Explaining Suicide: Patterns, Motivations, and What Notes Reveal discusses top motivations for suicide, how they differ between note leavers and non-note leavers, and how we can use the information to create better prevention tactics. How does sound impact your brain? And how can we use music to gain wholeness in ways that pharmaceutical medicine is limited? In this fusion between music and science, pianist turned pharmacology and toxicology scientist, Christina Borchers, guides us through the powerful intersection of the two fields.
The body is naturally capable of self-regulation and healing. Music therapy activates our own pathways to begin working. A cognitive psychologist and an industrial design engineer draw from their experiences trying to make technology work for people to reflect on the foundations of Cognitive Science and Product Design.
This work is motivated by the sense that there is a large gap between the type of experiences studied in laboratories and experiences of people working with every day technology. This has led the authors to question the metaphysical foundations of cognitive science and to suggest alternative directions that might provide better insights for design. Through state-society relations, this book offers a compelling and fascinating comparison of Brazil and China, two emerging powers on the international stage.
Although the empire has been commonly viewed as a Hindu bulwark against Islamic incursion from the north or as a religiously ecumenical state, Valerie Stoker argues that the Vijayanagara court was selective in its patronage of religious institutions. To understand the dynamic interaction between religious and royal institutions in this period, she focuses on the career of the Hindu intellectual and monastic leader Vyasatirtha.
By examining his polemics against rival sects in the context of his work for the empire, Stoker provides a remarkably nuanced picture of the relationship between religious identity and sociopolitical reality under Vijayanagara rule. In his sixth satire, Juvenal speculates about how Roman wives busy themselves while their husbands are away, namely, by entertaining a revolving door of exotic visitors who include a eunuch of the eastern goddess Bellona, an impersonator of Egyptian Anubis, a Judean priestess, and Chaldean astrologers.
From these self-proclaimed religious specialists women solicit services ranging from dream interpretation to the coercion of lovers. Juvenal's catalogue suggests the popularity of such "freelance" experts at the turn of the second century and their familiarity to his audience, whom he could expect to get the joke. Heidi Wendt investigates the backdrop of this enthusiasm for the religion of freelance experts by examining their rise during the first two centuries of the Roman Empire.
Unlike civic priests and temple personnel, freelance experts had to generate their own authority and legitimacy, often through demonstrations of skill and learning in the streets, in marketplaces, and at the temple gates, among other locations in the Roman world. Wendt argues that these professionals participated in a highly competitive form of religious activity that intersected with multiple areas of specialty, particularly philosophy and medicine.
Over the course of the imperial period freelance experts grew increasingly influential, more diverse with respect to their skills and methods, and more assorted in the ethnic coding of their practices. Wendt argues that this context engendered many of the innovative forms of religion that flourished in the second and third centuries, including phenomena linked with Persian Mithras, the Egyptian gods, and the Judean Christ. The evidence for freelance experts in religion is abundant, but scholars of ancient Mediterranean religion have only recently begun to appreciate their impact on the empire's changing religious landscape.
At the Temple Gates integrates studies of Judaism, Christianity, mystery cults, astrology, magic, and philosophy to paint a colorful portrait of religious expertise in early Rome. Three times cited by the Ohio Board of Higher Education the department was awarded Program Excellence Awards, which came with prizes of more than one and one half million dollars.
The leader of a talented and hardworking group of faculty is Abe J Bassett who predicted in that the Theatre at Wright State would be recognized as the best theatre program in Ohio. By , the Department led the state in number of majors and size of audience. At the time of the prediction, there were only two faculty, six theatre courses, and no facilities.
The success of the program was achieved while it labored grossly understaffed, underpaid and short of offices, classrooms and studios. This is a story of remarkable achievement through persistent hard work and an attitude that demonstrates that action brings opportunity. For a number of years, Rubin Battino has been presenting professional workshops on the art of very brief therapy. Topics range from fairs, rodeos, parades, and competitions to life in Japan. The scale has increased and the similarity to the facets that are found in fine glass is obvious. They float back and forth between the analytical and the abstract.
They illustrate a world in transition—from the analogue to the digital. From the physical to the ethereal. Over ten years in the making, the novel draws from unpublished manuscripts, letters, and poems, reconstructing hypothetical paintings and lost photographs, reinventing forgotten eras, crisscrossing continents, and following its own laws of space and time. Making a country and an economy : Economic history in Canada 5. The legacy of German economic history: Archetypes and global diffusion 7. Economic history in France: A Sonderweg? Icarus' flight: Economic history in the Italian mirror 9.
