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- SS Werewolf Guerrilla Resistance in Europe 1944-1947.
- The Last Nazis: SS Werewolf Guerrilla Resistance in Europe by Perry Biddiscombe?
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These factors are reflected in the magnitude of losses sustained by the occupation forces. In the first three and a half years after the Nazi capitulation, there were at least 64 Americans who died violently at the hands of Germans , and it is likely that there were several hundred soldiers killed in similar fashion while manning the garrisons of the other occupying powers. In contrast, over 3, coalition troops have been killed in Iraq since May , although the population of that country is barely a third of the size of the population of occupied Germany, and thus provides a much smaller base for insurgent recruitment efforts.
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In addition, it must also be reckoned that"Werwolf " resisters in occupied Germany were totally isolated. They might have hoped for support from distant Japan, but Tokyo sued for peace a mere three months after V-E Day, while Falangist Spain had enough to do in preserving the character of its regime against initial demonstrations of Allied hostility. With regard to the current conflict in Iraq, however, the insurgents seem to enjoy considerable sympathy throughout the Middle East and Iraq has relatively open borders.
These factors have facilitated a flow of volunteers and supplies from across the Arab world, and more recently, from Iran. Once the scale of the fighting increased beyond this limited level, comparisons with events in occupied Germany became more problematic. To get a full measure of the situation, we should also consider not only the subjects of occupation, but its implementers as well, particularly their methods and mentalities.
Last Nazis: SS Werewolf Guerrilla Resistance in Europe - Perry Biddiscombe - Google книги
Here too, there is a need to draw some fundamental distinctions. From early onward, the leaders of the anti-Hitler alliance had decided on the total subjugation and defeat of Nazi Germany. There was no serious debate within the individual Allied powers about the cause of the war or the reason that it was being fought, nor was there any hesitation about directing sufficient manpower or resources in order to secure a favorable outcome.
The Allied cause was so compelling that additional countries kept joining the alliance until virtually the end of the conflict. Consider the differences in the case of Iraq.
There was no overwhelming consensus in favor of war, and the casus belli soon proved spurious. Given these factors, it was difficult to build a substantial coalition of allies, or to assemble the large-scale forces needed to impose a thorough occupation although this failing also owed to the influence of the"transformation" doctrine in the Pentagon.
PERRY BIDDISCOMBE: The Last Nazis. SS Werewolf Guerilla Resistance in Europe 1944-1947
As the insurgency built up momentum, countries melted away from the coalition rather than being convinced to contribute additional manpower and resources. Public tolerance for casualties in such a conflict was low, at least by historical standards. Moreover, the invaders had fond memories of Kurdish and Shiite Arab uprisings in , and they resolved to cultivate such forces, along with anyone else in Iraq who seemed willing to cooperate.
Biddiscombe, who teaches at the University of Victoria, amasses an impressive body of examples for Werwolf strikes and raids in all german countries. They sniped.
THE LAST NAZIS: SS WEREWOLF GUERRILLA RESISTANCE IN EUROPE 1944-1947
They threw ropes over power and telephone wires or injected acid into underground communication cables. They poisoned food stocks and liquor using methanol with which the Russians had the biggest problems. All this could be found in hidden Wehrmacht supply caches. The targets were manifold, eg.
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Allied trucks and convoys, railway facilities, ships, oil and petroleum pipelines, fuel dumps and so on. The most notorious instance of the latter behaviour was the Vehme assassination in late March of the American-appointed mayor of Aachen, the first large city in western Germany to be liberated.
Especially after Germanys defeat there were several security threats facing the Allies. In addition to the Werewolf movement were the liberated slave labourers who damaged german as well as allied properties.
The problem with assessing the extent of Werwolf activity is that not only official Werewolf personnel committed partisan acts. Much of the regular German fighting forces like Wehrmacht , Waffen-SS and security services disarticulated into isolated units that sometimes kept fighting.