The purpose of the project is to produce information about trends in the use of disability and rehabilitation benefits granted to young people, and about vocational rehabilitation benefits intended for youth and the related changes. In addition, the study maps the pathways leading to disability pensioning as well as the later situation and background factors for young people who have applied for or been granted various benefits based on illness.
Social skills are trained within everyday environments, such as home, school or the workplace. The month-long rehabilitation process is implemented by a multiprofessional team, including a work coach who serves as a special worker, and also a working life specialist. As part of the project, an evaluation study is being conducted by the National Institute for Health and Welfare THL , jointly with Kela Research, to assess the aspects of development and impact.
In terms of development, the study aims to collect data on the process of seeking rehabilitation, the implementation of group rehabilitation, the integration of rehabilitation into everyday life and the motivation of rehabilitees. Observation and other qualitative methods are used as research methods. Data concerning the efficacy of the rehabilitation model and the success of collaboration with stakeholders will be collected through questionnaires and interviews among rehabilitees, service providers and interest groups.
The research project covers the years — and its results will be reported in national and international publications. Additional information: Annamari Tuulio-Henriksson, tel. At the start of , the provision of rehabilitation psychotherapy became a statutory responsibility of Kela, instead of being a discretionary service.
The change means, in practice, that the number of rehabilitees shall no longer be limited by the appropriations tied to a particular budget year. The criteria for receiving rehabilitation psychotherapy are mostly the same as earlier. On the basis of register data, we examine if the increase in psychotherapies is reflected as changes in the distributions of the demographic factors, occupation, diagnoses, psychotropic medication and sickness allowances among the rehabilitees, as compared to the situation before the amendment of the law. Another aim of our research is to examine the labour market activity of the recipients of the statutory psychotherapy before the rehabilitation, at its start and end, as well as during a two-year follow-up.
We also investigate the implementation of rehabilitation psychotherapies of varying duration and the refusal and granting decisions concerning rehabilitation psychotherapies. The study is a sequel to the citizen surveys conducted in , — and , and therefore it is also possible to observe the change over time. The data are collected through phone interviews.
The number of interviews will total 1, The study explores the experiences and ideas for improvement that customers have about the implementation of Kela's benefit programmes. Data are collected with questionnaire forms sent out to over 3, persons having immediately before the survey received a decision on a benefit claim from Kela. The Barometer results tell about the development of well-being at work within Kela as a whole and in its various units. Additional information: Piia Bogdanoff, tel. The study looks at how comprehensible the language explaining the reasons for decisions on health insurance applications is from a legal point of view.
The project takes a combined juridical-empirical approach. The data consists of decisions issued by Kela denying applications for sickness allowance, general housing allowance and disability allowance. The decisions are partly constructed from predefined phrases, whose content and impact on the reasons set out for the decision are analysed in the study. The city of Salo has undergone a rapid transformation of its economic structure following the closing of the Nokia mobile phone assembly plant. This study looks at the effects that such extensive structural change has had on the wellbeing of the Salo residents and of the region as a whole.
In a questionnaire, Salo residents are asked about their experiences with unemployment, economic security, wellbeing and health. The study also looks at the economic development of the region and the effectiveness of the government assistance provided to Salo, and follows trends in the kinds of public services offered over a ten-year period — The first results will be reported in autumn The study is a cooperation between Kela Research and the University of Turku.
Project website University of Turku. Additional information: Sari Kehusmaa, tel. The study seeks to produce information at the individual level about the use of social and health services and benefit recipiency among residents of the city of Oulu. Particular attention is paid to how specific individuals use and combine services and benefits from different sectors and systems.
Having access to a set of register data spanning a period of several years, the study is able to investigate broadly the aggregate use and costs in different sectors of the healthcare system and of public social services and benefits. The project is divided into several sub-projects. In —, dispatch centres were established in hospital districts as a contact point for clients This step was due to the need to implement ride-sharing for trips made by taxi.
