Expansion -- N. Contraction -- N. Distance -- N. Nearness -- N. Interval -- N. Contiguity -- N. Length -- N. Shortness -- N. Breadth, Thickness, -- N. Thinness -- N. Layer -- N. Filament -- N. Height -- N. Lowness -- N. Depth -- N. Shallowness -- N. Summit -- N. Base -- N. Verticality -- N. Horizontality -- N. Pendency -- N. Support -- N. Parallelism -- N. Perpendicularity -- N. Obliquity -- N. Inversion -- N. Crossing -- N. Exteriority -- N. Interiority -- N.
Centrality -- N. Covering -- N. Lining -- N. Clothing -- N. Divestment -- N. Circumjacence -- N. Interposition -- N. Circumscription -- N. Outline -- N. Edge -- N. Inclosure -- N. Limit -- N. Front -- N. Rear -- N. Laterality -- N. Eastern; orient, oriental; Levantine; Western, occidental, Hesperian. Contraposition -- N. Northern, septentrional, Boreal, arctic; Southern, Austral, antarctic. Dextrality -- N. Sinistrality -- N. Form -- N. Angularity -- N. Platonic bodies; cube, rhomboid; tetrahedron, pentahedron, hexahedron, octahedron, dodecahedron, icosahedron, eicosahedron; prism, pyramid; parallelopiped; curb roof, gambrel roof, mansard roof.
Curvature -- N. Straightness -- N. I watched the little circles die [Tennyson]. Rotundity -- N. Convexity -- N. Flatness -- N. Concavity -- N. Sharpness -- N. Bluntness -- N. Smoothness -- N. Roughness -- N. Notch -- N. Fold -- N. Furrow -- N. Opening -- N. Closure -- N. Perforator -- N. Stopper -- N. Quiescence -- N. Traveler -- N. Mariner -- N. Transference -- N. Carrier -- N. Pegasus, Bucephalus, Rocinante. Vehicle -- N. Ship -- N. Velocity -- N. Slowness -- N. Impulse -- N. Recoil -- N. Direction -- N. Deviation -- N. Meredith]; now good digestion wait on appetite, and health on both!
Excretion -- N. Elevation -- N. Depression -- N. Leap -- N. Plunge -- N. Materiality -- N. Immateriality -- N. World -- N. Gravity -- N. Levity -- N. Density -- N. Rarity -- N. Hardness -- N. Softness -- N. Elasticity -- N. Inelasticity -- N. Tenacity -- N. Brittleness -- N. Pulverulence -- N. Friction -- N. Prevention of friction. Fluidity -- N. Gaseity -- N. Liquefaction -- N. Vaporization -- N. Specific Fluids. Water -- N. Air -- N.
Moisture -- N. Dryness -- N. Ocean -- N. Land -- N. Lake -- N. Plain -- N. Marsh -- N. Island -- N. Fluids in Motion. Eolus, Boreas, Zephyr, cave of Eolus. Semiliquidity -- N. Pulpiness -- N. Unctuousness -- N. Oil -- N. Resin -- N. Organization -- N. Darwinism, neo-Darwinism, Lamarkism, neoLamarkism, Weismannism.
Inorganization -- N. Life -- N. Death -- N. Corpse -- N. Interment -- N. Special Vitality. Animality -- N. Animal -- N. Vegetable -- N. Mankind -- N. Man -- N. Woman -- N. Eliot]; varium et mutabile semper femina [Lat. Sexuality [human] -- N. Physical Sensibility -- N. Physical Insensibility -- N. Physical Pleasure -- N. Physical Pain -- N. Special Sensation 1 Touch. Sensations of Touch -- N. Heat -- N. Cold -- N. Calefaction -- N.
Refrigeration -- N. Furnace -- N. Refrigerator -- N. Fuel -- N. Thermometer -- N. Taste -- N. Insipidity -- N. Pungency -- N. Saltiness -- N. Bitterness -- N. Angostura [additive for alcoholic beverages], aromatic bitters. Condiment -- N. Savoriness -- N. Unsavoriness -- N. Sweetness -- N. Sourness -- N. Odor -- N. Inodorousness -- N. Fragrance -- N.
Fetor -- N. Acridity -- N. Sound -- N. Silence -- N. Rossetti]; tacent satis laudant [Lat. Loudness -- N. Faintness -- N. Resonance -- N. Cry -- N. Concord -- N. Discord -- N. Music -- N. Musician [Performance of Music. Musical Instruments -- N. Deafness -- N. Light -- N. Darkness -- N. Dimness -- N. Shade -- N. Transparency -- N. Opacity -- N. Turbidity -- N. Semitransparency -- N. Color -- N. Whiteness -- N. Blackness -- N. Gray -- N.
Brown -- N. Redness -- N. Greenness -- N. Yellowness -- N. Purple -- N. Blueness -- N. Orange -- N. Variegation -- N. Vision -- N. Blindness -- N. O dark, dark, dark, amid the blaze of noon [Milton]. Spectator -- N. Optical Instruments -- N. X-ray diffractometer, goniometer. Visibility -- N.
Invisibility -- N. Appearance -- N. Disappearance -- N. Intellect -- N. Absence or want of Intellect -- N. Thought -- N. Meredith]; go speed the stars of Thought [Emerson]; in maiden meditation fancy-free [M. Attention -- N. Now hear this! Inattention -- N.
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Inquiry [Subject of Inquiry. Question] -- N. Answer -- N. Experiment -- N. Comparison -- N. Incomparability [Lack of comparison] -- N. Measurement -- N. Evidence [On one side. Qualification -- N. Degrees of Evidence. Possibility -- N. Taylor]; anything is possible; in theory possible, but in practise unlikely. Impossibility -- N. Probability -- N. Improbability -- N. Certainty -- N. Uncertainty -- N. Heaven knows; who can tell? Reasoning, -- N. Demonstration -- N.
Confutation -- N. Judgment [Conclusion. Misjudgment -- N. Overestimation -- N. Underestimation -- N. Belief -- N. Doubt -- N. Credulity -- N. Incredulity -- N. Assent -- N. OK, all right, might as well, why not? Dissent -- N. God forbid! Knowledge -- N. Ignorance -- N. God knows, Heaven knows, the Lord knows, who knows, nobody knows. Jonson]; that unlettered small-knowing soul [Love's Labor's Lost]; there is no darkness but ignorance [Twelfth Night].
