Author of the short stories books Ana no duerme , Ana no duerme y otros cuentos ; and of the poetry books Viaje legado and Dis-Enchanted in press. Sam Shepard: Sentarse a mirar la pared. Observar los cambios de luz. You have to school yourself. I used to work at the kitchen table I wrote Buried Child in the kitchen of our ranch in California. He said: Sitting and watching the wall.
Seeing the light change. Nueva York, Oct. Actualmente es miembro del Sistema Nacional de Creadores de Arte Emily Fragos is an honored American poet. She has served as guest poetry editor of the online journal, Guernica , and written numerous articles on music and dance. She has long volunteered to teach poetry to the disabled and the elderly and she has been honored for her volunteer work with abandoned and abused animals.
Dominican writer, professor and cultural activist. He has lived in New York since Currently, he teaches at York College. Diariamente caen alfileres sobre su claridad, bombas de humo, Incienso. Una bicicleta rueda sobre la tarde en busca del amor. Torture bandages the eyes of damned pleasure, the lovers provide clavicles, migraines, they do not keep track of time, the night unearths an orphanage, denounces the other face of emptiness. Pins fall daily over her clarity, bombs of smoke, incense.
A bicycle circles the afternoon in search of love. Doors were lost, the sun stays too long, notebooks take moons, More stars return to summon the leap, the journey of hiding ourselves caresses a broken compass. The determination to self-destruct incites torture, gives light to its chains, a surge of deaf bonfires returns a naked dog and the morning loosens canes in order to walk the round, circling through blind corridors, or children who surround an anxious river.
It disappears devouring a piano, negotiated by an absurd freedom and that battle with the light that makes them ragged, rabidly useless. Today they lost their feet, later on love will consume the liver, then it will chew the remains of a laughable lung, but they will not intimidate the distant beams of an unfortunate bicycle that has lost its way. Maryam Alikhani, M. She is teaching at CUNY and doing research on teaching of poetry, technical writing, and composition. In her poetry, she is in conversation with the world she lives in, and she bridges over the borders of languages, cultures, disciplines, genres, and forms.
No matter where I go, I thrive, line by line like plane trees I am ancient and deep, root by root like baobab trees. I have plenty of uses, like three hundred and sixty I am a heritage, seed by seed like coconut trees. I beat the tallest species, by some five hundred feet And I am healing, leaf by leaf like eucalyptus trees. Cherish me as much as Al-Badawi in the West Bank I am a symbol for peace, branch by branch like olive trees. I enlighten you as Siddhartha. Come, live in my shade Then take me to your after life, twig by twig like fig trees. No one has ever heard of my death neither have you; for I live tall, mighty, proud, trunk by trunk like sequoia trees.
Write me like ancient Persians, or modern, like Maryam Read me; remember me, word by word like evergreen trees. Born in Ecuador, she has lived and travelled in Europe, Asia, and the Americas. Her work has appeared in numerous Latin American magazines and newspapers. She is the author of eight books, published in the United States, Ecuador and Bangladesh. Yet, the world is uncertain Only the edge Of a sword, worn. Bajadur is your name, You reign over Delhi, A scholar lost Among rituals and fear, Suffering your lineage, Shut like a fist, Transparent, made of crystal, Unfinished.
In his cold lap, In his red compound, One day, without mystery They will come For you. Bajadur es tu nombre, Bajadur, el poeta, emperador de Delhi emperador del mundo, pero el mundo es incierto es apenas el filo de una espada, gastada. Tambor Este es mi cuerpo libre. Tendones que se dicen en hilos de Luna y de Sol. He is a founding member of the Research Seminar in Contemporary Mexican Poetry, which was coordinator during the period Articles and his poems have appeared in various books and magazines published in Mexico and Latin America.
Escribes como quien recibe un soplo de luna en las mejillas. Escribes para jugar a las adivinanzas, escribes acerca de falsedades y apariencias porque no hay verdad que valga en tus palabras. On the next decade he was in charge of Letras del Ecuador , literary magazine edited by Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana. El tiempo esa pluma, y, Textos y Pretextos Quito Nosotros los de entonces-anthology Quito Since he is on his third presidency of Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana. Me han cortado la cabeza y la han arrojado a la olla de fuego han roto todos mis huesos he dormido azul durante nueve meses han bebido mi sangre en copas de cristal frizado me han descuartizado y han vaciado las cuencas de mis ojos.
Kadiri J. She is also a poet, translator and editor of the multidisciplinary magazine Furman Her poems have been included in anthologies and other online magazines. Vicente Robalino, Ecuador. Muerto feliz junto a las flores resentidas que ya no responden al llamado del espejo. Milton Fernando Romero Obando, Ecuador. Writer, painter, and professor. International Consultant at St. Milton has participated in poetry festivals in USA and Ecuador. Asdrubal Hernandez Caracas, Publisher, writer and photographer.