At the same time, a system for claiming reimbursement electronically was introduced for these taxi trips. This collaborative project looks at the savings achieved through ride-sharing in the Pirkanmaa special responsibility area in and considers whether ride-sharing should be implemented not within single hospital districts but within special responsibility areas, which are made up of several hospital districts. The project will conclude on 30 June The project is based on the idea that well-being is multidimensional, that these dimensions are interdependent, and that all activity aimed at creating well-being must occur within ecologically sustainable boundaries.
The project consists of several articles and a trilogy of books. Strongly Sustainable Societies. London: Routledge. Microsimulation methods are used to analyse the effects of legislation on household transfers and taxes. Microsimulation is useful both in the drafting of legislation and as a tool of tax and social security research. For example, it allows the researcher to examine long-term trends in social security legislation and to test the impact of different hypothetical changes in legislation on household incomes. The Research Department is involved in developing and updating the new SISU simulation model administered by Statistics Finland, and uses the model in research and reports as well as to develop further its own applications.
Research Research Information in brief Research publications Seminars Research projects Research programme Basic income experiment Transfer of administrative responsibility for the social assistance scheme to Kela Research data requests Ethics Committee Contact us. Project publications. Lapsiperheet ja perhepolitiikka luvulla. A song of , families. Families with children and family policy in the s.
Kela, Teemakirja How long does child home care last? A study of mothers' child home care periods in the s. Anita Haataja and Maria Valaste: Applying child-based information to a microsimulation model. A better tool to assess outcomes of alternative entitlements to child care provisions? Mothers' labour market statuses and background information on how parental leaves are allocated on the corporate level and how corporate management feels about family leaves. Anita Haataja, Jukka Mattila and Maria Valaste: Applying individual level data on children's care periods to microsimulation models.
Take-up of home care allowance among immigrant mothers in the s. Yhteiskuntapolitiikka , — Sosiaalivakuutus Home care allowance develops at its own pace in the Nordic countries. Earmarked approriations encourage fathers to take parental leaves. Sosiaalivakuutus, The difficult equation between caring and equality. Jussi Tervola: Kotihoidon tuki vai kotouttaminen? Home care allowance or integration? Stockholm Research Reports in Demography 14, Return to work among mothers with infants: about the reasons behind long periods of parental leaves.
Research blog, posted Helsinki: Kela Research. Project period: 1 September —31 December Project period: 25 March —31 December Additional information: Heini Kari, tel. Additional information: Katri Aaltonen, tel. In the late nineteenth century, Mexico was in the process of modernization, and public health issues were again tackled from a scientific point of view.
In the post-revolutionary period after , improved public health was a revolutionary goal of the Mexican government. The movement flourished from the s to the s. The Mexican Social Security Institute was established in , during the administration of President Manuel Avila Camacho to deal with public health, pensions, and social security.
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Since the Cuban Revolution the Cuban government has devoted extensive resources to the improvement of health conditions for its entire population via universal access to health care. Infant mortality has plummeted. Public health was important elsewhere in Latin America in consolidating state power and integrating marginalized populations into the nation-state. In Colombia, public health was a means for creating and implementing ideas of citizenship.
Though curable and preventative, malaria remains a huge public health problem and is the third leading cause of death in Ghana. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. There's a push and pull, as you know, between cheap alternatives for industry and public health concerns We're always looking at retrospectively what the data shows Unfortunately, for example, take tobacco: It took 50, 60 years of research before policy catches up with what the science is showing — Laura Anderko, professor at Georgetown University and director of the Mid-Atlantic Center for Children's Health and the Environment commenting on public health practices in response to proposal to ban chlorpyrifos pesticide.
Main article: Aid. Further information: Sustainable Development Goals. Main article: Global Health Initiatives. Main article: Professional degrees of public health. See also: Timeline of healthcare in Cuba. Modern Medicine. Centers for Disease Control Foundation. Retrieved 27 January Building the public health workforce for the 21st century.
Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada. The role of WHO in public health , accessed 19 April Public health surveillance , accessed 19 April Foreign Affairs. Accessed 19 April The Lancet. New York, 13 May JOJ Pub Health. Perspectives in Public Health. In Roberts, S. Roberts, S. Craig ed. Applied Evolutionary Psychology. Oxford University Press. Cambridge University Press.
Pencheon, David ed. Oxford Handbook of Public Health Practice. Health Care Evaluation. Understanding Public Health. Open University Press. Analytical Models for Decision Making. PLoS Medicine. Journal of Community Health. Canadian Medical Association Journal. April Dermatologic Clinics.
Retrieved 13 June Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery. Parvaz 26 April Al Jazeera. World Health Report working together for health. Geneva: WHO. American Journal of Public Health.
World Health Organization. Retrieved 20 April Wilkinson; Michael G. Marmot, eds. Part B: Medical Anthropology. Economic Modelling. United Nations Sustainable Development. Retrieved 25 November Kaiser Family Foundation. February Medical Principles and Practice. William H. Healing the schism: Epidemiology, medicine, and the public's health.
New York: Springer-Verlag. Histories of anthropology annual. University of Nebraska Press. Tulane: the biography of a university, New Haven: Yale University Press. Education Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates. Board on Health Care Services. The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly. Health and Society. Council on Education for Public Health. Retrieved 30 March The Mariners' Mirror , volume 94, number 2, May , pp. Thomas The Lambeth cholera outbreak of the setting, causes, course and aftermath of an epidemic in London.
Retrieved 5 April The Sociology of Health and Healing. Taylor and Francis. Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine.
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Archived from the original PDF on 24 December Retrieved 8 July Retrieved 8 November London: Printed by R. Full text at Internet Archive archive. Retrieved 17 December William Gunn, M. Riverhead Books. A Dictionary of Epidemiology 6th ed. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 30 September Archived from the original on 5 November Retrieved 11 July New York: Charles Scribner's Sons John Wiley and Sons. A History of the Public Health System. National Academies Press US. Journal of Women's History.
Austin: University of Texas Press Winter , pp. Beezley, ed. Blackwell Publishing , pp. The Americas , April , pp. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press Mexico: Imprenta de J. Dynamis 25, , pp. Lanham: Lexington Books Ithaca: Cornell University Press Although the Yugoslav successor states have implemented very different privatisation strategies, the various approaches had some features in common.
In Macedonia, the main method of privatisation adopted by firms were management and employee buy-outs, with management buy-outs being the most prevalent. In Serbia, the laws adopted in and were based on voluntary privatisation, both offering privileged conditions primarily to employed workers and managers. Only in Bosnia and Herzegovina was there no element of employee or management buyouts; the first phase consisted of the sale of small enterprises, while the privatisation of larger firms was based on mass privatisation, with vouchers awarded to all adult citizens, that took place only after a number of Investment Funds had been established Bartlett, Second, these different privatisation strategies also envisaged, in most cases, the quickest possible elimination of social property.
In all countries except Serbia, in order to facilitate privatisation, social property was first re-nationalised through its transfer to various government funds, in order to be sold later to potential buyers; or it was freely distributed to citizens in exchange for their ownership certificates as in Slovenia.
Alternatively, after the expiry of the set deadlines for enterprises to start privatisation, unsubscribed social capital was transferred to government funds. In Croatia, enterprises that had not started privatisation within the set deadlines were taken over by the Development Fund, becoming state ownership to be privatised later. In Macedonia, where privatisation was voluntary, small and medium sized enterprises which did not begin privatisation by the end of , and large firms by June , were then subject to compulsory privatisation by the Privatisation Agency Bartlett, In Montenegro, the social capital that was not subscribed through share issues by employees was transferred to government funds.