Scholar -- N. Ignoramus -- N. Error -- N. Maxim -- N. Absurdity -- N. Intelligence, Wisdom -- N. Solomon-like wisdom. Folly -- N. Davus sum non [Lat. Sage -- N. Fool -- N. Sanity -- N. Insanity -- N. Madman -- N. Memory -- N. Oblivion -- N. To the Future. Expectation -- N. Inexpectation -- N. Foresight -- N. Prediction -- N. Omen -- N. Oracle -- N. Supposition -- N. Analogy -- N. Imagination -- N. Intelligibility -- N. Unintelligibility -- N. Sphinx, Delphic oracle.
Metaphor -- N. Interpretation -- N. Misinterpretation -- N. Interpreter -- N. Manifestation -- N. Implication -- N. Information -- N. Correction [Correct an error of information; distinguish from correcting a flaw or misbehavior] -- N. I stand corrected. Concealment -- N. Disclosure -- N.
Ambush [Means of concealment]. Publication -- N. News -- N. Secret -- N. Messenger -- N. Affirmation -- N. Negation -- N. Teaching -- N. Misteaching -- N. Learning -- N. Teacher -- N. Learner -- N. School -- N. Veracity -- N. Falsehood -- N. Deception -- N. Untruth -- N. Dupe -- N.
Deceiver -- N. Exaggeration -- N.
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Indication -- N. Record -- N. Recorder -- N. Representation -- N. Misrepresentation -- N. Painting -- N. Sculpture -- N. Engraving -- N. Artist -- N. Language -- N. Letter -- N. Word -- N. Neologism -- N. Nomenclature -- N. Misnomer -- N. Phrase -- N. Grammar -- N. Solecism -- N. Style -- N. The last two events testify to the efforts made by Richard to explain the intricacies of his title in canon law to his people, and probably also to his sincere acceptance of its validity.
Interior of Wells Cathedral The source of the argument that Edward's children were illegitimate is generally taken to have been John Stillington, Bishop of Bath and Wells. He was certainly a noted authority on canon law and had been lord chancellor of England , There is no need to assert that he had anything to do with or witnessed the original precontract between Edward and Eleanor, he only had to make the crucial connection between a precontract and a subsequent clandestine marriage under canon law and realise how they affected the legitimacy of Edward's children.
It is also possible that Stillington had voiced his opinion at the time of the execution of George, Duke of Clarence, for he was imprisoned in the Tower and heavily fined shortly after in Kendall, p. Stillington's arrest was ordered by Henry VII on the same day as Bosworth and although the bishop was pardoned for unspecified offences, he joined the Lambert Simnel conspiracy, was recaptured, and remained in custody for the rest of his life.
On a summer morning in , the King's Chamberlain, William Hastings, was escorted on to Tower Green, ordered to lie on a makeshift block, then suffered death by decapitation. The arrest and execution of the popular Hastings, who was barely given time to ask for absolution of his sins, shattered the peace of the ancient palace and within a few hours that of the capital. In the ensuing confusion George Cely caught the mood of the people and noted the current rumours, facts and questions:.
The action of Richard of Gloucester, the Lord Protector, in ordering the execution without trial of his brother's greatest friend and confidant, is one of the great conundrums of the period leading to Richard's accession a few days later. The execution's illegality has meant that Richard is vulnerable to criticism that is difficult to refute.
Richard, in effect, gave his enemies and detractors the opportunity to vilify him, an opportunity that they have not failed to exploit. Many believe this was Richard's first action that publicly indicated his intention to become king. What is most startling, however, is that Hastings and Richard, although both capable of vigorously pursuing their quarrels, had never before been in conflict with each other but united in their love and loyalty to, respectively, their kinsman and brother, King Edward IV.
Hastings has been a victim, not just of Richard's swift retribution, but of history itself. Despite a long and successful career Hastings seems never to have been studied in his own right, but usually as an adjunct to Edward IV or part of the saga of Richard Ill's 'usurpation'. The date of his execution became the subject of a debate between Dr Alison Hanham and Professor Bertram Wolffe in the s when theories went under the historical microscope to be analysed and rebutted.
The biographies included in The Hastings Hours and Dunham's Lord Hastings' Indentured Retainers were, perhaps, inspired by the survival of the work of art and the indentures rather than to any particular interest in Hastings. Lady Hastings' uncle, Roger Mortimer, although never proclaimed heir presumptive to the throne of England, was undoubtedly considered a candidate due to Richard II being childless.
Hastings' public career spanned over two decades, and encompassed the roles of politician, administrator, soldier, diplomat, businessman, landowner and great lord. He was a close friend and associate of King Edward IV, and undoubtedly filled a void in the young's king life following the premature death of his father at Wakefield.
George that he had built at Windsor. Hastings must have experienced great sorrow at the loss of his beloved master and friend, all the more poignant as Edward was the younger man. The business of government, however, had to continue and the pragmatic Hastings wasted no time in alerting Richard of Gloucester as to the events in London, urging him to join with King Edward V and to proceed south to take control.
In the meantime Hastings was active in the council chamber. The council sent men to Calais to reinforce the garrison and presumably to discourage the French from taking advantage of any possible political turmoil in England following the accession of a minor to the throne.
Hastings effectively prevented the Woodvilles from providing the young king with an over-large escort on his journey from Ludlow. The Crowland chronicler records that the ' forsighted members of the Council ' did not wish the King's maternal relatives 'to have control of the person of the young man until he came of age'. Such was the influence of Hastings that his threat to retire to Calais caused the Queen to capitulate and agree that the escort would be no more than 2, men.
The chronicler goes on to make it quite clear that Hastings' motive for his objection was self-preservation as he was concerned that the Woodvilles would 'sharply avenge the alleged injuries done to them by that lord '. Hastings' correspondence with Richard is described by Mancini who writes that it was on Hastings' advice that Richard secured the King and restrained Rivers. In similar vein to the Crowland chronicler, Mancini had Hastings say he was in great danger ' for he could scarcely escape the snares of his enemies ' but added that this danger was also due to his friendship with Richard.
According to Mancini it was common knowledge that Hastings had been in contact with Richard. Ashby de la Zouche Castle. The manor was granted to William Hastings in and he was granted the licence to fortify it in Richard, in the decisive fashion that was to be the hallmark of his future actions, left Yorkshire and met with Rivers, the King's maternal uncle, at Northampton. The arrest of Rivers and his immediate supporters led to the collapse of the Woodville machinations to rule England through the young King.
