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All mythology overcomes and dominates and shapes the forces of nature in the imagination and by the imagination; it therefore vanishes with the advent of real mastery over them. The image is fitting, not only in how it captures the harrowing danger of mass industrial labor, but also in how such awe-striking powers can breed their own kind of mythology. Part of Marx's great work describes the rise of massive machines taking on the features of "an animated monster", confronting workers who seem to be at the mercy of the machine rather than the machine's masters.

A crucial intervention by Marx in this book is to pierce through mystifying forms of economic understanding that naturalize such abasement of human beings in capitalist production. Instead, he offers workers a critical analysis of the economic system that binds them and an opening to seize hold of the forces that subject them. Seneca, the great Latin Stoic, had a younger friend, Lucilius, who was trying to learn to be a wise man and had turned to Seneca for advice. We only have the letters Seneca wrote, but from their contents we can piece together what Lucilius may have written in response.

This translation is a selection of the letters Seneca wrote instructing Lucilius in how to think about life and the world and how to live as a Stoic. Philosophy of our time often feels bereft of practical benefit; mired in logical pedantry and metaphysical bewitchment. Seneca's Letters offer prudent, sapient wisdom that traverses 2 millenia to salve our buffeted souls. His erudite Stoicism urges us to face up to the vagaries of fate; to remember life is too short to waste on petty anger, anxiety and frustration.

Exiled for 8 years and condemned to death 3 times, his grip on life precarious, Seneca reminds us all that mindset matters more than circumstance, and that books make the best companions. A traveling salesman whose life is defined by "fake silverware, fake luxury, fake style" dies in a second-class hotel in a way that barely piques Inspector Maigret interest at first. Though he'll find a plot to puzzle us with, it Simenon's preoccupation with a certain world of bars, streets, homes, and hotels--and the people who occupy them--that gives each case its distinct texture.

This novel writes a version of interiority that feels like it was conceived by an exercise in mind-reading. While the story follows a loose outline of 19th century Russian history, its ties to reality far transcend its plot fixtures. After some odd pages, characters start to become more like acquaintances you can think and feel alongside—friends you could read about for a more odd pages. This text is a combination of formal genius, hilarious wit, and jarring realism.

The book serves as a site where diatribe and drama collide, where prescient commentary meets timeless storytelling. The narrative is as often ridiculous as it is realistic, with characters that act and speak with unpredictable but affecting results. Endlessly quotable, this work is a quick but thoughtful read that will keep you laughing, even if a little guiltily. Schopenhauer is that somewhat rare example of a philosopher whose style would not be out of place among the literati.

There is much wisdom, and, surprisingly, delight scattered across these pages. Affordable as they are recognizable, vetted by generations of readers and guaranteed to edify, when it comes to Penguin Classics there's only one thing to get to the bottom of: where to begin. Plus, purchase any Penguin Classic and receive a limited edition issue of The Happy Reader , a collaboration between Penguin Classics and Fantastic Man, and a classic Classics postcard, per purchase, while supplies last.

Missing out would be a crime. By: Heloise. Please select New Used. Leave this field blank:. One of the world's most celebrated and tragic love affairs Through the letters between Abelard and Heloise, we follow the path of their 12th-century romance, from its reckless and ecstatic beginnings when Heloise became Abelard's pupil, through the suffering of public scandal and Pride and Prejudice. By: Austen, Jane. Please select New : New. Austen's most popular novel, the unforgettable story of Elizabeth Bennet and Mr. By: Bellow, Saul. In one of his finest achievements, Nobel Prize winner Saul Bellow presents a multifaceted portrait of a modern-day hero, a man struggling with the complexity of existence and longing for redemption.

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This is the story of Moses Herzog, a great sufferer, joker, mourner, and charmer Jane Eyre. By: Bronte, Charlotte. The Aleph and Other Stories. By: Borges, Jorge Luis. Full of philosophical puzzles and supernatural surprises, these stories contain some of Borges's most fully realized human characters. With uncanny insight he takes us inside the minds of an unrepentant Nazi, an imprisoned Mayan priest, fanatical Christian theologians, a woman plotting vengeance on The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy.

The book suggests that in , 11 nations launched the euro in the hopes that economic concerns would trump politics. They also hoped it would inspire fiscal discipline in countries which, historically, have found frugality difficult. In a prescient move, in the BIS warned against state guarantees of commercial interests. The Obstacle Is The Way As someone interested in learning more about stoic philosophy this book hits the right notes — insightful, practical, and just the right length.