In Slovenia, the part of social property that was initially not subject to privatisation became public property. On the contrary, Serbia retained social property much longer — in the s due to the voluntary nature of privatisation which resulted in its slow implementation, and during the s due to specific policy mistakes. There was also a legal obstacle to the abolition of social property, since the Serbian Constitution continued to guarantee the equal protection of all property forms including social property , a provision that was changed only in the new Serbian Constitution adopted in The ongoing analysis suggests that the emerging forms of capitalism in the s were rooted quite strongly in the self-management experience, since all countries except Bosnia and Herzegovina in their privatisation laws did offer the possibility to insiders to become, to a smaller or larger extent, the new owners of the enterprise.
As to the other remnants of the self-management system, the process of privatisation was usually accompanied by the elimination of not only social property as described earlier but also of self-management. In all countries except Serbia, Workers councils were formally abolished and replaced by supervisory boards representing the new shareholders. Only in Serbia did self-management survive longer, both due to slow privatisation and the late abolishment of social property though just formally, due to poor economic performance of many enterprises or the maintenance of formal employment without effective work.
Nevertheless, the government often maintained control in the most important enterprises through the appointment of members of the supervisory board. Despite these initial features of privatisation, there has been a significant redistribution of property towards more concentrated ownership in the meantime. In Macedonia, the most profitable firms were sold to managers at substantial discounts, often on the basis of severely undervalued asset valuations, while weaker and smaller enterprises were sold to employees, often on the basis of a more inflated valuation of assets Bartlett, In Bosnia and Herzegovina, many individuals sold their vouchers on the open market, leading to the accumulation of vouchers in the hands of wealthy individuals based in the different ethnic communities see Bartlett, After the initial phase of privatisation, substantial stakes have also remained in government ownership in practically all countries.
In the meantime, there was a further concentration of ownership in the hands of tycoon capitalists oligarchs , that were frequently close to the political parties in power, leading to the collusion of the economic and political elite. In Slovenia, members of the former elite, such as enterprise managers, retained or even strengthened their position in society and became the winners of the transition Mencinger, In Macedonia, former enterprise managers have assumed de facto control of the privatised firms and have strengthened their links with ethnically based political parties, providing ample opportunities for distorted practices of corruption and clientelism Bartlett, The lack of adequate mechanisms for the control on money laundering and corruption remain serious problems in most countries.
Therefore, the type of capitalist systems that have developed in most successor states of Yugoslavia have also been strongly determined by the failure to establish, early on, adequate government institutions that would perform important functions — such as supervise more closely the privatisation process, provide a proper valuation of enterprise assets, ensure the respect of contracts by the new owners or institute effective corporate governance mechanisms.
More generally, governments and foreign policy advisers have underestimated the importance of institutions that would provide appropriate, transparent and fair taxation systems, ensure market competition through anti-trust agencies, fight corruption and substantially reform the judiciary.
The recent experience of the Balkan states suggests that these features of unregulated capitalism are very difficult to dismantle in countries with weak government institutions. While these conclusions would require much more substantive empirical evidence, an indicator that probably best captures the various failures of the government to perform its normal functions is the Rule of law indicator as provided by the World Bank.
As illustrated in Figure 3, the non-EU countries of former Yugoslavia are substantially lagging behind the EU member states regarding the rule of law, especially if we take Germany as the benchmark. It is not a coincidence that the rule of law has become one of the three pillars of the recent EU enlargement strategy for the Western Balkans, along with public administration reform and economic governance. Source: World Bank Governance Indicators, available online. Of all the countries born from the dissolution of Yugoslavia, Slovenia is probably the only country that has implicitly retained some of the institutional features of the previous economic model.
Many Slovenian firms have ended being owned by previous employees and managers. In larger firms, there is representation of workers on company boards, introduced through a Law on co-determination adopted in Slovenian company law also allows enterprises to offer bonuses linked to enterprise profits, therefore a form of profit-sharing similar to practices in labour-managed firms in former Yugoslavia thought this is not institutionalised but is implemented on a voluntary basis; see Lowitzsch, ed.