When news of the day's happenings reached London, Queen Elizabeth took refuge in sanctuary at Westminster. Supporters of the Queen hovered around Westminster while those favouring Richard of Gloucester gravitated to the ' protection of Lord Hastings ', The Queen's son, Dorset, who was deputy constable of the Tower, joined his mother in sanctuary. On 4 May, the date originally set for the coronation, Richard and his nephew arrived in London accompanied by the new major player in the drama that was about to unfold, the hitherto political lightweight Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham.
Despite his rank the Duke had played no part in government although the same rank enabled him to be involved in the ceremonial aspect of court life. He contributed soldiers to King Edward's French campaign but returned home before the army's embarkation. Obviously not trusted, and probably not liked by King Edward, Buckingham saw an opportunity for a political career and increased wealth with Richard of Gloucester as Protector and he wasted no time in giving his support.
Whatever reasons King Edward had for his exclusion of Buckingham from public office they would have been known to, and possibly endorsed by, Hastings. At the time of Richard's arrival in London, Hastings was described by the Crowland chronicler as ' bursting with joy over this new world '. His relationship with the two dukes was good and he declared that the transfer of government had been effected with no more bloodshed than ' from a cut finger '. Polydore Vergil, on the other hand, later painted a very different picture.
He wrote that Hastings was shocked by Richard's high handed actions at Northampton and repented his earlier support. According to Vergil, Hastings held a meeting at St Paul's with trusted friends to discuss the situation. Although they agreed that the young King was ' utterly oppressyd and wrongyd ' by Richard, their policy would be to wait and see. It has been suggested that if Vergil was correct in his gauging of Hastings' attitude, then a ' tentative meeting of the minds ' between Hastings and Dorset could have taken place shortly after the news of Richard's coup reached London on the evening of 30 April, possibly before Dorset went into hiding the next day.
If, however, such an allegiance was formed after Dorset disappeared, the initiative must have been taken by Hastings, as Dorset would not have risked capture by approaching, by whatever means, his enemy. During the weeks that followed Richard took control of the government and plans moved forward for the coronation, now to take place on 22 June.
A government re-shuffle had John Russell succeed Rotherham as chancellor and John Gunthorpe succeed Russell as keeper of the privy seal. The Archbishop performed this action as the executors of the late King had been hesitant to do so themselves. On 20 May Hastings was re-appointed to the office of master of the mint, the only grant he was to receive from Richard and one that paled into insignificance against the grants that were bestowed on the duke of Buckingham. A few days earlier the duke had been made chief justice and chamberlain of North and South Wales, constable and steward of Welsh crown lands - ' virtually the viceroy in Wales '.
The historian, Paul Murray Kendall commented: 'seldom has a man so little known become so important so quickly '. Richard had acknowledged and rewarded the duke for his support with these spectacular grants. Hastings may have been apprehensive as to the ability and motives of the inexperienced Buckingham. He may also have been disappointed at Richard's qualified recognition of his own support. If Vergil was accurate in his reporting of Hastings' concern over the Northampton affair perhaps Richard was aware of this change in attitude, and this is reflected in his treatment of Hastings.
The chroniclers devoted few words to the last days of May and early June. Simon Stallworthe, in his letter of 9 June to Sir William Stonor, confirmed there was nothing new to report. The process of government had become somewhat fragmented with committees of councillors meeting in various locations within the capital: Westminster, the Tower, Baynards Castle and their own residences. The last two had strong connections with Hastings: Howard as his deputy in Calais and Catesby as a lawyer. The continued presence of these men about the Protector may well have affected Hastings' equilibrium.
Hastings' re-appointment to the mint had been tardy. Despite his duties and attendance at council meetings he could now begin to feel isolated from the real power base. Although he was far from being politically impotent, Hastings' rancour could have been shared by other officials of the late King's government, Rotherham, Morton and Stanley, the 'quadrumvirate of the dispossessed ' Kendall.
They had taken to meeting in each other's houses and perhaps at such a meeting discontent turned to sedition. Hastings was well placed if he wished to regain his position at the centre of political affairs. He represented continuity with the old regime. He had retained, if not increased, his offices and could presumably have looked for support from the moderate element of the council. Inevitably, the Queen would need to be aware of any plans.
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If Hastings succeeded in curtailing the power of Richard and Buckingham, the re-emergence of the Woodvilles as a political faction would, at some stage, follow. Hastings needed to ally himself with his estranged colleagues and with the Queen. The go-between may have been Mistress Shore. In October a proclamation in the patent rolls described her as ' the unshameful and mischievous woman called Shore's wife ' and as being held in adultery by Dorset.
This liaison, presumably, did not start before King Edward's death in April and within three weeks Dorset was in sanctuary. Elizabeth herself was arrested in June and was probably not released until sometime after the October rebellion when she married Richard's solicitor-general Thomas Lynom. There is no contemporary evidence that she was sexually involved with Hastings although she would have undoubtedly been well known to him.
It should also be remembered that there was another obvious connection between Dorset and Hastings in the person of the latter's step-daughter, Cecily, who was married to the former, who may well have visited her husband in sanctuary and could have acted as mediator with her stepfather. On Thursday 5 June the Duchess of Gloucester arrived in London from the North and the same day Duke Richard wrote to the citizens of York a friendly letter advising them he did not have ' convenient leyser to accomplysh this your besnes ', referring to their request for his support in alleviating a local tax.
On Monday 9 June a full council meeting was held at Westminster lasting some four hours to discuss the coronation and Stallworthe reported that ' None spoke with the Queen '. The following day Richard wrote again to York but this time the tenor of his letter was very different as he was appealing for urgent help against 'the Queen, her blood adherents, and affinity '. He does not enlarge on her 'affinity' in the letter, leaving the messenger, Richard Ratcliffe, to provide the details of the plot. Further developments may have delayed Ratcliffe's departure, possibly intelligence that Hastings was implicated in the conspiracy.
Richard's appeal for help is repeated in a letter to Lord Neville dated 13 June, the day Ratcliffe left London. Additional correspondence may have been entrusted to Ratcliffe soliciting support from Richard's northern friends. The troops were duly mustered but did not arrive in London until 3 July. They may have discounted the urgency of Richard's written appeal due to a verbal update by Ratcliffe that the situation had changed and the main danger in London would have been dealt with by the time the letters were received.