Manufacturing the historic compromise: Swedish economic history and the triumph of the Swedish model Spanish economic history: Lights and shadows in a process of convergence Economic history from the Russian Empire to the Russian Federation A periphery at the centre of attention: Economic history in Poland Continuity and discontinuity in the Czech and Slovak historiographies Economic history in Middle Eurasia: Beyond histories of stagnation and deficiencies The history of Indian economic history Economic history in China: Tradition, divergence and potential Japanese economic history: Exploring diversity in development Latin American economic history: Looking backwards for the future Mexico's economic history: Much more than cliometrics and dependency theory Beyond a footnote: Indigenous scholars and the writing of West African economic history Reflections on the economic history of South Africa African encounters with global narratives Part V Challenges and ways ahead Culture, power and contestation: Multiple roads from the past to the future.
Exploring the normative and relativistic nature of different schools and traditions of thought, this handbook not only examines current paradigmatic western approaches, but also those conceived in less open societies and in varied economic, political and cultural contexts. In doing so, this book clears the way for greater critical understanding and a more genuinely global approach to economic history. This handbook brings together leading international contributors in order to systematically address cultural and intellectual traditions around the globe.
Many of these are exposed for consideration for the first time in English. The chapters explore dominant ideas and historiographical trends, and open them up to critical transnational perspectives. This volume is essential reading for both academics and students in economic and social history. As this field of study is very much a bridge between the social sciences and humanities, the issues examined in the book will also have relevance for those seeking to understand the evolution of other academic disciplines under the pressures of varied economic, political and cultural circumstances, on both national and global scales.
Routledge handbook of graffiti and street art . Description Book — xxxix, pages : illustrations ; 26 cm. Ancient Graffiti, J. Baird and Claire Taylor 2. Lennon 3. Deconstructing Gang Graffiti, Susan A. Phillips 5. Prison Inmate Graffiti, Jacqueline Z. Wilson 6. Pabon 7. Research and Theory on Latrinalia, Adam Trahan 8. Yarn Bombing - The softer side of street art, Minna Haveri 9. Something for the Boys?
Exploring the changing gender dynamics of the graffiti subculture, Nancy Macdonald Graffiti and the Subculture Career, Gregory J. Austin Boost or Blight? Wall Talk: Palestinian graffiti, Julie Peteet Stealing from the Public: The value of street art taken from the street, Peter Bengtsen Chapters are written by experts from different countries throughout the world and their expertise spans the fields of American Studies, Art Theory, Criminology, Criminal justice, Ethnography, Photography, Political Science, Psychology, Sociology, and Visual Communication.
The Handbook will be of interest to researchers, instructors, advanced students, libraries, and art gallery and museum curators. This book is also accessible to practitioners and policy makers in the fields of criminal justice, law enforcement, art history, museum studies, tourism studies, and urban studies as well as members of the news media. The Handbook includes 70 images, a glossary, a chronology, and the electronic edition will be widely hyperlinked. Routledge handbook of higher education for sustainable development .
Wals, Valentina C. Tassone, Gary P. Hampson and Jonathan Reams 3. Gonzalez-Gaudiano, Pablo A. Meira-Cartea and Cynthia N. Christie and Kelly K. Miller Angeles Ull, Albert Pinero and M. Pilar Martinez-Agut It provides a unique resource for researchers engaged in the field of higher education for sustainable development by connecting theoretical aspects of the range of relevant methodologies, showing the interdisciplinary aspects of the research field and illustrating the breadth of research directions.
With a team of international authors from leading universities in research and teaching in higher education for sustainable development this Handbook brings together a broad range of research approaches and shows how these approaches are reflected in the research practice in higher education for sustainable development. Routledge handbook of the sociology of higher education . Description Book — xvii, pages : illustrations ; 26 cm. Access to Higher Education, Michael Osborne McDonough and Carrie E. Gabriel Differentiation in Higher Education, Caroline Berggren Is There an Alternative University Model?
David It is timely because of global expansions of mass higher educational systems, especially as these systems come under scrutiny by a variety of stakeholders. Questions are being raised about the value of traditional pedagogies along with calls for efficiency, accountability and cost-reduction, but above all job training. Within this neoliberal context, each chapter examines different sociological aspects of, and debates about, educational institutions as status-conferring organizations, with myriad positional characteristics, experiences, and outcomes. Many current debates concern the legitimacy of the statuses conferred, including the continuing debate regarding the role of universities in legitimating social class reproduction as well as more recent concerns about standards in mass systems.