He has worked for several print and digital media in Venezuela and U. On he founded Sudaquia Editores, a publishing house of books in Spanish for the U. He is a promoter of Latin American culture and literature, and loves to live in New York City with his wife, son and cat. Muchas risas, muchos gritos. La agarran, la rompen y su relleno reparten, mientras debajo de ella aqueos y troyanos por los juguetes se enfrenta. Elizabeth Lara has worked as a language teacher and editor.
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Weisbrot and D. In she was a resident at the Millay Colony. Riddles are fire in the mind— words rubbing one against the other until at last— a spark. Las adivinanzas no son entretenimientos de viejos sabios ni son las historias que te cuenta la abuela a la hora de dormir. Patricio Lerzundi is a Chilean writer and journalist who has made his home in New York since the late sixties, where he earned a Ph. To date he has published six books of poetry.
He has also published six academic books, including four critical annotated editions of Spanish plays dealing with the Colonial Conquest of Chile. For the past eleven years he has been a volunteer teacher of creative writing at maximum security prisons in New York State. Nazareth has participated in poetry festivals in U. Cristal He visto sopladores de cristal estrecharle de poquito. A teenage boy with blue green eyes lies still. Waits all day.
He sips warm brackish water. He pisses into a milk bottle during the long hours. He eats dry bread from a cracked blue ceramic bowl. The sun sears all below. In the broken street a father edges forward gripping the hand of his young daughter. She tries to keep pace on her spindly legs, tripping from fatigue.
Fires burn in the east. On the northern hills smoke blossoms from concealed artillery. The lonesome sharp clap of sniper rifles fills the beautiful dead city.
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He moves the rifle slightly to be perfectly positioned. It makes a faint metal-against-concrete scrape. The father pauses, crouches, pulls the girl down. In mid step she falls awkwardly. Cries out. He puts his hand over her mouth. They watch — they wait. He scans the windows and balconies of shattered apartment blocks. He listens to the acute silence of the carved out streets.
He slowly stands up. The girl gets to her feet. She licks her parched lips. The boy pulls the trigger. The loud report always surprises him. He watches the girl somersault back against the bullet pocked wall. The father kneels, grabs her, holds her. Her blood cascades onto him and the ground. The rubble dust eats it up. The boy tracks the father far below. The boy does not fire. He is fine tuned to inflicting full pain. He crawls back into the ruined cave of the high rise pushing his rifle before him. Pears ripen. The turtle crosses a walking path to her nesting ground.
My dog attacks her own shadow. But our burning world in your thin arms is the same one we choose to practice love in. Pedro Arturo Estrada Is a Colombian poet, story teller and essayist. His work has been included in anthologies around the world. As Cioran Goes Silent In the summits of despair also silence, the drunkenness of silence. He is the author of numerous publications on the Neo-Baroque, and the relation between literature, the visual arts, and philosophy.
La llamo por su nombre. La invito a compartir mi desierto. La invito a que se quede. Desaparece y se convierte en otra persona, no desea estar contaminada por una tierra que no es tierra, ni por un desierto que no es desierto. Existe incluso la historia de un hombre en particular que, vestido de uniforme, se propuso encontrarla. Plateau 25 Aurelia She moves. She dances. She escapes. There is no one like Aurelia.
Whenever I try to touch her, to possess her, she disappears behind the world. I call her name. I invite her to share my desert. I invite her to stay. But she escapes, she defies gravity, she defies space. And there are those who have died following her; for having confused her with someone else they have hanged themselves in the name of an Egyptian Queen.
She is lighter than air. She disappears and becomes someone else, not wishing to be contaminated by an earth which is not an earth, and by a desert which is not a desert. And she wanders endlessly, looking for some lost city the old city of the Pharaoh , looking for some identity, looking for something which like herself is unnameable.
There is even the story of one particular man who, dressed in uniform, set out to find her. They had their origin, according to some authorities, in Galicia and Portugal. They contented themselves with dealing out eleven or twelve syllables, and. This may account for these verses falling into disuse, as the progressive improvement of taste, which allowed the redondillas to maintain their original con- sideration, was not reconcilable with the half dancing, half hobbling rhymed lines of the versos de arte mayor.