Thanks to high public expenditure, one of the highest among all the new EU member states, Slovenia has been able to maintain practically free health care, free education and a generous pensions system. Thus in Slovenia, more than in any other country of former Yugoslavia, we find signs of continuity, rather than of a radical break from the past. It may seem that Serbia has also preserved some elements of the pre economic system. Due to the dominant ideology in the s, Serbia has dismantled much later some elements of the previous system, including social property and self-management.
However, parallel with this conservation seemingly of the old systemic features, there was also a step backwards, through the enlargement of the state sector, more direct state interference in economic life and in enterprise decision-making. Parallel with these changes, the government has failed to implement important complementary reforms that would have ensured the enforcement of laws, the efficient collection of taxes, proper supervision of the financial sector, a more efficient judiciary and fight against corruption.
After almost thirty years of transition to a market economy in the Yugoslav successor states, what have been the overall economic results? One of the main objectives of the transition — introducing a market economy based prevalently on private property — has been mainly achieved, given that the private sector today contributes the dominant part of output in all the successor states of Yugoslavia. However, the transition was also expected to lead to substantial social transformation and to deliver the long-term growth in living standards World Bank, In practice, this objective has been achieved only partially, considering the low level of economic development of most countries, whereas the new course towards capitalism has also produced increasing income inequalities.
The social costs of the transition to market economy have been grossly underestimated in all countries in Eastern Europe see Nuti, , but they have been particularly pronounced in most Yugoslav successor states. In order to show the modest economic results achieved in most Yugoslav successor states during the past thirty years, several indicators can serve as an illustration.
First, various indicators on economic development, including 1 GDP per capita in Yugoslavia and its successor states in and ; 2 the extent of economic recovery by the Yugoslav successor states of their pre-transition real GDP; and 3 the current GDP per capita with respect to the EU average in Purchasing Power Standards see Figures 4, 5, 6. Finally, problems of rising income inequality in some countries will be illustrated through recent data on the Gini coefficients, as provided by the EU SILK survey Figure 8. Most Yugoslav successor states have had highly unsatisfactory results regarding economic development.
The extreme fall in GDP per capita in the years of the disintegration of Yugoslavia and its further fall in most countries in the second half of the s have in no way been compensated by the relatively high growth rates during the period, while the global financial and economic crisis has led to further setbacks, revealing deep structural weaknesses of the Western Balkan economies. Comparing GDP per capita in and , most countries have seen a very limited increase in their level of economic development, while Macedonia has even registered a small reduction; the exceptions are primarily Slovenia and in part also Montenegro, that have developed much faster see Figure 4.
Figure 4. Another important indicator of economic development is the recovery of the pre-transition level of real GDP, taking as the base year equal to Figure 5 reveals that Slovenia recovered fairly quickly after the strong recession of the early s and surpassed its real GDP already in The process of economic recovery has been much slower in most of the other countries. By , just before the strong effects of the global crisis, three countries had still not reached their pre-transition levels of real GDP — Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Serbia see Figure 5.
An important source of inequalities in the majority of the Yugoslav successor states derives from the different positions of individuals on the labour market. The phenomenon of jobless growth that was typical in the Central East European countries in the early years of transition, has remained a key feature of most Balkan countries much longer.
Despite economic recovery in the period, most countries of former Yugoslavia continue to register very high unemployment rates, especially of long-term and youth unemployment, low employment rates, high inactivity of the working age population and a diffused illegal sector. Governments have been spending very little on active labour market policies, the public employment services have been inefficient, trade unions remain weak and there is no effective system of social dialogue. Moreover, substantial brain-drain has taken place in the last thirty years through massive emigration, especially of the young and best educated individuals, in this way additionally eroding the demographic base.
Source: Eurostat statistics, ILO definition. Most countries of former Yugoslavia have also been registering rising income inequality. According to data provided by the European Commission, Slovenia has a remarkably low Gini coefficient A major reason for increasing income inequalities in most countries are inadequate tax reforms. Most countries have introduced a very low personal income tax and a low corporate tax, frequently a flat tax; social security contributions have remained very high the notable exception is Kosovo ; and there is a dominance of indirect taxes VAT and excises.