This handbook puts these issues and debates in focus in ways that will be of interest to a variety of stakeholders, within academia as well as in policy circles. Routledge international handbook of dramatherapy . Summary Grainger, Preface. Jennings, Foreword. Section I: International Developments in Dramatherapy. Section Introduction. Chang, The Development of Dramatherapy in Taiwan. A Review of the 'Core Processes' at Work. Chesner, Creative Integration in Practice. Dokter, Embodiment in Dramatherapy. Casson, Shamanism, Theatre and Dramatherapy. Smail, Open Sesame and the Soul Cave.
Macfarlane, Drowning Janniste, Life stage and human development in Dramatherapy with People who have Dementia. Pendzik, Dramatherapy and the Feminist Tradition. Mazaris, Yogadrama- 'As if I were a Mountain'. Mitchell, Ritual Theatre in Short-term Dramatherapy. Schuchner, Meditation and Drama Therapy. Holmwood, Afterwards. Dramatherapy has developed as a profession during the latter half of the twentieth century.
Now, we are beginning to see its universal reach across the globe in a range of different and diverse approaches. Using traditional texts in the Indian sub-continent, healing performances in the Cameroon, supporting conflict in Israel and Palestine, through traditional Comedic theatre in Italy, to adolescents in schools and adults with mental ill health, this handbook covers a range of topics that shows the breadth, depth and strength of dramatherapy as a developing and maturing profession.
It is divided into four main sections that look at the current international: Developments in dramatherapy Theoretical approaches Specific practice New and innovative approaches Offering insights on embodiment, shamanism, anthropology and cognitive approaches coupled with a range of creative, theatrical and therapeutic methods, this ground breaking book is the first congruent analysis of the profession. It will appeal to a wide and diverse international community of educators, academics, practitioners, students, training schools and professionals within the arts, arts education and arts therapies communities.
Additionally it will be of benefit to teachers and departments in charge of pastoral and social care within schools and colleges. P7 R68 Unknown. Routledge international handbook of memory studies . Summary Part I. Theories and Perspectives 1. Reconceptualizing Memory as Event: from "difficult pasts" to "restless events", Robin Wagner-Pacifici 3. Against Memory, Jeffrey Goldfarb 6. Cultural Artefacts, Symbols and Social Practices 7. Social Movements and Memory, Ron Eyerman 8.
Banal Commemoration, Vered Vinitzky-Seroussi 9. Organizational Memories - A phenomenological analysis, Thomas S. Eberle Memory, Time, and Responsibility, Carmen Leccardi Memory of the Future, Paolo Jedlowski Ann Kaplan Walking the Autobiographical Path. Disaster, Trauma, and Memory, Bin Xu Medved and Jens Brockmeier Dancing the Present.
Body memory and quantum field theory, Anna Lisa Tota Cell Memory of an Ancestral State: Going backward across our life span to resume self-healing abilities, Carlo Ventura A strong emphasis is placed on the interdisciplinary breadth of Memory Studies with contributions from leading international scholars in sociology, anthropology, philosophy, biology, film studies, media studies, archive studies, literature and history.
The Handbook addresses the core concerns and foundations of the field while indicating new directions in Memory Studies. S65 R Unknown. Routledge international handbook of sport psychology . Description Book — xxx, pages : illustrations ; 27 cm. Opening up of Dialogue Robert J. Schinke, Kerry R. Brazil Franco Noce 7. Israel Ronnie Lidor 9. Sport Injury Leslie Podlog Elbin Part 3: Cultural Sport Psychology Whiteness in Sport Psychology Theodore Butryn Larsen Athletes and Motherhood Kerry R.
Martin Hazing in Sport Jennifer J. Waldron Part 4: Motivation and Emotion Goal Orientation Dorothee Alfermann What is flow? Team Resilience Nick Galli Expertise and Mental Practice Aidan Moran Team Coordination David Eccles Stambulova Closing the Loop Kerry R. The Routledge International Handbook of Sport Psychology offers a comprehensive and authoritative guide to contemporary sport psychology in all its aspects.
Written by a team of world-leading researchers and practitioners from five continents, including both established scholars and the best emerging talents, the book traces the contours of the discipline of sport psychology, introducing fundamental theory, discussing key issues in applied practice, and exploring the most important themes, topics and debates across the sport psychology curriculum. Uniquely, the book presents comparative studies of the history and contemporary practice of sport psychology in ten countries, including the US, UK, China, Japan, Brazil, Russia and Israel, helping the reader to understand the cultural and contextual factors that shape international practice in sport psychology.
As well as covering in depth the core pillars of sport psychology, from motivation and cognition to group dynamics, the book also includes a full section on cultural sport psychology, a vital but under-explored sub-discipline that is having a profound influence on contemporary theory and practice. With 56 chapters and unparalleled range, depth and currency, the Routledge Handbook of International Sport Psychology is an essential addition to any library with a serious holding in sport psychology.