There is, however, in the rudest of the Spanish and Portuguese strophes of this kind, more real rhythmus, than even in the modern popular songs of the English. But the character of the sonnet was not sufficiently popular for the old Spaniards and Portuguese, and they were never fond of that kind of poetic com- position. Not less adverse to the taste of the country was the long protracted alexan- drine. Monkish rhymesters, who forced their imitations of latin doggrels on the nation, introduced this kind of verse into the Spanish language, in the thirteenth or perhaps even in the twelfth century, but certainly at a period anterior to its appearance in any other modern tongue.
It soon, however, sunk into disesteem, and was neglected. Thus, during the progress of their civili- zation, the Spaniards and the Portuguese co- operated in cultivating the same spirit and form of poetry. What is, notwithstanding, dissimilar in the polite literature of the two countries, and what is peculiar to each, will, with other subjects, become matter for con- sideration in the following sheets.
BOOK I. THE origin of Castilian poetry is lost in the obscu- rity of the middle ages. The poetic spirit which then awoke in the riorth of Spain, doubtless first mani- fested itself in romances and popular songs. That some of the many romances which record anecdotes of the life of the Cid may be the offspring of that period, is a conjecture which, to say the least of it, has never been 28 HISTORY OF disproved; and indeed the whole character impressed upon Spanish poetry from its rise, denotes that the era which gave birth to the first songs of chivalry must be very remote.
In the form, however, in which these romances now exist, it does not appear that even the oldest can be referred to the twelfth, far less to the eleventh century. Some examples of Old Castilian verse, which are held to be more ancient than any known romance or ballad in that language, have been preserved.! It would require the most laborious investigation, joined to the highest critical sagacity, to penetrate the obscurity in which this part of the history of literature is involved. How indeed can it be ascertained to what age a ballad belongs, the author of which is unknown, and which, in the progressive im- provement of the language and the national taste, has been, without scruple, altered by the singers?
The collection, however, appears to terminate with the third volume, Madrid, , which contains the Poema de Alexandra Magno. The first volume contains the celebrated letter of the Marquis de Santillana on the ancient Spanish poetry, which, for the first time, is printed in that volume, with a commentary by the publisher, full of philological learning.
It is the more difficult to speak with any certainty respecting its age, as there also exists a very old prose account of the Cid, which corresponds in all the principal facts with this rhymed chronicle. Though it may be true that the author lived about the middle of the twelfth cen- tury, as his editor Sanchez supposes, still it is not with this work that the history of Spanish poetry ought to commence.
As a philological curiosity, the rhymed chronicle is highly valuable; but any thing like poetry which it contains must be considered as a consequence of the poetic character of the nation to which the ver- sifier belonged, and of the internal interest of the sub- ject. The events are narrated in the order in which they succeed each other, and the whole work scarcely exhibits a single mark of invention.
The small portion of poetical colouring with which the dryness of the relation is occasionally relieved, is the result of the chi- valrous cordiality of the writer's tone, and of a few happy traits in the description of some of the situations. Still less of the character of poetry belongs to the fabulous chronicle of Alexander the Great Poema de Alexandra Magno , respecting the origin and age of which the Spanish critics are far from being agreed. Whether it be, as some pretend, a Spanish original of the twelfth or thirteenth century, or as others assert, the translation of a French work of the same age, in verse, or, what is still more probable, a versified trans- lation of a latin legend, with the manufacture of which some monk had occupied his solitary hours, are ques- tions which a writer of the history of Spanish poetry cannot, with propriety, stop to discuss, even though alexandrine verse should, as some suppose, have taken its name from this chronicle.
Sospiro mio Zid; ca mucho avie grandes cuidados. Fablo mio Zid bien, e tan mejprado : Grado a ti, Senor Padre, que estas en alto. Fablar curso rimado por la quaderna via Per silabas cantadas, ca es grant maestria. The real history only feebly glimmers through a grotesque compound of puerile fictions and distorted facts. But perhaps this mode of treating the materials is not to be laid to the account of the versifier. There are some prayers, monastic rules, and legends in Castilian alexandrines, which are regarded as of very ancient date, but they were probably composed by Gonzalo Berceo, a benedictine, about the middle of the thirteenth century.
Spanish authors have made the dates of the birth and death of this monk objects of very minute research, and have exerted great in- dustry in recovering his rude verses. Some notices on the same topics are also to be found in Velasquez, Had Berceo composed verses on temporal subjects, it is probable that the Spanish writers would not have disputed with so much zeal on the merits of his life. It is curious, that the pious author himself calls his verse prose. The names of several early writers of rude Castilian verse are recorded by different authors. A notice, however, of the literary merits of Alphonso X.
This sovereign, who was a very extraordi- nary man, for the age in which he lived, was am- bitious, among his other distinctions, of being a poet. Scarcely any romance or song of true poetic feeling can be attributed to him; but he loved to embody his science and learning in verse. He disclosed his Alchymical Secrets in the dactylic stanzas, called versos de arte mayor.