What stands in the way becomes the way. I have no idea why. While the letters are over a hundred years old, they are full of timeless wisdom and practical no-nonsense advice to parents and wisdom seekers alike. Some people believe that morality is mostly learned. Others think that we are born with a deep sense of good and evil.

The truth is we acquire morality from both. We are born with a moral sense — a capacity to distinguish between kindness and cruelty. We are also born with a rudimentary sense of empathy and compassion, fairness, and justice. As we age these are nurtured and augmented by our environments, experiences, literature, and even television.

There are quite a few gorgeous 19th- and earlyth-century illustrations. The chapters on the human impact to the islands, something near and dear to the author, seemed to flow better and be somewhat more complete. In the end, though, I was left wanting more. More illustrations. More ecological, evolutionary, and geological principles to explain the islands and their unique habitat. More pictures of flora, fauna, and wildlife.

And more of those gorgeous illustrations. Instead, he pointed me to The War of Art, an utterly fascinating book that not only describes the experience of writing but how to overcome some of the difficulties. He was right: it is much better. Significant parts of the book overlap in time so it was interesting to see the same situations through very different lenses. More than that however, Gates is the only Defence Secretary to serve both a Republican and Democratic President, which afforded him unique insights.

What most intrigued me was how decisions were made and the differences in process between Bush and Obama. Perhaps one of the best ever. After reading it, I immediately bought several copies and shipped them to friends of mine. No really. This book is the opposite to all of that, a look at why we should actually get less done. While the book makes a neuroscientific argument, which is imperfect at best, the basic message and benefits of giving our brain a break—putting it on autopilot if you will—resonates with me.

The most fascinating part of the book was a look at how we came to dread idleness and the role religion played. The Modern Utopian A quirky and often interesting look at the alternative communities of the 60s and 70s. Receiving less attention than the drugs, sex, and rock and roll, they helped define the era. Although for all three of those, I wish the author would have dug a little deeper into the connection with B. Prosperous Friends Christine Schutt, whose prose has been compared to Emily Dickinson, examines the spectacle of love.

The book is essentially a guide for improving perception, increasing visibility, and exerting influence at work. Everyone has an opinion, yet few people have read The Prince or Discourses on Livy. How is a new prince to take power and maintain it? Machiavelli is also concerned with the distinction between those who were astute and effective in acquiring their posts and those who were installed by power or luck.

The former are less vulnerable to turns in fortune than the latter. General Stanley McChrystal is way more fascinating than I first thought. The book is full of leadership lessons from someone, who through a combination of luck and skill, rose to command all US and coalition forces in Afghanistan. Of course it was the interesting profile of McChrystal in Rolling Stone that changed history, causing him to prematurely resign.

The book is well written, captivating, and full of interesting insights that will help develop your leadership ability. The Myth of Sisyphus This book deals with answering the question: is it legitimate and necessary to wonder whether life has a meaning. After walking through some elementary lessons in statistics that even professionals get wrong, the book explores how our lives are more informed by chance and randomness than we think.

Along the way he offers some tools to help us make better decisions. The Poverty of Historicism Taking a closer look at the application of the scientific method to the social sciences. Maybe it was because Steve Jobs was a huge William Blake fan. Or, maybe it was because of his background. Either way this served as a gentle introduction to Blake, who was considered a crank and madman by his contemporaries. Wordsworth, who outlived Blake by 23 years, was more generous than most in his reading of Blake.

Until they have been chained and beaten — until they find themselves in the situation I was, borne away from home and family towards a land of bondage — let them refrain from saying what they would and would not do for liberty. He had to hide the fact he could read and write.

Listening to Heloise

Any indication to his masters that he was a freeman would be a death-sentence. While our minds generally function pretty well in this area there is room for improvement. Epley argues that we make predictable and therefore correctable mistakes when trying to get inside the heads of others: we oversimplify which, itself is an oversimplification.

One systematic way we err is when we believe we have better mental capacities than another person dehumanization. For instance, in the not so distant past, we used to believe that children could not feel pain. This, however, may not be the best strategy as it relies entirely on what we already know, and no amount of perspective taking will make judgements better if we have a mistaken understanding of the other person. One of the best take-aways for me was the concept of alternative histories.

Hooked: A Guide to Building Habit-Forming Products A book about, as you can probably guess, what compels people to use a product regularly. While some products become habit-forming through luck, others can be manufactured into habits if you understand what makes users tick. Habits are behaviours that we do with little or no conscious thought — they are system one thinking. How do you manufacture them? Some people have asked to know posts in advance so they can read the book and then see how what I post compares to what they take away.