R7 Unknown. The Routledge handbook of environmental economics in Asia . Description Book — xxi, pages : illustrations, maps ; 26 cm. Summary Introduction, Shunsuke Managi 2. Environmental Taxes: Practice, Jing Cao 7. Energy and Climate Change, Takayuki Takeshita 8. Fisheries Management in Asia, Keisaku Higashida Measuring sustainable development in Asia, Masayuki Sato Benefit transfer of nature conservation values in Asia and Oceania based on meta-analysis: Data heterogeneity and reliability issues, Henrik Lindhjema and Tran Huu Tuanb Effect of the announcement of conservation area and financial targets on charitable giving for forest conservation: A natural field experiment study in East Asia, Yohei Mitani, Koichi Kuriyama and Takahiro Kubo Technological Change and the Environment, Surender Kumar Arimura The increasing interest in environmental and resource economics applied in regions of Asia will make this book an outstanding resource to the existing literature, particularly in the fields of environmental and resource economics and the integration of applied content in traditional and agricultural development.
At present there is no single handbook or text on the state of current knowledge in environmental economics in Asia or one which offers a comprehensive guide to students and academics on the subjects of environmental economics research. This book will help to fill the gap in the existing literature.
E5 R68 Unknown.
- A Fallen Prayer.
- Timothée lécureuil (French Edition)?
- Dr. Updesh Kumar`s-Scientist G-DIPR.
- Passion United.
- The Contextual Determinants of Malaria.
- Suicide - Wikipedia!
- the routledge handbook of the welfare state routledge international handbooks Manual.
Routledge handbook of Latin America in the world . Description Book — xi, pages : illustrations ; 26 cm. Lowenthal and Hannah M. Realism in the Periphery Carlos Escude 3. Tickner 5. Romero, Translation by Michael Ordower North America Robert A. Pastor Beyond Reach? Hymans Migration in the Americas Alexandra Delano Mares It provides a comprehensive picture of Latin America's global engagement by looking at specific processes and issues that link governments and other actors, social and economic, within the region and beyond. Leading scholars offer an up-to-date state of the field, theoretically and empirically, thus avoiding a narrow descriptive approach.
The Handbook includes a section on theoretical approaches that analyze Latin America's place in the international political and economic system and its foreign policy making. Other sections focus on the main countries, actors, and issues in Latin America's international relations. In so doing, the book sheds light on the complexity of the international relations of selected countries, and on their efforts to act multilaterally. The Routledge Handbook of Latin America in the World is a must-have reference for academics, researchers, and students in the fields of Latin American politics, international relations, and area specialists of all regions of the world.
The Routledge handbook of political ecology . Located at the intersection of geography, anthropology, sociology, and environmental history, political ecology is one of the most vibrant and conceptually diverse fields of inquiry into nature-society relations within the social sciences. The Handbook serves as an essential guide to this rapidly evolving intellectual landscape. With contributions from over 50 leading authors, the Handbook presents a systematic overview of political ecology's origins, practices and core concerns, and aims to advance both ongoing and emerging debates.
While there are numerous edited volumes, textbooks, and monographs under the heading 'political ecology, ' these have tended to be relatively narrow in scope, either as collections of empirically based mostly case study research on a given theme, or broad overviews of the field aimed at undergraduate audiences. The Routledge Handbook of Political Ecology is the first systematic, comprehensive overview of the field. With authors from North and South America, Europe, Australia and elsewhere, the Handbook of Political Ecology provides a state of the art examination of political ecology; addresses ongoing and emerging debates in this rapidly evolving field; and charts new agendas for research, policy, and activism.
The Routledge Handbook of Political Ecology introduces political ecology as an interdisciplinary academic field. By presenting a 'state of the art' examination of the field, it will serve as an invaluable resource for students and scholars. It not only critically reviews the key debates in the field, but develops them.
The Handbook will serve as an excellent resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate teaching, and is a key reference text for geographers, anthropologists, sociologists, environmental historians, and others working in and around political ecology. R69 Unknown. The Routledge handbook of religions and global development .
Development, Religion and Modernity Carole Rakodi 3. Researching Religions and Development Tara Hefferan 4. Proselytizing Development Philip Fountain Part 2. Sub-Saharan Africa 7.
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Religion and Development in China Andre Laliberte Rana Jawad Occhipinti Conflict or Compatibility? Religion and Economic Development Daromir Rudnyckyj Kaplan Part one highlights critical debates that have emerged within research on religions and development, particularly with respect to theoretical, conceptual and methodological considerations, from the perspective of development studies and its associated disciplines.