Although a military force was still required it would be as a demonstration of strength rather than any direct action. According to Thomas More the person who betrayed Hastings was the lawyer William Catesby, who had for many years served not only Hastings but also the duke of Buckingham. No mention of Catesby, however, was made by Crowland, Mancini or the London chroniclers. Perhaps More's vanity was such that he wished to assign a major role to a wily member of his own profession, who, like so many in this story, was long dead. More wrote that Hastings considered Catesby to be his ears amongst the Gloucester set and because of the trust he placed in him Hastings was indiscreet in his presence.
The Protector, on the other hand, wanted Catesby to sound out Hastings to join his cause, in other words to take part in a usurpation, but Hastings' views were so strongly against such a cause that Catesby didn't even have to test Hastings' loyalty:. But … whether he assayed him or assaied him not, reported unto them, that he founde him so fast, and hard him speke so terrible woordes, that he durst no further breke. Hastings may have displayed great naivety in still trusting Catesby, if More was correct, in view of the appointment Catesby had received from Richard in May, the chancellorship of the earldom of March, an office which reported directly to Buckingham.
This appointment has been interpreted as soliciting Hastings' support to agree to the extension of the protectorate by the promotion of one of his affinity. Two interesting points emerge from More's story of Catesby's tendentious enquiries. The first is that Catesby confirmed Hastings was not content and was suspicious of the Protector, though this contradicts the Crowland chronicler. Secondly, it appears that Catesby was not wholly impartial where Hastings was concerned.
More admitted that Catesby urged the Protector to take action against Hastings ' and much the rather, for he trusted by his deth to obtaine much of the rule that the lorde Hastings bare his countrey '. It is feasible that Catesby could have deliberately misled Richard as to Hastings' attitude to the possibility of Richard assuming the throne.
Catesby benefited directly from Hastings' demise with grants for the constableship of Rockingham Castle with Francis Lovel , the stewardship of St Albans Abbey and Hastings' Exchequer offices. He indirectly benefited by removing a potential opponent to Richard's claim to the throne and the ultimate advancement of his new master.
John of Gaunt's Gatehouse, Tutbury Castle The idea of Hastings being scrutinised as to his loyalties rather than betrayed in his conspiratorial activities is borne out by Mancini who wrote that this task was undertaken by Buckingham, who included Rotherham and Morton as well as Hastings in his enquiries. Like Catesby, Buckingham was to benefit from Hastings' death. He succeeded Hastings in the stewardship of the honour of Tutbury, an appointment he may have coveted for some time due to the standing of the Stafford family in that area.
Regardless of how Richard learnt of the disaffection of Hastings, he had chosen his course of action by Thursday 12 June when he arranged for two council meetings to take place the next day, one at Westminster with the Chancellor, John Russell, and the other at the Tower. The handling of the denouement was also well planned and careful consideration given to the wording of the subsequent proclamation, as suggested by More.
Such preparation, however, need not be interpreted as contrived but merely essential to an important operation. Richard was determined to act swiftly and decisively in this latest crisis and although the hostile chroniclers and historians have implied he acted with feigned spontaneity, hindsight has perhaps affected their judgement of the situation. So disturbed was Stanley when he awoke during the night that he immediately despatched a messenger to Hastings suggesting they flee the city immediately. Hastings dismissed Stanley's fears with ' we might be as likely to make them true by our going ' and sent the messenger home, saying, he was sure of Richard.
While he was steadying his horse in Tower Street Hastings spoke with a priest. A knight, sent by Richard to ensure Hastings attended the council meeting, merrily asked why he was spending so much time talking to a priest when he had no need; he laughed in the knowledge that soon Hastings would require the services of a priest. When Hastings reached Tower Wharf a double coincidence occurred as he met another man called Hastings whom he had last seen at the same place during the period when he had been accused by Lord Rivers and fallen from King Edward's favour.
While reminiscing Hastings told how well things were with him at the present as he knew that his enemy and author of his former trouble Rivers would that day die at Pontefract. That is how Sir Thomas More, vividly but speculatively, recounts Hastings' eventful last hours before entering the Tower for the council meeting. The Arrest of Lord Hastings. By James Doyle Courtesy: Geoffrey Wheeler The accounts of 13 June, some more brief than others, basically agree, More of course providing the most colourful and detailed version.
Crowland merely reported: 'On 13 June, the sixth day of the week, when he came to the Council in the Tower, on the authority of the Protector, Lord Hastings was beheaded '. If Chancellor John Russell was the anonymous continuator of the Crowland Chronicle, he was probably involved in the other council meeting taking place at Westminster and, therefore, not an eye witness. This may account for his brevity or possibly reflect a disapproval or dislike of Hastings which resulted in his failure to provide a fuller commentary on what was a significant event.
And the xiij day of Jun the Duke of Glowcetir, sodeynly w' oute Judgement, cawsid the lord Hastynges, Chamberlayne of England, to be beheded w'in the Tower. And forthwith sent the Bisshoppis of Ely and York in to Walys, there to haue been prysoned. The 'historical notes of a London citizen' also gives the date as 13 June and confirms the arrests of Rotherham, Morton and Oliver King ' with other moo ' [more], the same day. The Great Chronicle of London states that, apart from Hastings and the 'Earl of Derby' , most of the councillors attending the Tower were supporters of the Protector and continues:.
Upon the same [day] dyned the said lord hastynges with him [Richard] and afftyr dyner Rode behynd hym or behynd the duke of Bukkyngham unto the Towyr. When all were assembled a cry of treason was uttered and the usher burst upon 'such as beffore were appoyntid' and arrested Stanley and Hastings, the latter being executed without 'processe of any lawe or lawfully examynacion'. Mancini portrays the events as beginning with Hastings, Rotherham and Ely making a customary call upon Richard in the Tower at ten o'clock. The Protector at once accused them of arranging an ambush upon him 'as they had come with hidden arms' and again, by pre-arrangement, soldiers entered the room, this time accompanied by Buckingham, and despatched Hastings forthwith.
Vergil's version refers to the two council meetings: one at Westminster given the task to proclaim the date of King Edward's coronation and the other within the Tower to debate the whole matter of the coronation. The date of the coronation had, of course, been set for 22 June and was well publicised, which rather makes a nonsense of Vergil's agenda.