The author, Ben Greenman, is an acclaimed novelist and writer at the New Yorker. February Last Ape Standing: The Seven-Million-Year Story of How and Why We Survived The fascinating and somewhat counter-intuitive tale of how being born more prematurely than others, a uniquely long and rich childhood full of play actually helped us increase the odds of survival. Growth Hacker Marketing A short book by Ryan Holiday on the changing landscape of marketing and what that means to anyone in sales.

I read the kindle edition but the paperback comes out in September. I know this sounds strange but it really hit me that I need to get better at stories when I was presenting at Bradley University last week to a group of student athletes. The alternative? Embrace all of the things we try to avoid: failure, uncertainty, pessimism and insecurity. This book also talks about the when, where, and who, with when being the driving question the book seeks to explore.

Tempo has three elements: rhythm, emotion, and energy. Usually we adapt to the tempo of our environment. Wholly original and utterly fascinating.

Life Quotes, Philosophy of Life Sayings, Meaning of Life Quotations

The key question for workers is whether you are good at working with, or augmenting, intelligent machines or not? In other words, do you make the computer better? Ever more people are starting to fall on one side of the divide or the other. While we have a tendency to be promotion-focused or prevention-focused, we can be fairly ambidextrous. The book has an interesting explanation for why condom sales soar in a recession—taking our cues from the environment, we become more prevention-focused.

I bought it last year and lent it to a friend before I had a chance to read it. They never returned it. Then I bought a paperback, forgetting that I already had a kindle copy. The book is on the changing role of sales. Yes, you too.

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Do you try to persuade anyone? The balance has shifted and the implications are worth noting. Information parity changes how you should sell: we have to learn new skills—to pitch, to improvise, and to serve. Maybe not a book you want to read in public though, lest people get the wrong idea about you. In an example, the author predicts Facebook will shrink under its own weight. The tiniest insects often outlive the largest lumbering animals. Ants, bees, and cockroaches all outlived the dinosaurs and will likely outlive our race.

The book explores selected excerpts of their work and shows us how inner resilience leads to inner peace. And they left us some powerful advice about how to find it in our lives. I was fortunate enough to receive a pre-release copy of this book. The first was the part on the premortem. It not only urges us to indulge deeply and often, it shows us how. This is impossible to understand through books and requires an activity. He picked archery and found a Zen master who reluctantly accepted him as a student. Thus archery became a path to greater understanding.

Effective communication is hard. The Last Lecture What would you tell people if you knew you were going to die? The book—actually 61 mini lectures—is filled with living-life-to-the-fullest advice from an amazing professor who only had a few months to live. Pair with 30 Lessons For Living and my interview. A good companion to Choose Yourself. Her passion for the book is contagious.

The Unwritten Laws of Engineering. This is a list of generalizations, to which there are always exceptions, but if followed in general will ensure that you are not labelled as an organizational anarchist. The Secret World of Sleep. A fascinating read about how warfare is evolving.

Robb examines Fourth Generation Warfare 4GW , which is essentially loosely networked groups against states. There are no pivotal moments on a battlefield that decide the war. Think along the lines of Al-Qaeda and Anonymous. While I appreciate his approach and the systems thinking, Robb is still too conventional. I think his expertise on the subject creates a bit of a blind spot when it comes to warfare and the internet. Still, this is a must read. The Optimism Bias. To my surprise I ended up reading it cover-to-cover. While most of these students probably got zero for their answers, some of them are incredibly creative.

The book takes on the business journey of hip hop from the early 70s till about Along the way you find out some fascinating stories. Or that when Eminem was given a chance to ditch the people who helped him when he was a nobody he chose not to despite the obvious financial incentive and pressure from his new producer? Me either. The Quotable Kierkegaard You know that awkward moment when you find yourself reading the same thing Mike Tyson is reading at the same time? Yea, that. The best part of the book, however, was the discussion on systems and goals.

Systems trump goals. See here for more details. Politics is divisive but culture brings us together. Presidents are consumers and creators of culture and, as with anything presidential, strategically wield this power for political advantage. This has negative effects, such as amplifying cognitive biases. This, in turn, increases the odds of making poor decisions. Sophocles Antigone In Antigone, Polynices, son of Oedipus, went to war with his brother, Eteocles, the ruler of Thebes, for control of the city.