Parts two to six look at different regional and national development contexts and the place of religion within these. These parts integrate and examine the critical debates raised in part one within empirical case studies from a range of religions and regions. Different religions are situated within actual locations and case studies thus allowing a detailed and contextual understanding of their relationships to development to emerge.
It is essential reading for students and researchers in development studies and religious studies, and is highly relevant to those working in area studies, as well as a range of disciplines, from theology, anthropology and economics to geography, international relations, politics and sociology. Routledge handbook of the sociology of sport . Description Book — xxiii, pages : maps ; 26 cm.
Introduction to Part One 2. Researching Sport 3. The Functionalist Perspective on Sport 4. Interpretive Approaches in the Sociology of Sport 5.
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Marxist and Neo-Marxist Approaches on Sport 6. Norbert Elias and the Sociology of Sport 7. Pierre Bourdieu on Sport 8. Niklas Luhmann, System Theory and Sport 9. Physical Cultural Studies on Sport Poststructuralism and the Sociology of Sport Anthropological Perspectives and the Sociology of Sport Economic and Sociological Approaches to Sport Geographical Approaches and the Sociology of Sport History, Sociology and Critical Sport Studies Leisure Studies and the Sociology of Sport Philosophy, Sociology and the Critical Analysis of Sport Political Science, Sociology and the Study of Sport Social Class and Sport Gender and Sport Race and Sport Sexualities and Sport Introduction to Part Four Sport and the Body Sport, Physical Activity and Health Risk and Uncertainty in Sport Doping in Elite Sport Sport Fans and Fandoms Sport and Violence Sport and Social Intervention Sport and the Urban Sport Mega-Events Sport and Environmentalism Sport and Media Sport and New Media Sport and the Nation in the Global Age The Migration of Elite Athletes Sport and the Corporate World Sport, International Development and Peace Globalization and Sport.
It helps us to understand what sport is and why it matters. Sociological knowledge, implicit or explicit, therefore underpins scholarly enquiry into sport in every aspect. The Routledge Handbook of the Sociology of Sport is a landmark publication that brings together the most important themes, theories and issues within the sociology of sport, tracing the contours of the discipline and surveying the state-of-the-art. Part One explores the main theories and analytical approaches that define contemporary sport sociology and introduces the most important methodological issues confronting researchers working in the social scientific study of sport.
Part Two examines the connections and divisions between sociology and cognate disciplines within sport studies, including history, anthropology, economics, leisure and tourism studies, philosophy, politics and psychology. Part Three investigates how the most important social divisions within sport, and in wider society, are addressed in sport sociology, including 'race', gender, class, sexuality and disability. Part Four explores a wide range of pressing contemporary issues associated with sport, including sport and the body, social problems associated with sport, sport places and settings, and the global aspects of sport.
Written by a team of leading international sport scholars, including many of the most well-known, respected and innovative thinkers working in the discipline, the Routledge Handbook of the Sociology of Sport is an essential reference for any student, researcher or professional with an interest in sport. Handbook of Africa's international relations . Description Book — xxiv, p. Thomas Tieku 3. Pan-Africanism and the International System Dr.
Sabelo J. Ndlovu-Gatsheni 4. Cyril Obi Part 2: Institutional Developments 6.
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Solomon Dersso 7. Tony Karbo 8. John Akokpari and Sarah Ancas 9. Mireille Affaa Elias Omondi Romain Esmenjaud Emezat Mengesha Africa and International Migration Dr. Bina Fernandez Africa and the International Criminal Court Dr. Thomas Obel Hansen Kwesi Sansculotte-Greenidge Adam Branch Elena Lioubimtseva Grace Maina The AU and Terrorism Dr. Kwesi Aning Lorenzo Fioramonti Africa and China Dr. Henning Melber Jack Mangala Africa and India Dr. Zachariah Mampilly Seifudein Adem Tim Murithi Select Bibliography Index.
In the aftermath of colonialism the Cold War became a dominant paradigm that defined the nature of the continent's relationship with the rest of the world. The contemporary forces of globalization are now exerting an undue influence and impact upon Africa's international relations. Increasingly, the African continent is emerging as a vocal, and in some respects an influential, actor in international relations. There is a lack of analysis and research on this emerging trend.
This timely book fills this analytical gap by engaging with a wide range of issues, with chapters written by experts on a variety of themes. The emerging political prominence of the African continent on the world stage is predicated on an evolving internal process of continental integration. In particular, there are normative and policy efforts to revive the spirit of Pan-Africanism: the 21st century is witnessing the evolution of Pan-Africanism, notably through the constitution and establishment of the African Union AU.