A property tax has been introduced only fairly recently, it is set at low levels and there is no efficient mechanism of supervision and control. Taxation systems in the Balkans have been evaluated by the ILO in as being unfair not sufficiently progressive and inefficient since revenues are provided prevalently from indirect, rather than direct taxes. The common assumption behind such taxation systems is that they will attract FDI, thus create jobs, increase wages and facilitate conditions for reducing informality, but such outcomes have been more an exception than the rule.
Recent studies for Serbia, as the country with the highest income inequality among the countries covered by the EU survey, suggest that the income tax system has significantly less redistributive effects in comparison with the income tax system in the EU. In the Yugoslav case, however, the failure to create a more efficient governance mechanism at the federal level, that would have accounted for the regional diversities and interests of its republics and regions through more adequate macroeconomic, regional and development policies, produced a system that failed to deliver initial expectations.
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Although it was hoped that political independence of the former Yugoslav republics would facilitate the attainment of important political objectives and enable faster economic development, these objectives have in most cases been achieved only very partially. Slovenia has had a much more successful and smoother transition, pursuing a model based on gradualism and continuity, adopting institutional features built on the previous experience rather than radically breaking with the past, thus preserving some of the advantages of the previous economic system.
However, Slovenia had political stability — the main precondition for positive outcomes, not present in the other countries. The experience of Yugoslavia and of its successor states suggests that in undemocratic regimes governed by authoritarian political leaders, wrong policy choices can easily be made by individuals to the detriment of the population at large, with long-term effects for entire generations.
The current form of capitalism introduced in most countries of former Yugoslavia has brought many undesirable economic and social consequences. Given the unsatisfactory longer-term outcomes, it would be desirable if these countries were to turn towards a more social-democratic model, as has happened to a large extent in Slovenia. If we consider the very high costs of disintegration, military conflicts and international isolation that most of these countries have incurred during the s, and the additional costs of numerous negative consequences of high income inequalities — like greater social tensions, high criminality and poor institutional capacity of the state — these costs could indeed become much larger than the benefits provided so far by capitalism Popov, For these reasons, it is to be hoped that a more balanced political and economic system may be established in the Balkan countries in the future.
These five lessons from former Yugoslavia and its successor states are also quite relevant for what is happening today in the European Union EU :. The usual disclaimer applies: any remaining errors are my own. However, a detailed account of these controversies lies beyond the scope of the present paper. However, this plan had to be abandoned when major economic reforms further liberalised the system in Another two five-year plans were adopted for the periods and Thereafter, as a response to the economic crisis that started developing in , a Long-term stabilisation programme was adopted in that contained various reforms for addressing the economic crisis see more below.
In the earlier periods, however, the definition of the underdeveloped parts of the country was different, thus also of the beneficiaries. While in the first five-year plan it was Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Montenegro that were identified as underdeveloped, in the second five-year plan only Macedonia and Montenegro were included, together with the autonomous region of Kosovo and Metohija. The third five-year plan identified the following regions as underdeveloped: the whole of Macedonia and Montenegro; in Serbia, the autonomous region of Kosovo and Metohija and the south-western parts of Serbia; in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the western parts of the republic and parts of Posavina; and in Croatia, parts of Dalmatia, Lika, Banija and Kordun see more in Uvalic, R.
In this sense it is similar to the concept of Net Material Product that was used in other socialist countries, but differs from such a concept because it is gross of depreciation. The social sector shares have been calculated according to official statistics, provided in the Statistical Yearbook of Yugoslavia Federal Office of Statistics, , Table , p. Although these various indicators could lead to not fully comparable results, particularly in a few marginal cases, the general picture does not change. Bajt, Aleksandar Property in capital and in the means of production in socialist economies.
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