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These two kill each other and their uncle, Creon, assumes control of the city. Creon regards Polynices as a traitor. Accordingly, he denies his body a decent burial. He warns that anyone ignoring this edict shall be put to death. Slouching Towards Bethlehem. What really roped me in was her essay On Keeping a Notebook. Love and Math: The Heart of Hidden Reality What if you had to take an art class in which you were only taught how to paint a fence? Alas, this is how math is taught, and so for most of us it becomes the intellectual equivalent of watching paint dry.

I consider Parkinson the original Dilbert. While strenuously denied by management consultants, bureaucrats and efficiency experts, the law is borne out by disinterested observation of any organization. The book goes far beyond its famous theorem, though. The author goes on to explain how to meet the most important people at a social gathering and why, as a matter of mathematical certainty, the time spent debating an issue is inversely proportional to its objective importance. However, one of the most interesting parts to me was on how learning something can make you singleminded.

You become fixed and fit the situation to your technique. Here the implication seems to be that, if it can be shown that attributes ascribed by theists to God are attributes derived either from human consciousness or from nature, then it will have been shown that God has no existence apart from the existence of human consciousness and of nature. It was in responding to these critics that Feuerbach turned his attention to Luther, and, in doing so, introduced a number of concepts and themes that had not figured prominently in The Essence of Christianity , but which he continued to develop in his later writings, including both those devoted to religion, as well as those devoted to other topics.

Whereas, in The Essence of Christianity , he had contrasted the egoism and intolerance of faith which he associated with the false, theological essence of religion with the altruism and universality love which he associated with the true, human essence of religion , in the Luther book Feuerbach emphasizes that Christian faith is faith in a God who is love, but the principal object of whose love is humanity, so that this faith turns out to be an indirect form of human self-love or self-affirmation. The Christian believer affirms the existence of, as well as his or her confidence in, the goodness of God, who has promised him or her blessedness or freedom from the painful limitations of mortality.

Whereas, in the latter work, divine attributes such as omniscience and perfection were said to be attributes of the human species-essence, in the section on Seligkeit toward the end of the Theogony , where Feuerbach develops a line of thought first introduced in the Luther book, many of these same attributes are said to characterize the state of blessedness itself.

The thesis here is that the attributes of the Christian God are determined by the most fundamental wishes of the Christian believer. For example, God qua creator is first and foremost omnipotent, but omnipotence is ascribed to God only because God must be omnipotent in order to be able to exercise his benevolence toward believers by supplying them with what they lack, including eternal life. There is no lack that cannot be satisfied, and no ultimate harm that can befall, the person who is the object of the benevolence of an omnipotent being.

On this account, the divine attributes are determined by human needs, and these are determined in turn by the psychophysical constitution of humans as beings who find themselves constrained by natural limitations from which they have an urgent wish to be liberated. Whereas the God of Christianity had previously been identified by Feuerbach as an alienated projection of the human species-essence, here God is defined instead as the realized drive-to-happiness of the Christian believer. To say that belief in God is motivated or caused by the human drive-to-happiness is not necessarily to deny that attributes ascribed to God are attributes derived from human nature, but it is in any case to affirm that the ascription to God of the perfections of the human species-essence serves an underlying psychological need that is itself determined by the dependence of human beings upon nature, and their awareness of this dependence in the form of powerful hopes and fears that give rise to belief in supernatural agencies.

Feuerbach defines the feeling of dependence as. Tomasoni 10—11, — While the feeling of dependence is the ground of religion, what the act of sacrifice aims at or seeks to achieve is freedom from the restrictions of nature, or, alternatively, human independence. If blessedness is the condition of not being restricted by the limitations imposed by nature on all finite, corporeal individuals subject to generation and corruption, then human blessedness can be regarded as the final goal Endzweck of religion WR The gods are the objects of worship and the recipients of sacrifice because they are the benefactors of human beings in the specific sense that they are imagined to have it in their power to satisfy fundamental human wishes, including the wish not to die.

This continues to be the case even after nature has ceased to be the locus of divinity, and the origin of the visible world is sought in the will of a transcendent creator who brought forth the world into being from nothing, and who is solely responsible for occurrences attributed by polytheists to a multitude of divine agencies. The objective correlate of the feeling of dependence, in the case of both polytheism and monotheism, is the really existing things and people who are the objects of various human needs, physical and psychological—needs which Feuerbach implicitly recognizes, especially in the Theogony , to be culturally determined.

Nature, in other words, is the non-human world, devoid of consciousness, will and sentiment.

