The controversy was populist and driven by a political motive, following a mob gathering demanding Godoy's removal as Prime Minister. In the fallout, Goya was named and summoned on a charge of moral depravity;  as Godoy had only been found in possession of the painting, Goya was asked to identify why "he did them", and also "at whose request, and what attention guided him.
La maja desnuda has always hung alongside, above, or before its companion, they were twice in the collection of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando , also in Madrid, being "sequestered" by the Inquisition between and before being returned. They have been in the Prado since It is not known if the two works were intended to be hung together.
One early account gives the Clothed Maja placed in front of the current work; the pull of a cord revealed the nude version. Today they are hung side by side, although others have suggested that they were intended to be spaced apart, and seen in succession. However, many scholars have rejected this possibility, including Australian art critic Robert Hughes in his biography Goya. Others believe that the woman is a composite of several different models. The word maja is the feminine form of majo , a low class Spaniard of the 18th and 19th century. The work has inspired other artists.
Two sets of stamps depicting La maja desnuda in commemoration of Goya's work were privately produced in , and later approved by the Spanish Postal Authority. Later that same year, an Italian - French -American co-production film based on this novel sharing the same name was made by S. Titanus Titanus was an Italian film production company, founded in by Gustavo Lombardo. The company's headquarters are located at 28 Via Sommacampagna and its studios on the Via Tiburtina , 13 km from the centre of Rome.
Lombardo ran the studios until his death in , his son, Goffredo Lombardo and his grandson, Guido Lombardo have continued to run the company. The company has been responsible for hundreds of Italian productions, including some of the most popular or important films in Italian cinema. The studio made numerous international co-productions with French film studios. After the arrival of the French new wave films, Titanus launched a "youth operation", which gave young film artists a chance to create low-budget films with relative freedom; this had first and second productions for Titanus made between and Titanus closed down its production branch in After a hiatus of ten years, Titanus reorganized and resumed film production on a smaller scale.
Despite a few false starts, the company seemed to be back on its feet by the late s, now, most of its work is being done for television. La maja vestida The Clothed Maja is a pendant painting by the Spanish painter Francisco de Goya between and It is a clothed version of the earlier La maja desnuda and is exhibited next to it in the same room at the Prado Museum in Madrid ; the painting was first owned by Prime Minister Manuel de Godoy.
It was twice in the collection of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando in Madrid, being " sequestered " by the Spanish Inquisition between and , has been in the Museo del Prado since ; the word maja is the feminine form of a low class Spaniard of the 18th and 19th century. The model is identifiable as a maja by her costume.
La maja desnuda. Vittorio Metz Vittorio Metz was an Italian screenwriter and film director. He wrote for films between and It was intended to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms and to replace the Medieval Inquisition , under Papal control, it became the most substantive of the three different manifestations of the wider Catholic Inquisition along with the Roman Inquisition and Portuguese Inquisition. The "Spanish Inquisition" may be defined broadly, operating in Spain and in all Spanish colonies and territories, which included the Canary Islands , the Spanish Netherlands , the Kingdom of Naples , all Spanish possessions in North and South America.
According to modern estimates, around , were prosecuted for various offenses during the three centuries of duration of the Spanish Inquisition, out of which between 3, and 5, were executed; the Inquisition was intended to identify heretics among those who converted from Judaism and Islam to Catholicism. The regulation of the faith of newly converted Catholics was intensified after the royal decrees issued in and ordering Jews and Muslims to convert to Catholicism or leave Castile.
The Inquisition was not definitively abolished until , during the reign of Isabella II , after a period of declining influence in the preceding century; the Spanish Inquisition is cited in popular literature and history as an example of religious intolerance and repression.
Some historians have come to conclude that many of the charges levied against the Inquisition are exaggerated, are a result of the Black Legend produced by political and religious enemies of Spain England ; the Inquisition was created through papal bull, Ad Abolendam , issued at the end of the 12th century by Pope Lucius III to combat the Albigensian heresy in southern France. There were a large number of tribunals of the Papal Inquisition in various European kingdoms during the Middle Ages through different diplomatic and political means.