Given the dearth of analysis on this phenomemon, this volume also examines the notion of Pan-Africanism through various lenses - notably peace and security, development, the environment and trade. The volume will also engage with the emerging role of the AU as an international actor, e. This book will assess how the AU's role as an international actor is complicated by the difficulty of promoting consensus among African states and then maintaining that consensus in the face of often divergent national interests.
This book will in part assess the role of the AU in articulating collective and joint policies and in making interventions in international decision and policy-making circles. The Handbook will also assess the role of African social movements and their relationship with global actors. The role of African citizens in improving their own conditions is often underplayed in the international relations discourse, and this volume will seek to redress this oversight.
Throughout the book the various chapters will also assess the role that these citizen linkages have contributed towards continental integration and in confronting the challenges of globalization. H36 In-library use. Handbook of Arab women and Arab Spring : challenges and opportunities . First edition. The book begins with an examination of the process of democratization and its impediments in the Arab World since the Second World War. It then looks at the conditions that led to the upsurge of the so-called Arab Spring.
Finally it underscores womens role as participants, organizers leaders but also as victims. The main thesis of the book is that while Arab women were an integral part of the revolutionary efforts within the Arab Spring paradigm, they did not benefit from their sacrifices. Although they continue to be part of the process of change, their gains, rights and scope for participation are still limited. If the expansion of womens participation and the scope of their rights do not seem to be a priority for revolutionary forces, women have made remarkable achievements, especially in some Arab Spring countries such as Yemen and Libya.
It calls on revolutionary and reformist forces to give special attention to issues related to Arab women, as they are an indispensable pillar in the process of reform, development, peace and stability in the Middle East"-- Provided by publisher. Includes an examination of the process of democratization and the causes of the Arab Spring in addition to case studies from Arab Spring countries. A91 A Unknown.
Handbook of Central American governance . Description Book — xiv, pages : illustrations, map ; 26 cm. Comprised of a politically diverse range of societies, this region has long been of interest to students of economic development and political change.
This title aims to describe and explain the manifold processes that are taking place in Central America that are altering patterns of social, political and economic governance, with particular focus on the impact of globalization and democratization. Containing sections on topics such as state and democracy, key political and social actors, inequality and social policy and international relations, in addition to in-depth studies on five key countries Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala , this text is composed of contributions from some of the leading scholars in the field.
No other single volume studies the current characteristics of the region from a political, economic and social perspective or reviews recent research in such detail. As such, this handbook is of value to academics, students and researchers as well as to policy-makers and those with an interest in governance and political processes. H46 Unknown. Routledge handbook of human-animal studies . Description Book — xviii, pages : illustrations ; 26 cm. Mammoths in the Landscape by Nigel Rothfels 2. Wherever I Lay my Cat? Netherworld Envoy or Man's Best Friend?
Grier Bestial Imaginings by Kathy Rudy It offers a broad interpretive account of the development and present configurations of the field of human-animal studies across many cultures, continents, and times. The Routledge handbook of international crime and justice studies . Journal of Clinical Nursing, 20, — Being met: A passage way to hope for relatives of patients at risk of committing suicide: a phenomenological hermeneutic study.
Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 15, — Tanney, B. Psychiatric diagnosis and suicidal acts. Silverman eds. Thorne, S. The analytic challenge in interpretive description. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 3, 1— Timulak, L. Psychotherapy Research, 19, — Tzeng, W-C. The inner door: Toward an understanding of suicidal patients. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 19, — Vatne, M. Wagnild, G. Warelow, P. Caring as a resilient practice in mental health nursing. There are no shortcuts to any place worth going. Beverly Sills. While there is consensus within the limited literature concerning the existence of this increased period of risk, our comprehension of the phenomenon is in its infancy.
For instance, the authors could locate no qualitative studies that have systematically examined the post-discharge experiences of former hospitalized suicidal patients. Following this, the NIH held their own mixed methods workshop,2 sponsored by seven NIH institutes and this was followed by various private foundations holding their own workshops. Indeed, the level of interest has grown substantially to the extent that there now exists a journal which is devoted exclusively to publishing mixed methods studies and discussions about the methodology of mixed methods research;3 and international conferences dedicated to mixed methods research have been held in various countries since The rationale or case for mixed method research designs can be advanced on several methodological and epistemological grounds.
The central premise of such designs, it has been argued Cresswell, , is that the combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches provides a more comprehensive and complete understanding of problems than either approach can alone. Cutcliffe et al. Greene highlights how mixed method research designs enable questions to be answered that cannot be answered by qualitative or quantitative approaches alone.