Human, All Too Human - Nietzsche

It includes such things as light, electricity, air, water, earth, and the plants and animals upon which the existence of human beings depends, but it also includes the human organism itself insofar as the effects produced by it are produced unconsciously and involuntary. To say that human beings are dependent upon nature is to say, among other things, that nature, which is devoid of consciousness and intention, is what has caused human beings to exist, and that the same physical processes that have produced the human brain have also produced human consciousness.

While all organisms are dependent upon nature for their existence, human beings are distinguished from other organisms by the extent of their conscious awareness of this dependence, which Feuerbach finds expressed in the earliest forms of cultic activity, including the earliest forms of nature religion focused, for example, on the changes of the seasons, and in the offering of sacrifice to divine beings associated with various aspects of the natural world.

Although nature is the original object of religion, this goes unrecognized initially because human beings do not at first distinguish themselves from nature or vice versa. The forces of nature are instead personified, and naturally occurring events are attributed to the human-like motivations of spirits and gods. Religion, according to Feuerbach, exhibits the following contradiction: When it conceives of itself theistically, it mistakenly thinks of God as a thoroughly non-human being i.

Here he reasons that, if human beings were not subject to powerful psychological drives which compel them to expand and develop their natural powers, including most fundamentally the drive-to-self-preservation, they would not experience the limitations imposed upon them by nature as painful and restricting. Large portions of the book consist either of 1 careful philological analyses of individual passages selected, for example, from the Iliad or the Odyssey, or from the creation accounts in Genesis, or else of a verse from Pindar or Ovid, or a passage from the New Testament; or 2 quotations from a wide range of Greco-Roman, patristic, rabbinical and medieval sources which Feuerbach cites as evidence to support the central explanatory claim of the book.

In seeking to substantiate the claim that the wish is the fundamental religious phenomenon, Feuerbach analyzes several theophanies from the Iliad in order show that the gods make their appearances in the epic in response to petitions directed to them by humans. Insofar as the ends toward which the actions of the gods in the Homeric epics are directed are determined by the wishes of the mortals who invoke their blessings and curses, the gods act as the representatives or deputies of Vertreter of human self-love T Feuerbach arrives at this conclusion through his analysis of the acts of petitionary prayer in the Iliad and their role in wish fulfillment, and cites in this context the observation of the Byzantine Homeric commentator, Eustathius of Thessalonica, that Homer allows no just request made of the gods to remain unfulfilled.

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  • In the divine-human relationship, it is the mortals who desire, strive, and will, and it is the gods who complete or bring to fruition these human intentions to the extent that the conditions for their satisfaction are beyond human control T While the wish itself is a purely subjective psychological occurrence, the completion of the action to which a wish might give rise, or the achievement of the end toward which the wish it directed, depends upon external circumstances that may or may not be conducive to the fulfillment of the wish. It is under such circumstances, where failure is a distinct possibility, and a matter of urgency hangs in the balance, that the gods are invoked and their blessings sought in order to bring some human endeavor to a successful completion.

    The gods are beings who are able to do or know what humans would like to be able to do or know, but cannot T Religion does not originate, as philosophy does, from a theoretical or speculative impulse to understand the world, but in a practical concern to influence the course of events that transpire within it. Belief in gods thus presupposes a desire that there should exist beings capable of guaranteeing the success of human endeavors, and faith is preceded by hope in the logical order of things religious.

    If human beings did not have a powerful desire, say, to be liberated from bondage or to avoid death, belief in the Promised Land or in immortality would never have arisen. In biblical terms, faith in God is trust in what God promises, but what is promised by God is what is sought after or desired by human beings. The wish, considered as an act of striving for what remains beyond the limits of human power to achieve, is theogonic in the sense that theophanies i. Interesting sections of the Theogony are devoted to analyzing the role of the gods in the consecration of oaths, and to the origins of conscience in the aggrieved will-to-happiness of the other.

    Feuerbach attributes belief in divine justice to the wish that the person by whom one has been harmed should suffer harm themselves T When human beings in the course of their history acquire new and different wishes, they tend also to worship new and different divinities. Feuerbach closely associates this shift from a concern with temporal blessedness to a concern with eternal blessedness with the Christian emphasis on creation ex nihilo, which he contrasts both with the Hebrew account of creation as involving the forming and ordering of pre-existent elements, and the limitation of the Greco-Roman gods to being able to prolong the lives of mortals, and securing their blessedness in this life, without being able to confer immortality upon them.