The Tower meeting was convened early, but Gloucester launched into a tirade against the Queen whose witchcraft was wasting his body and he showed the assembly his arm as proof. More's version starts the meeting at nine o'clock with Richard's small talk of strawberries. He withdraws for an hour or so and when he returns his mood is completely changed, exhibiting ' angrye countenaunce, knitting of brows, frowning and froting and knawing on hys lippes.
In More's account we also find Richard's rejoinder ' … and I will make good on thy body tratour ' and ' What then, William, yf by thine owne practises I be brought to destruction ' immediately before guards entered the chamber to make their arrests. During the scuffle Stanley received a blow that knocked him under a table, with blood about his ears, then with Rotherham and Morton, he was arrested and they were taken to separate rooms while Hastings briefly made his confession, the Protector having declared he would not eat 'til I se thy hed of'.
It is noticeable after reviewing these different accounts that Thomas Stanley only appears in the Tudor versions. Perhaps his fame was not so great in when Hastings, Morton and Rotherham took centre stage, but it is worth noting that although he is included with the plotters retrospectively, yet less than three weeks later he carried the constable's mace at Richard's coronation.
Whichever version the reader wishes to accept as the 'true' account, the outcome was the same: the respected and popular Lord Hastings ' who chiefly amongst all the nobylytie was, for his bountifulness and lyberalytie, much beloved of the common people ' was dead. Forster was taken to the Tower from his home in Hertfordshire on 14 June and others may also have been arrested. Dorset escaped from sanctuary and supposing that he was hiding in the adjacent neighbourhood, he [Richard] surrounded with troops and dogs the already grown crops and the cultivated and woody places, and sought for him, after the manner of huntsmen, by a very close encirclement: but he was never found.
The question remains unanswered as to whether there was a genuine plot against Richard and, if this was the case, whether Hastings was personally involved. Before considering this problem it is relevant to review the situation from Richard's perspective and to follow subsequent events. It has been argued that Richard kept his options open, and that his actions, generally, can be interpreted as not following a premeditated and determined path to usurpation. His policy was forever under review and changing to meet the needs of the current situation.
In other words Richard was merely reacting to new situations. It should be remembered that Richard's situation was not particularly secure at the beginning of June. His role of Protector may be regarded to some extent as nominal: he had failed to obtain the Council's agreement to the executions of Rivers and Grey; the Queen remained in sanctuary with her youngest son and daughters, to Richard's embarrassment; and there was an independent party of magnates and prelates led by Hastings who could wield considerable influence and power.
Richard badly needed to extend his protectorship and he would certainly have been aware of the fate of two earlier dukes of Gloucester who had both held high office and died under suspicious circumstances. To this end he had gained the Council's approval for an extension of his powers after the coronation as is evidenced in the draft address to parliament prepared by Russell. How long Richard could have held the office was and is open to speculation and no-one was more acutely aware of this than Richard himself.
As the date of the coronation drew near, events gathered momentum and the first indication of the ensuing turmoil was the virtual suspension of normal government: grants ceased to be recorded by 11 June. Richard probably learnt of the conspiracy on the 9th or l0th, applied for military aid within forty-eight hours and proceeded to take corrective action on the 13th and 14th. Richard was no longer prepared to brook any obstinacy from the Queen and on Monday 16th she relinquished Richard, Duke of York. At what stage Stillington told his story to Richard about King Edward's pre-contract with Eleanor Butler is unknown but undoubtedly Richard was in possession of the revelation by this time and now had three options open to him: ignore the pre-contract and continue with the coronation on the 22nd; postpone the coronation; or assume the throne on the grounds of the illegitimacy of his nephews.
On 16 June Richard took the second option, he issued the writs of supersedeas cancelling both the coronation on the 22nd and parliament on 25 June and he named a new coronation date of 9 November, The deliberations by which Richard came to his decision to become king had now begun in earnest and the decision was made by the Saturday. The postponement of Edward V's coronation was, in part, an expedient act designed to give Richard time to think and decide where his duty lay, following several days of intense activity culminating in the exposure of the conspiracy, the existence of which had demonstrated Richard' s vulnerability.
The revised date for the coronation, however, was common knowledge in official circles and beyond. Many Londoners were involved in the preparations for the coronation and the new date was recorded in the College of Arms chronicle. None of Richard's actions in June the plea for aid, arrest of the conspirators, transfer of Richard of York and the postponement of the coronation need be regarded as sinister or pre-emptive if reviewed in chronological order and without hindsight, In the words of Isolde Wigram, who wrote about the dating of Hastings' death: ' If one starts with the assumption that what Richard said was the truth, everything falls into place '.
The only documentary evidence that the plot existed are the two letters, written by Richard to the city of York and Lord Neville, together with the report of the proclamation issued within a few hours of the execution declaring Hastings a traitor. The opinion has been expressed that if there was no conspiracy, Richard would have waited to take action against Hastings and his friends until after the arrival of the troops, but in the event, the situation was sufficiently threatening to Richard to preclude delay. Kirby Muxloe, the fortified brick-built manor house which Hastings began building in but was never completed Circumstantial evidence exists in the form of the arrests, not only of the high-ranking prelates, Rotherham and Morton, but of Mistress Shore, Oliver King and John Forster.
What was the purpose of their arrests unless they were part of a genuine conspiracy? Elizabeth Shore's introduction to her future husband, Thomas Lynom, was probably made while he interrogated her in his capacity as Richard's solicitor-general, Forster, Queen Elizabeth's treasurer and receiver-general, was held in prison for almost nine months and he was sufficiently frightened to surrender his stewardship of the liberty of St, Albans within forty-eight hours of his arrest ' in the hope of obtaining remission of his punishment '.
Further testimony to the seriousness of the charges against him was supplied by Stallworthe in his 21 June letter to Sir William Stonor when he reported that men feared for Forster's life. Stallworthe also reported that the London residences of Rotherham and Ely were occupied, and possibly their country homes as well, by Richard's men. Richard was obviously taking no chances and was extremely thorough in the mop-up operation, presumably searching the prelates' homes and interviewing staff, servants and visitors.