Alchymy was his favourite study; and if his assertions in verse may be relied on, he several times made gold, and in times of difficulty turned his power of producing that precious metal to his own advantage. His verses are, in some degree, harmonious, and inge- niously constructed; but no trait of poetic description enlivens the dry and uninteresting precepts he details. Bien valdra, como ereo, un vaso de bon vino.
His claim to occupy that station can only be founded on the attention he devoted to the cultivation of the Castilian language, an attention which is easily recognized even in his unpoetic verses, and which could not fail to prove a most powerful incitement to emulation, since he who set the example was the king of the country, and possessed a reputation for learning which was flattering to the national pride.
The greater purity and precision which was thus intro- duced into the dialect of Castile and Leon, enabled the poetic genius of the nation to unfold itself with in- creasing vigour and freedom. But the benefits which Alphonso conferred on the Spanish language and litera- ture, did not stop here. The bible was, by his corn- La piedra que llaman philosophal Sabia facer, e me la enseuo, Fizimoslo juntos, despues solo yo; Con que muchas veces creci6 mi caudal.
The chemical prescriptions have a very quaint effect, as deli- vered in the dancing measure of these verses, viz. Tomad el mercurio assi como sale De minas de tierra con limpia pureza. Purgadlo con cueros par la su maleza, Porque mas limpiezaen esto mi cale. E porque su peso tan solo se iguale, Con doze onzas del dicho compuesto, En vaso de vidro despues de ser puesto. Otra materia en esto non vale. This extract may also serve as an example of the rhythmical facility displayed in the verses of Alphonso.
VOL I. Finally, he introduced the use of the national language into legal and judicial proceedings. No direct interest was, however, taken by Alphonso in the improvement of the popular Castilian poetry. He probably thought it too destitute of art and learning to deserve much consideration. It appears to have been on this account, and not from vanity, that he favoured the Troubadours, assembled at his court, in whose more elegant verse his praises were unceasingly proclaimed. The history of Spanish poetry continues barren of names until towards the end of the fourteenth century; and yet, according to all literary probability, the greater part of the ancient Castilian romances, which have, in the progress of time, been collected, and have under- gone more or less improvement, were composed at a much earlier period.
With a view, therefore, to the convenience of historical arrangement, a particular account of the ancient ro- mance poetry of Castile may, with propriety, be postponed until the period when the first instance of literary publicity, which was given to it, must be recorded. In the mean while, some little known, though not unimportant memorials of the state of poetical and rhetorical culture in the fourteenth century, may here be brought to recollection. That the example of Alphonso X. This prince, amidst all the troubles of his busy reign, maintained the character of a protector of learning, and endeavoured to distinguish himself as a writer in his native tongue.
How- ever slight may be the merits of this work, in a poetical point of view, it is rendered interesting by the circumstance, that the king chose for the rythmic structure of his narrative, the easy flowing verse of the romances, instead of stiff monkish alexandrines, and the ungraceful dactylic stanzas.
This brought the redondillas more into favour. Alphonso XI. Though rhetorical art might derive no advantage from these books, they contributed to give consideration to the national dialect, and to incite persons of rank to engage in literary labour. This Don Juan was one of the most dTstmguished men of his age. He served his sovereign Alphonso XI. After distinguishing himself by a number of honourable and gallant deeds, Alphonso appointed him governor adelentado mayor of the country border- ing on the Moorish kingdom of Grenada.
In this station he became the terror of the hereditary enemy of Castile. He made an irruption into Grenada, and defeated the Moorish king in a great battle. After this brilliant victory, he always acted one of the first parts in the internal troubles of Castile, and during twenty years conducted the war against the Moors. He died in , leaving behind him some of the ripest fruits of his experience in his Count Lucanor. A Spanish book, so full of sound practical good sense, of a character so truly unostentatious, and clothed in a simple, homely, but far from inanimate garb, could scarcely be expected to belong to the fourteenth century.
The work is not easily procured even in Spain. No es de los mas communes, says Sarmiento. In the library of the university of Gottingen there is a copy of the edition : Madrid, , 4to. Amadis de Gaul, the prototype of all sub- sequent knight-errantry romances, had then obtained general circulation. There is, however, in the Count Lucanor, no trace of romantic extravagance, none of the dreaming flights of an irregular imagination; for in every passage of the book the author shews himself a man of the world and an observer of human nature.