Mixed methods, according to Cresswell , enable researchers to use all of the tools of data collection available rather than being restricted to the types of data collection typically associated with qualitative research or quantitative research. Further, mixed methods designs encourage the use of multiple world-views or paradigms rather than the typical association of certain para- digms for quantitative researchers and others for qualitative researchers Cresswell, Mixed methods research is inherently pragmatic; researchers are unrestricted in selecting all methods possible to address a particular research problem.
Further, the methodological pragmatism extends to enabling researchers to solve problems using data in the form s of numbers and words; to combining inductive and deductive thinking. Research design and method: the quantitative component This study was carried out in a large urban general hospital with an active inpatient psychiatric service between May and December High-risk patients admitted to the inpatient psychiatric service and a short-stay crisis stabilization unit with a lifetime history of suicidal behavior, accompanied by some level of intent to die and current suicidal ideation based on self- report or chart documentation, were eligible to participate in the study.
After receiving permission to approach patients from their treatment team, newly admitted patients were asked for their consent to participate in the investigation. After providing signed informed consent, patients participated in the baseline assessment during their hospital admission. The study received research ethics approval from the hospital Research Ethics Board. This scale has. The SSI was administered at 1, 3, and 6 months after hospital discharge. At the sixth month follow-up appointment, participants were asked to report on any self-injury events without intent to die or suicide.
A number of other measures and instruments were used in the study and details of these are reported in Links et al. We used these SSI categories due to the high proportion of zero scores at follow-up. For suicide behavior we used the composite of the indicator of self-injury or suicide attempts within 6 months of hospital discharge or death by suicide after discharge. The researchers obtained a purposive sample of 20 former inpatients, each of whom met the inclusion criteria, see Box 3. Interviews took place at or close to the end of the first month following their discharge from the inpatient psychiatric service.
Demographic details of the sample are displayed in Table 3. At the beginning of the interview, the research team was concerned only with attempting to build rapport and helping the participant to feel at ease. While adopting a reflexive technique to qualitative interviewing Kvale, , the research team were seeking to elicit specific descriptions of the lived-moments of the experience of discharge; therefore certain types of questions needed to be asked to assist the participant in accessing the moment as lived.
For example:. Age mean SD Notes: 1 It might be noteworthy that this is a high percentage of participants who have a higher education background. That is to say that individuals with a higher education background are more likely to be familiar with the research process per se and arguably, less intimated by this. While sampling for phenomenological studies seek informants who can provide the richest, deepest understanding into the phenomenon and thus deliberately eschew random representative samples, it remains possible that different findings may have been discovered from a sample that was representative of the adult population.
What were your feelings, your mood, your emotions, your thoughts? Interviews ceased when the participants felt they had said all they had to say about the experience and when prompts from the interviewer did not elicit any new information. This was achieved by asking questions of these collated sections such as: What does this passage of text, or more accurately, the collections of passages, say about the essence of the experience of being discharged after receiving inpatient mental health care for the risk of suicide?
Following this, the themes texts were shared with all members of the research team who were encouraged to re-write them as a means. Perhaps if you could focus on an example of your post-discharge suicidal experience which stands out for its vividness, can you describe your experience of being discharged following your admission for suicidal ideation, as you live d through it? Please describe the events leading up to that particular moment. Can you try and describe the experience from the inside, as it were?
Can you focus on a particular example or incident? Can you tell me what were you aware of during the experience of feeling suicidal following your discharge? Could you describe how your body felt at that time, how things smelled, how they sounded? The team then revisited the interview transcripts once more as a means to ensure that their interpretations could be substantiated by reference to the raw data. Furthermore, the interdisciplinary nature of the research team meant that each member was able to bring his or her particular disciplinary experience and expertise to the data analysis; to the re-writing of the phenomenological text.
Mean SD scores post discharge were 7. So while these scores appear to indicate some diminution in suicide ideation between baseline and discharge and follow-up , the data also clearly indicate that SSI scores remained quite high for some people. It is also important to note that the incidence of death by suicide during the study period was 3. Moreover, 41 of Others described a more subconscious location, i. Others still referred to suicide residing in their unconscious and manifesting itself in their dreams.
Participants were very clear that, for the most part, the act and. It may well have been the case that the crisis point or highest point of risk had elapsed, but participants were adamant that they left the hospital still feeling suicidal. For some, the experience of being discharged before they felt that they had resolved their suicidal issues actually served to potentially increase their risk. Evidence of the continued elevated risk of suicide post-discharge was captured by the research participants in their quotes:.