In the Kingdom of Aragon , a tribunal of the Papal Inquisition was established by the statute of Excommunicamus of Pope Gregory IX , in , during the era of the Albigensian heresy, as a condition for peace with Aragon. The Inquisition was ill-received by the Aragonese , which led to prohibitions against insults or attacks on it. Rome was concerned about the'heretical' influence of the Iberian peninsula's large Muslim and Jewish population on the Catholic, it pressed the kingdoms to accept the Papal Inquisition after Aragon. Navarra conceded in the 13th century and Portugal by the end of the 14th, however its'Roman Inquisition' was famously inactive.
Castile refused trusting on its prominent position in Europe and its military power to keep the Pope's interventionism in check. By the end of the Middle Ages, due to distance and voluntary compliance, Castile due to resistance and power, were the only Western European kingdoms to resist establishment of the Inquisition in their realms.
Although Raymond of Penyafort was not an inquisitor , as a canon lawyer and the king's advisor, James I of Aragon , had consulted him on questions of law regarding the practices of the Inquisition in the king's domains. With time, its importance was diluted, and, by the middle of the fifteenth century, it was forgotten although still there according to the law. Regarding the living conditions of minorities, the kings of Aragon and other monarchies imposed some discriminatory taxation of religious minorities, so false conversions were a way of tax evasion.
In addition to said discriminatory legislation, Aragon had laws targeted at protecting minorities. For example, crusades attacking Jewish or Muslim subjects of the King of Aragon while on their way to fight in the reconquest were punished with death by hanging. Up to the 14th century, the census and weddings records show an absolute lack of concern with avoiding intermarriage or blood mixture. Said laws were now common in most of central Europe. Both the Roman Inquisition and neighbouring Christian powers showed discomfort with Aragonese law and lack of concern with ethnicity, but to little effect.
High-ranking officials of Jewish religion were not as common as in Castile, but were not unheard of either. Abraham Zacuto was a professor in the university of Cartagena. Vidal Astori was the royal silversmith for Ferdinand II of Aragon and conducted business in his name, and King Ferdinand himself was said to have Jewish ancestry on his mother's side. There was never a tribunal of the Papal Inquisition in Castile, nor any inquisition during the Middle Ages.
Members of the episcopate were charged with surveillance of the faithful and punishment of transgressors, always under the direction of the king. During the Middle Ages, in Castile, little to no attention was paid to heresy by the Catholic ruling class, or by the population. Jews and Muslims were tolerated and allowed to follow their traditional customs in domestic matters. The legislation regarding Muslims and Jews in Castilian territory varied becoming m.
It is considered to have one of the world's finest collections of European art, dating from the 12th century to the early 20th century, based on the former Spanish Royal Collection , the single best collection of Spanish art. Founded as a museum of paintings and sculpture in , it contains important collections of other types of works. The collection comprises around 8, drawings, 7, paintings, 4, prints, 1, sculptures, in addition to a large number of other works of art and historic documents; as of , the museum displayed about 1, works in the main buildings, while around 3, works were on temporary loan to various museums and official institutions.
The remainder were in storage. The museum received 2.
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It was created with the double aim of showing the works of art belonging to the Spanish Crown and to demonstrate to the rest of Europe that Spanish art was of equal merit to any other national school. The first catalogue of the Museum, published in and devoted to Spanish painting, included paintings, although at that time the Museum housed 1, from the various royal residences, the Reales Sitios, including works from other schools; the exceptionally important royal collection, which forms the nucleus of the present-day Museo del Prado, started to increase in the 16th century during the time of Charles V and continued under the succeeding Habsburg and Bourbon monarchs.
In addition to works from the Spanish royal collection, other holdings increased and enriched the Museum with further masterpieces, such as the two Majas by Goya. Among the now closed museums whose collections have been added to that of the Prado were the Museo de la Trinidad in , the Museo de Arte Moderno in In addition, numerous legacies and purchases have been of crucial importance for the growth of the collection.
Upon the deposition of Isabella II in , the museum was nationalized and acquired the new name of " Museo del Prado ". The building housed the royal collection of arts, it proved too small. The first enlargement to the museum took place in Since the creation of the Museo del Prado more than 2, paintings have been incorporated into its collection, as well as a large number of sculptures, prints and works of art through bequests and purchases, which account for most of the New Acquisitions.