In the course of his long experience he had formed maxims for the conduct of life which he was desirous of pursuing. He gave to many of these axioms 3, laconic expression in verse; and, to impress them the more forcibly, invented his Count Lucanor, a prince conscious of too limited an understanding to trust to his own judgment in cases of difficulty. He gives the Count a minister consejero , whose wisdom fortu- nately supplies the deficiency of his master's intellect.
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When the Count asks advice of his minister, the latter relates a story, or sometimes a fable. The application comes at the close, and the narrative is the commentary of the verse or couplet with which it terminates. In this manner forty-nine moral and political tales are told. They are not of equal merit; but though some are inferior to others, the difference is not great, and they have all the same rhetorical form.
Sometimes it is the idea that gives the chief interest, sometimes the execution. Among the versi- fied maxims are the following. It is curious to observe the resemblance between the unconscious artless sim- plicity with which Don Juan Manuel relates his fable, and the finely -studied simplicity 'with which the elegant La Fontaine tells the same story. J No aventures mucho tu riqueza For consejo de ome que ha pobreza. Quien bien see, non se lieve. Quien te alabare con lo que non has en ti, Sabe, que quiere relever lo que has de ti.
Fablava un dia el Conde Lucanor con Patronio su Consejero, en esta manera. Patronio, vos sabedes que yo soy muy cac. It is only mal de mi fablan en escarnio en alguna manera, y quando loan al Cid Ruydias, o al Conde Ferrand Gonzalez, de quantas lides que fizieron, o al santo y bienaventurado Rey don Ferrando, quantas buenas conquistas fizo, loan a mi, diziendo que fiz muy buen fecho, porque anadi aquello en los capillos y en las piguelas.
Y porque yo entiendo, que este alabamiento mas se me torna en denuesto, que en alabamiento, ruego vos que me a consejedes en que manera fare, porque no me escarnezcan por la buena obra que fiz. Seiior Conde, dixo Patronio, para que vos sepades lo que vos cumple de fazer en esjx , plazeme ya que sopiessedes lo que contescio a un moro, que fue Rey de Cordova. El Conde la pregunto como fuera aquello ; Patronio le dixo assi. Huvo en Cordova un Rey Moro, que huvo nombre Alhaquime, y como quier que mantenia bien assaz su Reyno, no se trabajo de fazer otra cosa honrada, nin de gran fama, de las que suelen y deven fazer los Reyes.
Ca non tan solamente son los Reyes tenudos de guardar sus Reynos, mas los que buenos quieren ser, conviene que tales obras fagan, porque con derecho acrecienten sus Reynos, y fagan en guisa, que en su vida sean muy mas loados de las geiites, y despues de su muerte finqueen buenas fazaiias de las obras que ellos ovieren fecho. E este Rey non se trabajava de esto, si non de comer, y de folgar, y de estar en su casa vicioso ; y acaescio, que estando un dia que tauian ante el un estormento de que se pagavan mucho los moros, que ha nombre Albogon, e el Rey paro mieutes, y entendio que non fazia tan buen son como era menester.
E comoquiera que aquello era bien fecho para en aquella cosa, pero que non era tan gran fecho como convenia de fazer al Rey. E las gentes en manera de escarnio comen9aron a loar aquel fecho, y dezian quando llamavan a alguno en Arabigo, Vahedezut Alhaquime, que quiere dezir : este es el anadimiento del Rey Alhaquime. Esta palabra fue sonada tanto por la tierra, fasta que lo ovo de oir el Rey, y pregunto, porque dezian las gentes aqueste palabra. E desque esto oyo tomo ende gran peqar, pero como era muy buen Rey, non quiso fazer mal a los que dezian aquesta palabra, mas puso en su coracon de facer otro anadimiento, de que por fuerza oviessen las gentes a loar el su fecho.
E entonce porque la su mezquita de Cordova non era acabada, anadio en ella aquel Rey toda la labor que hi menguava, y acabola. Y esto fue la mejor, y mas complida, y mas noble mesquita que los moros avian en Espana. E desque aquel Rey ovo acabado la mesquita, y fecho aquel tan buen anadimiento, dixo, que pues fasta entonces lo avian a escarnio, retrayendole del anadimiento que fiziera en el Albogon, que tenia que de alii adelante le avrian a loar con razon del anadimiento que fiziera en la mezquita de Cor- dova, y fue despues muy loado: y el loamiento que fasta entonces le fazian escarnesciendole, fined despues por loa, y oy dia dizen los Moros quando quieren loar algun buen hecho : Este es el anadi- miento del Rey Alhaquime.