Finally, there is one further indication that the conspiracy was real. The register of Abbot Wallingford of St Albans, which recorded Forster's arrest and imprisonment, also records ' that it was said Hastings deserved his fate '. Perhaps the phrase ' it was said ' indicates a certain scepticism on the part of the chronicler but unless it was generally accepted that Hastings was involved in a plot against the Protector, why bother to make the statement at all? Historians who adopt the traditional anti-Richard stance have drawn their own conclusions about the events of 13 June: primarily that the execution of Hastings was a second pre-emptive act by Richard and one that removed the most powerful magnate who would remain loyal to the son of his former master.
Due to the paucity of the evidence they argue no conspiracy existed except in the minds of Richard and Buckingham and rely on Mancini's gossip ' that the plot had been feigned by the duke so as to escape the odium of such a crime '. It was true, of course, that the existence of a conspiracy did provide Richard with an excuse to rid himself permanently of the Woodville prisoners. The two major arguments against Hastings' involvement in a plot are his relationship with Richard and the unlikelihood of his rapprochement with the Queen.
Presumably Hastings was aware of the content of Russell's parliamentary address confirming Richard's continuance as Protector after the coronation and thus he endorsed this extension to the protectorship. Further, Hastings retained his offices and ' his interests were respected ' so, it has been argued, why should he conspire against the Protector?
To what could he possibly have objected? It could also be argued, however, that this scenario is confirmed by Richard himself: his complete astonishment at Hastings' betrayal that was manifested by his violent and swift response. Richard acted while his anger was still hot. If he had hesitated and waited to consider what he was about to do to an old friend and comrade he would probably have been unable to order the execution. Further confirmation is provided in the form of Richard's treatment of Hastings' family. In the normal course of events, Hastings' death would have been followed by his attainder, and the subsequent confiscation of his lands would have placed a considerable amount of patronage at Richard's disposal.
Richard chose not to follow this course of action but to honour Hastings' wishes in being buried near King Edward at Windsor, and on 23 July while at Reading on his royal progress, he officially assured Lady Katherine Hastings that she would in no way suffer from her late husband's conduct.
Are these the actions of the wicked, power-crazed monster of Tudor legend or the calculating land-hungry duke, as he is currently represented by modern historians? Hastings' relations with the Woodvilles spanned many years. Although there were undoubtedly causes for dissension, and these have already been discussed, this did not preclude them from working together during King Edward's reign.
Dorset was Hastings' deputy at the battle of Tewkesbury. They served together on commissions of oyer and terminer, were part of a group of feoffees for the Mowbray estate and certainly worked together on other occasions at the behest of their master King Edward. Rivers and Hastings seem to have shared a common interest in the collection of books. Hastings and the Queen's kin may well have jostled for King Edward's favour but compromise was essential between those who so prominently served their king. In June , however, Rivers was under arrest and Dorset was in no position to become actively involved in a conspiracy.
Hastings' 'animosity' against Queen Elizabeth is not as well documented as that between Hastings and the Queen's immediate relations. The view has been expressed that ' there were less well-advertised examples of cooperation, or at least of agreeable co-existence ' Only More and Mancini record the hostility that stemmed from the Queen's resentment of Hastings being ' secretelye familyer with the kynge in wanton coumpanye ' and ' the accomplice and partner of the sovereign' s privy pleasures ' If More and Mancini are to be believed it seems strange that Queen Elizabeth should single out Hastings as the sole object of her wrath without apportioning some blame to her own son and brothers for encouraging her husband in his infidelities.
The possibility of some degree of discord within the Woodville family, despite their unity , should not be overlooked. The view has been expressed that Elizabeth and Hastings each bore the other a grudge dating back to the marriage agreement that was signed just seventeen days before she married King Edward. Elizabeth, on her part, because of Hastings' tough negotiations, and Hastings because the agreement lapsed after her royal marriage. In the event Elizabeth did agree to the contract, her common sense probably telling her that one hundred per cent of nothing is nothing and that at least with Hastings' backing she stood a chance of achieving a settlement from her in-laws.
What is tantalising, however, is the hypothesis that Hastings, in attempting to obtain a favourable solution for Elizabeth from the King brought her to Edward's attention. In such circumstances Elizabeth may well have retained a certain regard for her husband's closest friend. Apart from a possible spell in the Tower, Hastings did not seem to lose too many points to the Woodvilles. Few ladies were more pragmatic than the Queen and her later association with King Richard bears testimony to her ambivalence.
Richard was responsible for the death of one of her sons, Richard Grey. The argument that Hastings and the Queen could not have formed an alliance because of their much vaunted hostility, however, is obviated by the precedent set by the Earl of Warwick and Queen Margaret. The forceful personalities of the latter pair are well known and if they could come to an alliance in so could Hastings and Queen Elizabeth a few years later.
The ultimate question is why William Hastings would want to become involved in a conspiracy to overthrow Richard of Gloucester? Hastings' Monument at the Tower of London The present author believes that the answer to that question is to be found in two aspects of Hastings' character: his loyalty and his ambition. Taking his status from his father, Hastings combined his background of landed gentry with the pride of his maternal ancestry.
Although lacking the vast acres and wealth, in his early years, of a ' great magnate ' he possessed the intelligence, developed the skills and, from his cousin King Edward, acquired the land to become one of the most important men in England for over two decades. Edward's trust in ' Hastings was repaid by a lifetime of personal devotion ' and Mancini describes him as the ' author of the sovereign's public policy ' Confident in his own wealth, position and abilities, Hastings was perhaps unconcerned at his lack of higher rank.
Although this accords with the loyal aspect of Hastings' character that kept faith with the Yorkist cause throughout his life, worked tirelessly on behalf of his country and inspired confidence in all levels of society, it is perhaps more a eulogy for a 'victim' of the 'ambitious' Richard of Gloucester than a complete and accurate reflection of Hastings' character. Time and again Hastings proved himself successful and to achieve success on this scale he had to be strong, competitive, astute, resourceful and acquisitive. Hastings' ability as a diplomat alone negates More's ' trusting to much '.
How ' gentle ' was the young Hastings in the Pierpoint affair? Perhaps the measure of William Hastings was his popularity and good reputation in spite of his success. With King Edward's death change was inevitable and each of those closest to the late King quickly assessed their own priorities. His wife, Queen Elizabeth, wanted to attain control. His surviving brother, Richard of Gloucester, saw his role as protector of the realm until the young king could govern for himself.