Numerous bequests have enriched the Museum's holdings, such as the outstanding collection of medals left to the Museum by Pablo Bosch. Between In fact, these thieves have agreed with a rich billionaire who plans to buy the original masterpiece; when Toto discovers that all, nothing more than a scam, it's too late Titian and his workshop produced at least six versions of the painting; the major surviving versions are in Naples , Madrid , Chicago , St. Her bed and its hangings are another constant. Other elements vary considerably, she is a different figure at each appearance, though the pose in the Hermitage follows the Prado version.
The works influenced the compositions of many artists including Rembrandt , Anthony van Dyck and Gustav Klimt , who all painted versions of the scene.
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Giorgio Vasari recounts a visit with Michelangelo to Titian's studio, where they saw the original in progress. Michelangelo praised Titian's use of colour in the Madrid painting, though in private, he was critical of Titian's draftsmanship. According to Greek mythology, as it would have been known to Titian through Ovid's Metamorphoses , Boccaccio's Genealogia Deorum Gentilium , Terence, when her father Acrisius consulted the oracle on how he would get male children, he was told that his daughter would bear a son who would kill him.
They landed at Seriphus. Perseus fulfilled the prophecy by killing Acrisius years after—although accidentally. The painting is a development of Titian's compositions with a reclining female nude in the Venetian style. After Giorgione's death in , Titian completed his Dresden Venus , which began the tradition, around painted the Venus of Urbino. According to Clark, the pose is "clearly based on drawings of Michelangelo, is in fact similar to that of the Night and opened out At every point Michelangelo's grandiose invention has been transformed from an embodiment of spiritual malaise into an embodiment of physical satisfaction".
After the original in Naples, where Cupid is to her right, he is replaced by an elderly maid, holding out a cloth or dish to catch the gold coins spilling down from an explosion of colour in the sky which represents Zeus; this figure is retained in versions, though changing in pose and action. In at least some versions, she matches the conventional appearance in art of a " procuress " or brothel-keeper.
La Duquesa de Alba
The left side of each canvas is an interior. While the series describes desirable flesh in an overtly sexual manner, Titian transforms the motifs of courtesans and carnal desire into the more highbrow realm of classical myth; the first version was painted in both Rome and Venice for Cardinal Alessandro Farnese , whose grandfather reigned as Pope Paul III. The papal nuncio in Venice saw it in progress, in September wrote cheerfully to the cardinal comparing it to Titian's earlier nude, the Venus of Urbino, it is described as looking like "a Theatine nun", that would arouse Cardinal Tommaso Badia.
At least "Theatine" is assumed to mean a nun, although it has been suggested that the term was a "term of abuse to refer to an. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Naked Maja disambiguation. Retrieved New York: Harcourt, Connell, Evan S.
Francisco Goya: A Life. New York: Counterpoint, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Dawson W. National Gallery London, Goya in the Twilight of Enlightenment. Yale University Press , The New Yorker. Retrieved 9 August Francisco Goya. List of works.
Francisco Goya - Spanish Culture
Consecration of Aloysius Gonzaga c. Self-portrait c. The Boar Hunt The Parasol c. Many art historians agree that the model was a compilation of many female figures. It portrays a nude woman reclining on a bed of pillows, and was probably commissioned by Manuel de Godoy, to hang in his private collection in a separate cabinet reserved for nude paintings.
Goya created a pendant of the same woman identically posed, but clothed, known today as La maja vestida The Clothed Maja ; also in the Prado, it is usually hung next to La maja desnuda.
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco de
The subject is identified as a maja based on her costume in La maja vestida. The painting is renowned for the straightforward and unashamed gaze of the model towards the viewer. It has also been cited as among the earliest Western artwork to depict a nude woman's pubic hair without obvious negative connotations such as in images of prostitutes. With this work Goya not only upset the ecclesiastical authorities, but also titillated the public and extended the artistic horizon of the day.
It has been in the Museo del Prado in Madrid since Although the two versions of the Maja are the same size, the sitter in the clothed version occupies a slightly larger proportion of the pictorial space; according to art historian Janis Tomlinson she seems almost to "press boldly against the confines of her frame", making her ironically more brazen in comparison to the comparatively "timid" nude portrait.
The painting carries many of the traditions of depictions of the nude in Spanish art, but marks a clear break in significant ways, especially in her bold gaze. The identity of the model and why the paintings were created are unknown.