience. Zwar wurde er bereits kurz darauf vom Regime wieder fallenge-. Jahrhundert The conference on December 17 dealt with the various perspectives on memory and identity. Remembering the Great Famine of — in China. Please refer to: www.

It assesses the current content, quality and problems of gender equality policies and formulates recommendations and standards for gender. It covers all 27 European Union member states plus Turkey and Croatia as eu accession candidate countries. A select-. As most of the research activities are coming to an end soon, possibilities for publication as well as future research cooperations were discussed. It was agreed that the. The projects typically have European relevance.

The program is supported by erste Foundation, Project Syndicate and private sponsors. Please visit the IWM website for further details: www. Market Mysticism by roman frydman and michael d. See below a contribution to the latter, arguing that the current crisis was caused by the neoliberal assumption of self-regulating markets. This belief — that self-interest is the basis of self-regulation by markets — became a dominant principle of American economic policy in the last 30 years.

For 30 years, economists from the so-called neo-classical school have been building powerful pseudo-scientific foundations for this ideology. According to their theories, markets define values in an exact way, and therefore should not fluctuate significantly. The recent financial crisis — triggered by a severe correction in us housing prices — should not have happened at all. These innovations are by their very nature unforeseeable, as is the evolution of their social context. They cannot be captured in any mechanical rule. Unpredictability is hardwired into market economies. But, whatever their flaws, financial markets and private property are the only social institutions known to us that are able, adequately though imperfectly, to consider diversity of knowledge and intuition in allocating capital.

Conversely, the inability of the planned economies of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union to innovate was one of the main causes of their ultimate collapse — and of the complete disappearance of central planning as a. As a result, contemporary economic models produce two extreme positions: exclusion of any active role for the state or radical state interventionism.

Paradoxically, however, contemporary economic theory has kept alive the core ideas of central planning, because it relies on a similarly false concept of rationality — one whose inadequacy was already proved by Friedrich Hayek. Central planning, Hayek concluded, is by its nature impossible, because no mathematical model can precisely mimic the behavior of markets. They created a para-scientific jargon that helped them to direct social choices in a very dangerous and unproductive direction.

The premises that form the basis of their models became in great part inscrutable to anyone lacking a PhD in economics, and debate was infused with terms that mean one thing to the uninitiated and quite another to economists. The concept of rationality forms the foundation of this discourse.

In everyday language, rationality means common sense or reasonableness. Unpredictability is hard-wired into market economies belief that economists can predict future market changes exactly.

Economic theory that treated these financial instruments as innovations — similar to the computer, for example — legitimized their use in markets worldwide. But these instruments correspond only slightly with prices and risk in financial markets, and their widespread adoption, we now know, fueled market fluctuations and provoked the recent crisis. What is worse, the false concept of rationality on which main-.

The unreasonableness of this standard helps explain why macroeconomists and finance theorists find it so hard to account for large swings in market outcomes. If so, the state should drastically curtail its supervision of the financial system. Unfortunately, many officials worldwide. But, instead of jettisoning the bogus standard of rationality underlying those predictions, they interpret their empirical findings to mean that many market participants are irrational, prone to emotion, or ignore economic fundamentals for other reasons.

The behavioral view suggests that large swings in asset prices serve no useful social function. This is implausible, because an exact model of rational decisionmaking is beyond the capacity of economists — or anyone else — to formulate. Once economists recognize that they cannot explain exactly how reasonable individuals make decisions and how market outcomes unfold over time, we will no longer be stuck with two polar extremes concerning the relative roles of the market and the state.