    The freedom from natural necessity ascribed by early Christian thinkers to God is interpreted by Feuerbach as an expression of the wish of these Christians to be free themselves from the constraints of material existence. That pivotal question aside, it is at least clear that in Principles , and in his later writings on ethics, Feuerbach continues to emphasize the importance of inter-subjectivity and of the I-Thou relationship, but that these are no longer conceived in idealistic terms, as they had been in his earlier writings, including his doctoral dissertation, where he spoke of thought as a species-activity in which the individual thinking subject participates.

    In arguing that it is possible for the will to be determined by the mere form of the moral law, independently of any sensible inclination, Kant had identified the will with pure practical reason. In doing so, Feuerbach argues, he turned the will into a mere abstraction. For Feuerbach it makes no sense to speak of a timeless will devoid of affect directed toward some particular object. The concepts of drive Trieb , happiness, sensation and will are closely interrelated in the account of agency that Feuerbach sought to develop in these last writings.

    Every particular drive is a manifestation of the drive-to-happiness, and the different individual drives are named after the different objects in which people seek their happiness SM Among the specific drives to which Feuerbach refers in his later writings are the drive-to-self-preservation, the sexual drive, the drive-to-enjoyment, the drive-to-activity and the drive-to-knowledge.

    Feuerbach also occasionally distinguishes between healthy and unhealthy drives, though he has little to say about the standard or criterion for making such a distinction. Whereas happiness involves the experience of a sense of contentment on the part of a being that is able to satisfy the drives that are characteristic of its nature, the inability to satisfy these drives results in various forms of discontent, aggravation, pain and frustration.

    M Where there is no harm or benefit, Feuerbach contends, there is no criterion for distinguishing right from wrong SM 75— The purpose of morality and law is to harmonize the drive-to-happiness of the various individual members of a moral community. My right is the legal recognition of my own drive-to-happiness, my duty is the drive-to-happiness of the other that demands recognition from me.

    SM The moral will, as Feuerbach conceives of it here, is not a disinterested will. Because sympathy for the suffering of others presupposes antipathy toward my own suffering, whoever does away with self-interest i. Page numbers refer to the relevant volume of GW as indicated below.

    In cases where two page numbers are separated by a slash, the second refers to the relevant translation as indicated below. Although I have made use of these translations, in many cases I have preferred to provide my own. Biographical Introduction 2. Early Idealistic Pantheism 3. Feuerbach as Historian of Philosophy 4. The Critique of Christianity 5.

    Abelard and Heloise: Or, the Writer and the Human: A Series of Humorous Philosophical Aphorisms

    The Later Theory of Religion 7. Foreshadowing arguments put forward in his first book, Feuerbach went on in this letter to emphasize the need for the I, the self in general, which especially since the beginning of the Christian era, has ruled the world and has thought of itself as the only spirit that exists at all [to be] cast down from its royal throne.

    Feuerbach as Historian of Philosophy The understanding of reason as one and universal embodied in the works discussed in the preceding section also informs the approach taken by Feuerbach to the history of philosophy in the three previously mentioned books and a series of lectures that he produced during the s. VGP 11 The emergence of new philosophical systems results on this view from a necessity that is both internal and external. The Critique of Christianity In a section of the preface to the second edition of The Essence of Christianity that Eliot omitted from her translation, Feuerbach reveals that he had sought in this book to achieve two things: First, to attack the Hegelian claim for the identity of religious and philosophical truth by showing that Hegel succeeds in reconciling religion with philosophy only by robbing religion of its most distinctive content.

    At one point in the Treatise Spinoza observes that the biblical authors imagined God as ruler, legislator, king, merciful, just, etc. Spinoza [] 63 In Christianity Feuerbach makes a similar distinction between the metaphysical and personal divine predicates. What this survey is primarily intended to show is that the fundamental tendency of this development has been toward the actualization and humanization of God or, alternatively, toward the divinization of the real , of the materially existent —of materialism, empiricism, realism, humanism—[and] the negation of theology.

    This process, as it is described by Hegel at the end of the Science of Logic , involves the logical Idea freely releas[ing] itself … [into] the externality of space and time existing absolutely on its own without the moment of subjectivity. If, however, the the object is not only something posited, but also to continue in this abstract language something which itself posits, then it is clear that the presuppositionless ego, which excludes the object from itself and negates it, is only a presupposition of the subjective ego against which the object must protest.

    Feuerbach defines the feeling of dependence as the feeling or consciousness of man that he does not and cannot exist apart from a being that is distinct from himself, that he does not have himself to thank for his own existence. SM 74 The moral will, as Feuerbach conceives of it here, is not a disinterested will.

    No translation available.