E vos, Senor Conde, si tomades pesar, o cuidades que vos loan por escarnescer del anadimiento, que fezistes en los capillos, y en las piguelas, y en las otras cosas de cac. E por fuerc,a las gentes avran de loar los vuestros buenos fechos, assi como loan aora por escarnio en el anadimieuto que fezistes de la caca. E el Conde tovo este por buen consejo y fizolo assi, e fallose dello muy bien. E porque don Juan entendio que esta era buen exemplo, fizolo escrivir en este libro, y fizo estos versos, que dizeu assi : Si algun bien fizieres, que chico asaz fuere, Fazio granado, que el bien nunca muere.
In a short preface, the author gives a candid explanation of the object of this collection of tales. A collection of Don Juan Manuel's poems also existed at that time, according to the express testimony of Argote y Molina, who pub- lished El Conde Lucanor in the sixteenth centuiy, and intended to publish those poems likewise. He calls them coplas; and they certainly were not alexan- drines.
He notices the poems in an appendix to his edition of El Conde Lucanor, entitled Discurso sobre la poesia Espanola. Though the appendix occupies only a few pages, it contains many interesting observations. It is certainly not the worst of its kind ; and must have found its way by some lucky accident into the Cancionero general, which contains scarcely any narrative romances.
All the songs attributed to Don Juan Manuel in the Cancioncra have a form and structure, which render it probable that they belong to the age in which El Conde Lucanor was written; one, for example, begins thus : Quien por bien servir alcanza Vivir triste y desamado, Este tal Deve tener confianza, Que le traera este cuydado A mayor mal. The object of the satire is thus apparent, but the execution is as unskilful as the language is rude.
Only a part of the work has been preserved. La muerte pudo matalle, Pues le distes ocasion, Pero no pudo quitalle De teneros aficion. O pena sin redemcion, Que pena el triste amador En los infiernos de Amor. But Velasquez pays parti- cular attention to him, and gives a long extract from his work. Don Amor says : Entrada de quaresma viume para Toledo; Guide estar vicioso, plasentero e ledo. Falle y gran santiadad, e fisome estar quedo. Pocos me recibieron, nin me ficieron del dedo. Estaba en un palacio pintado de Almagra.
The latter half of the fourteenth century is the period when the history of the Spanish romances and songs, the unknown authors of which yet live in their verse, though still very defective, begins to acquire some degree of certainty. Much however is not to be learned from the letter itself. The commentary on it by Sanchez, in the first volume of the before-mentioned Coleccion, is far more instructive.
In constant conflict with the Moors, and acquainted with oriental manners and compositions, the Spaniards felt the pro- per distinction between poetiy and prose, less readily than that distinction was perceived by any other people on the first attempt to give a determinate form to their literature. Popular songs of every kind were probably indigenous in the Peninsula. The patriotic Spaniards, like many other ancient nations, were fond of preserving the memory of remarkable events in ballads. They also began, at a very early period, to consider it of importance to record public transactions in prose.
The example of their learned king Alphonso X. But historical criticism, and the historical art, were then equally unknown. As the giving to an accre- dited fact a poetical dress in a song fit to be sung to a guitar, was not thought inconsistent with the spirit of genuine national history, still less could the relating of a fabricated story as a real event in history seem hostile to the spirit of poetry.
Thus the historical romance in verse, and the chivalric romance in prose, derived their origin from the confounding of the limits of epic and historical composition. The history of Spanish poetical romance is therefore intimately interwoven with the history of the prose chivalric romance.
From the very careful investigations of several Spanish and Portuguese writers, it appears that the name of the real author of the first or genuine Amadis was Vasco Lobeira, or, according to the Spanish orthography and pronunciation, Lobera, a native of Portugal, who flourished about the end of the thirteenth century, and lived to It is probable, however, that before the period at which the work obtained its highest celebrity both in Spain and France, it had passed through the hands of several emendators, and it is therefore im- possible to know how much of the book, as it now exists, belongs to the original author, and how far it is indebted to the labours of Spanish or French editors.
Theil I. The monstrous perversions of history and geography in that work, did not disturb the illusion of readers who knew little or nothing of either history or geo- graphy. The prolixity of the narrative gave as little offence as the stiff formality of the style. Indeed the virtues of gothic chivalry appear more pure as they shine through the formal stateliness of the narration.
The author has borrowed nothing from the Arabian tale-tellers, except the attraction of fairy machinery. This was, however, a powerful charm, and gave an epic-colouring to the Amadis, which, joined to the pathetic descriptions of romantic heroism, produced an influence over the imagination and feelings of the age which no former work had possessed. The moral character of the plan and execution is strangely blended with a peculiar kind of delicately veiled licence, which appears to have very well accorded with the spirit of Spanish chivalry.