His greatest friend, William Hastings, wanted a smooth transition of power to a council dominated by the old nobility. Immediately Queen Elizabeth was in conflict with Richard and Hastings and within three weeks her faction was neutralised. On the periphery there were a number of people who recognised an opportunity to promote their own interests, Margaret Beaufort, John Morton, Robert Stillington, William Catesby and Henry of Buckingham. It was perhaps the combination of their ambitions and machinations that now brought about the strife that began with Hastings' conspiracy and was to end at Bosworth over two years later.
In April, Hastings and Richard shared common goals and Hastings was content to work with Richard during the period of the protectorship. Initially Richard's friendship with Buckingham may not have concerned Hastings but by May, after Buckingham's promotion in Wales, Hastings could begin to feel uneasy as he saw Buckingham usurping a role he had dominated for over twenty years.
Excluded from Richard of Gloucester's inner circle, perhaps regarded as old fashioned and belonging to another generation, it would have taken a humbler man than William Hastings not to resent this change in the status quo. Hastings' ambitions were not diminishing with age and he was still capable of vigorously asserting his authority as he had demonstrated in the council chamber in April. It is very likely that Hastings was aware of the threat posed by Robert Stillington and his knowledge of the pre-contract with Eleanor Butler.
It is entirely possible that Hastings' own 'intelligence' or an interview with Catesby alerted him that Richard was already in possession of the facts. Hastings' fears would have been for the reputation of King Edward IV and the future of the boy, who for twelve years had been destined for the throne of England.
Although there had been differences with the Woodvilles it was inconceivable for Hastings to stand by whilst Queen Elizabeth was exposed as Edward's paramour and their children declared illegitimate. To Hastings, such a scandal would destroy the honour of Edward IV. In late May, Hastings faced the unpleasant fact that his political influence was declining and the possibility that his beloved master's son would not be crowned. Despite his fifty-three years Hastings was not prepared to retire to his estates and abrogate his position, especially as it was being usurped by Buckingham, ' Power once obtained is very seldom voluntarily relinquished ' Caroline Halsted.
The conflict between Richard and Hastings was inevitable but, rather than a display of antipathy towards his former colleague, Richard, Hastings' conspiracy was simply a matter of expediency for his own political survival and that of his young master, King Edward V. Hastings' brother Thomas and Henry Ferrers were questioned by Henry Pierpont regarding the murder of his brother Robert and the matter was referred to Richard, Duke of York. Hastings was not accused of the actual murder but was clearly held responsible and together with his brother, Ferrers and Pierpont, was ordered to ' keep the peace with each other '.
Hastings, as Captain of Calais, if not directly involved in the questioning of Edwards, would have been aware of the allegation. Hastings complied but negotiated a high price with him, taking the wardship of her son, Thomas Grey, afterwards Marquis of Dorset, and marrying him to one of his daughters.
IX, Nos. Sylvester vol. London It is generally assumed that because of Richard's actions in , there was a history of distrust and dislike between Richard and the Woodvilles. This would not have been surprising: after all this was true of the attitude between Clarence and the Woodvilles, and most people of the time disliked the Woodvilles. Or did they? There is a large element of myth about feelings towards the Woodvilles, and much of what is written is with the benefit of hindsight.
If the family were not so universally unpopular, and if Richard did not distrust and dislike them, how else could the events of be explained? What evidence exists to suggest that Richard and the Woodvilles did not get on and even disliked one another? Unfortunately there is no juicy gossip in the Paston Letters to shed light on their feelings, so we only have official records to rely on.
These mention occasions when the paths of Richard and the Woodvilles crossed, but they cannot indicate any feelings upon the part of either. This has not stopped some historians from trying. Kendall's biography of Richard III is full of purple prose, his description of Richard and the Woodvilles being no exception. In the Woodville court Richard could not have been at ease … he could not bring himself to enjoy the company of the Woodvilles, whose arrogance shone as bright as the newness of their fortunes… Sir Thomas Grey … was already in training to become a boon companion of the King … In the tilt-yard the talk was all of Anthony Woodville … The Queen, beautiful and rapacious, … viewed the King's two brothers only as rivals of her family for the favours of her lord.
Woodvilles surrounded Edward like a glittering hedge … . It might thus be argued that while in the Warwick household he learnt to dislike the Woodvilles as much as Warwick and his brother Clarence did. Yet he did not join them in their rebellion of but joined Edward against them. His loyalty to his brother may have led to an acceptance of, if not a liking for, his new in-laws. There is nothing to suggest that he came into contact with the Woodvilles before It was during the pilgrimage that Edward heard about Warwick's rebellion.
Edward went to Nottingham to raise troops; presumably he sent Rivers to Northampton while Scales remained in East Anglia. Richard's whereabouts are unknown. In July Rivers and his youngest son, John, were captured and executed by Warwick. Edward himself fell into Warwick's hands and was taken north, but by September he had been released, and went back to London.
On 17 October he created Richard Constable of England. This may have produced the first reason for conflict between Richard and the Woodvilles. The elder Lord Rivers had previously held the office of Constable; it had been made an hereditary title and Anthony, now Lord Rivers, could have expected to assume the office. Perhaps Edward came to some arrangement with Anthony to waive his claim in Richard's favour.
When rebellion broke out again in Edward was forced to flee the country. They headed for the coast at Lynn where they took ship for the Low Countries. Richard and Anthony were together on the same ship, sharing exile and an equal desire to return Edward to the throne.
Rosemary Horrox has suggested a 'family' link between Richard and the Woodvilles. The suggestion is that Katherine was Richard's mistress, as his illegitimate daughter was called Katherine. Katherine married James Haute. There were therefore links with the wider Woodvilles family.
There are other links between Richard and the Woodvilles in East Anglia. In Richard had been granted the confiscated estates of Lewis FitzLewis. This would have bolstered Woodvilles holdings in the region. In March Anthony asked Richard to act as an arbitrator in a dispute he had with Roger Townshend over property in Norfolk. This suggests co-operation between Richard and the Woodvilles and at least an element of trust. This was during the dispute between Richard and Clarence over the Warwick lands.
Elizabeth was clearly demonstrating who she was giving her support to, but this should perhaps be viewed in the light of her hostility towards Clarence rather than any deep affection for Richard. In the previous November he had paid homage to the young prince for his Norfolk lands, attended the council held at Westminster and the events held to celebrate his young nephew's marriage.