While the gentle knights, amidst innumerable adventures of love and heroism, observe as the chief law of chivalry, the most inviolable fidelity in all situations towards females as well as males, they and the ladies with whom they have pledged their faith, by a secret betrothing, live together without scruple before marriage, as husband and wife.
It is obvidus that more of Spanish than of French features enter into the character of the chivalry exhibited in this work.
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The romantic self-torment of Amadis on the Pena pobre barren rock is one of the striking Spanish traits. Even the name Beltenebros, given on this occasion by a pious hermit to the disconsolate knight, contributes to prove that the work is not of French origin; for the French paraphrastic translation, Le beaux tenebreux, is not only in itself very insipid, but poor Amadis appears quite ridiculous when made to pronounce it from his own mouth as his name. At this period the romance poetry obtained a consideration which it had not previously enjoyed.
Songs which were formerly disregarded were now carefully noted down. Those poetic romances, the materials for which are taken from histories of knights-errant, are among the oldest of the Spanish ballads which have been preserved in the ancient language and form. Some are imitations from the Spanish Amadis, others are translations from the French ; and it may here be observed, that the Spa- niards and the French possessed at this period a body of romantic literature, which was throughout its whole extent nearly the same to both countries.
With the old poetic romances, derived from books of chivalry, are closely connected the most ancient of the historical ballads founded on the history of the country. The latter, it may be presumed, soon trans- ferred their national tone and character into the former. But it was not until after they had given to each other a reciprocal support, that the historical romance found a place in Spanish literature.
They also mutually declined from the height of their common celebrity, and at last sunk again into the obscurity attached to pieces of mere popular recreation. In this way, how- ever, they have retained an oral currency among the common people down to the present age.
The Spanish critics notice them too briefly, as if they were afraid to depreciate the dignity of their literature by dwelling on the antiquated and homely effusions of the poetic genius of their unlettered ancestors. The romances composed on subjects derived from the fictions of chivalry, which have been preserved in the collections, are distinguished by the old forms of the language, and the primitive mode of repeating a single rhyme, which often becomes a mere assonance, from the romances of a later date, though even these have long since been called old.
Amadis de Gaul appears to have contributed very little to this kind of ballad. A considerable part of them may be found in Velas- quez, with additions by Dieze, p. The best of these collections is entitled : Can- cionero de Romances, en que estan recopilados la mayor parte de los Romances Castellanos, que hasta agora se han compuesto. Nuevamento corregido y anadido en muchos paries. Anvers , 8vo. In the well known Romancero general none of the pieces which derive their materials from knight-errantry romances are to be found.
In them we again meet with the twelve peers of France, who figure in the poems of Boyardo and Ariosto, with the addition of Don Gayferos, the Moor Calaynos, and other poetic characters, lo whom the Spanish public were the more readily dis- posed to grant an historical existence, in consequence tal vida estava haziendo qual uunca hizo Christiano cilicio trae vestido a sus carnes apretado con diciplinas destruye su cuerpo muy delicado Hag-ado de las heridas y en su senora pensando no ce canoce en su gesto segun lo trae delgado de ayunos y d' abstinencias andava debilitado la barva trae crecida deste immdo se ha apartado las rodillas tiene en tierra y en su corason echado --".
In progress of time, however, the romance of the Moor Calaynos became the subject of a proverb, employed to denote verses in an old exploded and vulgar style. This and two other romances which relate how the youthful Don Gayferos avenged the death of his father, are among the best to which knight-errantry has given birth; though in the remaining specimens of this kind of ballad, the poetic genius of the age occa- sionally displays itself in all its energetic simplicity.
The authors of these romances paid little regard to ingenuity of invention, and still less to correctness of execution. But it is not therefore to be inferred, that the ancient romance of that name is the worst of the kind. This he performed without study or effort, and painted them more or less successfully according to the inspiration, good or bad, of the moment. These antique, racy effusions of a pregnant poetic imagination, scarcely conscious of its own productive power, are nature's genuine offspring.
To recount their easily recognized defects and faults is as superfluous, as it would be impossible by any critical study to imitate a single trait of that noble simplicity which constitutes their highest charm. It opens in a very simple manner with a description of the sorrow of the Infante Solesa, who, after being secretly betrothed to Count Alarcos, has been abandoned by him. Retraida esta la Infanta Bien assi corno salia, Viviendo muy descontenta De la vida que tenia, Vienda ya que se pasava Toda la flor de su vida.
The fair Infanta midst the court A look of sorrow wears, Told by an aching heart how she Is doom'd to pass her years ; For far from her is ever flown The early bloom of life At length, after Count Alarcos has been long married, the for- saken princess discloses her seduction lo her father. They form altogether a mere faction. He has an interview with the Count, addresses him courteously, represents the case to him with chivalrous dignity as a point of justice and honour, and concludes by categorically demanding the death of his lady.