The execution of Clarence in is often cited as the reason for Richard's withdrawal from court and his hatred for the Woodvilles. Mancini, writing in , thought so. He claimed Richard 'avoided the jealousy of the queen from whom he lived far separated' . He speaks of 'long-standing hostility' between the Queen and Clarence. Sir Thomas More explained Clarence's death as being brought about 'by the Queene and the Lordes of her bloode which highlye maligned the kynges kindred' . Mancini goes on to claim that 'At that time Richard duke of Gloucester was so overcome with grief for his brother that he could not dissimulate so well, but that he was overheard to say that he would one day avenge his brother's death'.
More makes a similar comment, though he believed Richard's grief was 'simulated' . Credence is given to these stories by the case of the earl of Desmond. Elizabeth was held responsible for the death of Thomas Fitzgerald, Earl of Desmond, in When Richard was king he gave instructions for those responsible for Desmond's killing to be prosecuted and sympathised with his son, claiming particular understanding because '… of his brother the duc of Clarence, as other his nighe kynnesmen and gret frendes' .
This is seen as referring to Elizabeth's share in the responsibility for their deaths, although the document does not name her.
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It is important to remember that these statements all relate to and later. Richard benefited from the death of Clarence, and there is no evidence to indicate that he went against Edward and put in a good word to try and save Clarence. Between and Richard was busy in the North, especially in the war against Scotland.
His absence from the court can therefore be easily explained. It was the speed with which events unfolded in and his change from loyal brother and supporter of the crown to usurper that has caused most speculation and the need for a satisfactory explanation. Distrust and hatred of the Woodvilles seems the best solution. Certainly Mancini and More felt this to be a satisfactory explanation. It is certainly true that the action of Hastings in April in support of Richard was motivated by a distrust of the Woodvilles and the fear of a Woodville-dominated king.
But then Hastings had fallen foul of the Woodvilles over his appointment as captain of Calais. Also there were a number of nobles who had been deprived by the Woodvilles of their due inheritance and they looked for an opportunity for redress. The council too was uneasy about a Woodville-dominated king, again according to Mancini they had voted against a Woodville regency because Dorset had claimed …' . Richard's actions once he had control of the young king seem to enforce this line of reasoning.
He did not hesitate to execute Anthony Woodville, nor his nephew Richard Grey. According to More, during a council meeting in the Tower Richard claimed Elizabeth had used witchcraft against him. On June 10 Richard sent an urgent message to York asking for help 'against the queen, her blood adherents and affinity, which have intended and daily doeth intend, to murder and utterly destroy us and our cousin, … by their damnable ways …' .
However, these were exceptional times. It is perhaps too easy to read something into the past to explain these events. Did Richard's actions in really require him to have a longstanding hatred of the Woodvilles? His loyalty had been to Edward, and while his brother lived a balance was maintained between the demands and desires of the Woodvilles and the ambition and desires of Richard.
Richard's primary loyalty now was surely to himself and his family and protecting them and his interests. He did not really need to like or dislike the Woodvilles to carry out this aim. The Tudor writers saw to it that the prevailing view of Richard III in their time was of a man and king deformed both physically and morally, who met a very proper end. Historical truth counted for nothing; the moral lesson of crime and punishment was much more satisfying, especially to those who created it. The man in the street was not quite so sure. In the mayor and aldermen of London protested to Wolsey about his demand for a benevolence — something Richard's statutes had forbidden.
No defence of Richard appeared in print in Tudor times, but at least one appears to have been circulating privately in the s. Jeremy Potter regarded it as dubious. Ramsden and A. Kincaid, in The Ricardian in The Cornwallis family were Roman Catholics, who had been too active in the reign of Mary to do well under Elizabeth. People were expected to attend Sunday services in the Church of England at least once a month, and were fined for non-attendance. At first these fines were small, a shilling or so, but in Pope Gregory XIII issued his fatwa saying that to kill Elizabeth would not be a mortal sin, and the next year the fines jumped to an astronomical level, hitting recusant families very hard: they either had to pay up or go to Protestant services.
William Cornwallis was therefore probably no admirer of Elizabeth Tudor. Nevertheless, he was not unpatriotic. Part of his justification for Richard's killing of Hastings is that Hastings who could not be innocent because he was ' a Pentioner of the ffrench king Lewis the 11th … he of all others that moste affected Tirranie, and was naturally the mortall and most vndermininge enimie of this kingdom ' had been bribed to dissuade Edward IV from assisting Mary of Burgundy against Louis, so that she had to seek help elsewhere, which led ultimately to the Spanish domination of the Netherlands.
Cornwallis, like many prominent Elizabethans, liked to write. He wrote paradoxes. This is a literary form in which rhetorical skills are used to defend something which everyone believes clearly indefensible; the motivation is not so much to prove to people that they have been wrong, but to prove how clever you are at manipulating words.
It seems that Cornwallis also wrote a paradox in defence of the French pox, an interesting thought. Paradoxes did not often find their way into print: they were circulated among friends, who might add to them and pass them on to others. The earliest extant manuscript, which forms the basis of the edition, contains a dedication by Cornwallis to John Donne.
The Encomium Praise is a paradox of an unusual form, according to its editors. Rosalie L. Colie, who wrote a study of paradoxes, says it fails because it does not ' surprise or dazzle by its incongruities ' and strikes the reader as an all-but-serious defence, ' sincere but lame '. Cornwallis speaks of that chronicle's author as ' thow Recorder of untruthes ', ' thy malitious spirit ', ' our corupte chronicler ', and of ' the partiall writinges of an vndiscreete Cronicler, a fauorer of the Lancastrian familye '.
Naturally, this has led some people to postulate that a work by John Morton, or Thomas More's account, is meant. Alison Hanham in her review thought it must refer to Hall's chronicle, or its revisions by Grafton or Holinshed. Ramsden and Kincaid agree that there is a bitterness in Cornwallis's work, a sense of personal involvement, but think it might have come from a ' purely intellectual stimulus '. Cornwallis told John Donne that he had lately been reading the life of Richard, and could not suffer ' soe maney vertues wherwith his Enemies coulde not denye him to be adorned to be dusked, and drowned by vices … ' He begins his defence with the comment: ' That historians are Corupted, that they rather confirme, then Conuince errours, noe man neede doubte, since knowinge the affaires of our owne time, and readinge theire Relations therof will make anie discreete man knowe theire partiallity … '.