Thus the developement of the story com- mences in a manner, which, though most singular, is perhaps not unnatural, when the ideas of the age to which the composition be- longs are considered. The Count conceives himself bound as a man of honour to give the king the satisfaction he desires. He promises to comply with his demand, and proceeds on his way home. There is a touching simplicity in the picture which is here drawn. Llorando se parte el Conde, Llorando, sin alegria,. Lloraba tambien el Conde Por tres hijos que tenia, El una era de teta, Que la Condessa lo cria, Que no queria mamar De tres amas, que tenia, Sino era de su madre.
Weeping he homeward wends his way, His grief nought can remove, Because his tears are shed for her He more than life doth love. He weepeth too for his three sons, In youth and beauty dear; The youngest boy a suckling still, The Countess' self doth rear. For, save his mother, none he lov'd, Though he had nurses three, Nor by the milk of other breasts Would alimented be.
The Countess, who receives her husband with the wonted marks of affection, in vain enquires the cause of his melancholy. He sits down to supper with his family, and again we have a situation painted with genuine feeling, though with little art. Sentose el Conde a la mesa, No cenava, ni podia, Con sus hijos al costado, Que muy mucho los queria. Echo se sobre los hombros, Hizo, como se dormia, De lagrimas de sus ojos Toda la mesa cubria. The board is laid, he takes his place, Where viands tempt in vain, For near him his lov'd children are, Now lov'd, alas!
In seeming sleep with head reclin'd, He tries to hide his woe ; But from his eyes the big tears roll, And o'er the table flow. The apparent fatigue of the Count induces the Countess to accompany him to his apartment. When they enter, the Count fastens the door, relates what has passed, and desires his lady to prepare for death. De morir aveis, Condessa, Antes que amenesca el dia. Countess, thou art doom'd to die, Before the morning's dawn. She begs him to spare her only for her children's sake.
The Count desires her to embrace for the last time the youngest, whom she has brought with her into the room asleep in her arms. Neither the materials nor the interest of the situations owe any thing to the invention of these simple bards. They never ventured to embellish with fictitious circumstances, stories which were already in themselves interesting, lest they should deprive their ballads of historical credit. In Abrazad este chiquito, Que aquesto es el que os perdia.
Peso me de vos, Condessa, Quanta pesar me podia. Give to that babe one parting kiss, That babe for whom thou'rt lost; Beshrew me but I pity thee I who need pity most. She submits to her hard fate, and only asks for time to say an ave maria. The Count desires her to be quick. She falls on her knees, and pours forth a brief but fervent prayer ; she then requests a few moments more delay, that she may once more give suck to her infant son.
What modern poet would have thought of intro- ducing so exquisite a touch of nature? The Count forbids her to wake the child. Every year we release over new titles. This year, we have made a selec-tion of our most outstanding titles and new releases. Some of the featuredauthors are well-established figures, while others are fresh new literary andacademic voices. We are sure that this highlights selection will be of particular interest topublishing houses looking for exciting new releases and different points ofview from Latin America.
Porque para be deported to the Caribbean Islands. Es doctor honoris causa por la , el infierno esta-asponer el umbral Universidad Veracruzana, investigadord eterna? Chiapas: una modernidad particular, Contra viento y marea. Los reaching their homeland.
El Caribe afronanda- luz, historia y contrapunto y Tierra adentro, mar en fuera. El puerto de Ve- Apaches in Veracruz meant to be transported toracruz y su litoral a Sotavento, Haring, concedido por la Cuba. His books The UniversidadVeracruzana granted him an honorary doctorate. It has devastated the lives of those it has inhabited, yet it has also generated artistic ex- pressions celebrating life.
Roger Bartra invites us, through the essays that form the volume, to explore the ambivalent character of this black river—both light and dim—that is also a creative force and an expression of how painful it is to live in an era defined by fragmentation and change. Roger Bartra is one of the most important Mexi-can sociologists, anthropologists, and ethnolo-gists of our times.
Born to Catalan parents, hehas been recognized for his work on Mexicanidentity and his studies in Philosophy, Neurol-ogy, and Psychology. He is a professor emeritus atthe National Autonomous University of Mexico,and many of his works have been translated intoEnglish. Though it does not aim to be a biography, this powerful work helps readers to appreciate how the awarded and renowned Chil- ean author has made life the fundamental project of his work. Del autor, el FCE ha pu- blicado Huehuehtlahtolli.
He has also received honor-ary doctorates from several universities aroundthe world.