Interview 4. What was going through your head on the day of discharge? Interview I was still suicidal when they let me go but they did what they were supposed to do. Interview 9. Interview 7. I think the burden part is kind of not never ending, cause even, now I, I, very rarely tell my parents, um, more than they really need to know, um, but in terms of the fear.
I felt much more lost and so much more worried. Not really, because when they discharged me I was still suicidal, and even more so because of the fact that, you know, that I was hopeless in a way and they were happy. It remains but you get better at hiding it. There is some corroboration within the, albeit limited, empirical literature9 that supports such amendments to practice.
Similar calls for involving patients and their family carers in discharge decision-making have been advocated in the United Kingdom see Social Care Institute for Excellence Research Brief 12, accessed and are common in policy documents see, for example, Department of Health, accessed However, the norm is that people are not usually consulted about the planning of their discharge or care SCIE, accessed Such disconnections are linked with drop-out rates Bunn et al.
A further variable or dynamic that appeared to be contribute to the post-discharge continued elevated risk of suicide was that of participants reporting how when they arrived home, they did not know what to do next; they were uncertain about so many aspects of their lives. How to begin re-engaging in life?
While there is little evidence in the extant suicidology literature regarding post-discharge interventions, valuable lessons can be learned by drawing on related practices in other areas of health care. For example, in their thorough meta-analysis, Phillips et al. The ongoing suicide risk, particularly in recently discharged patients admitted for suicidal behaviour, with high levels of depression, hopelessness or impulsivity must be monitored at discharge and in the early weeks and months following discharge Links et al.
In conjunction with ongoing risk, monitoring clinicians should help clients to understand that, even after discharge, there remains much work to be done; that the recovery from suicide can take a considerable length of time; that the short inpatient stay for the suicidal crisis can be just the beginning of their holistic recovery. In conjunction with this is the need for the suicidology community to perhaps re-visit what we consider to be an. In such a model, the suicidology community would then acknowledge that the majority of the recovery work is likely to be undertaken post-discharge.
Some support for such a conceptualizations can be found in the relevant theoretical and empirical literature. The central premise of his thesis was that individuals who took their own lives had long suicidal careers involving complex mixes of biological, social and psychological factors. Beautrais argues that her results clearly show that suicidal behaviour, for many, is a chronic condition, not just a single, impulsive event and rather worryingly, for many the situation does not change much following a suicide attempt, because people do not get the help they need.
Beautrais concludes that suicide is a complex response by vulnerable people who need extensive long-term treatment, care and support. Acknowledgements Some sections of this chapter book have been adapted or reproduced from original papers authored by the research team; which is not uncommon with mixed methods research designs. Prospective study of risk factors for increased suicide ideation and behavior following recent discharge. General Hospital Psychiatry, 34 1 : 88— Available online.
Hogfree Publishing Ltd. The authors also wish to acknowledge the research team who undertook this research: John Cutcliffe, Paul Links, Henry G. Creswell, A. Plano-Clark, published by Sage. However, for ease of understanding, here the authors describe their approach to data analysis in a linear rather than cyclic or iterative fashion. References Appleby, L. Suicide within 12 months of contact with mental health services: National clinical survey. British Medical Journal, , — Balogh, R. Involving clients in clinical audits of mental health services. International Journal of Quality in Health Care, 7, — Bassett, R.
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Yim, P. Suicide after discharge from psychiatric inpatient care: A case-control study in Hong Kong. Australian New Zealand Journal Medicine, 38 1—2 , 65— Introduction In recent years there has been a notable increase in suicide rates in many countries, including Ireland, where this trend has been particularly evident among young men NOSP, , giving rise to concern about how best to understand and respond to this group.
Ironically, despite their prominent role in providing care to the suicidal person, many mental health professionals are ill- prepared to work with this population due to lack of training. The study also highlighted key social and treatment practices that facilitated and hindered their movement from a death orientation to a life orientation, drawing attention to the important role of the mental health practitioner in this process. One consistent and troubling trend has been an increase in prevalence rates in suicide and suicidality in many countries, including Ireland NOSP, ; WHO, In Ireland, over people die by suicide and more than 12, people attend Emergency Departments each year following acts of self- injury NSRF, While there has been a downward trend in the period —, numbers remain concerning and are envisaged to increase again with stresses related to the economic downturn NOSP, This has given rise to social and professional concerns about how best to understand and respond to this group,.
Gordon, C. Stevenson and J. Emerging evidence suggests that working with suicidality requires an integrated and flexible approach as it is a complex, multidimensional and multifaceted phenomenon Maris et al. While there is a strong focus on suicide prevention in government policy and strategy prevention, intervention and postvention can be viewed as interlinked as those exposed to suicidality are more likely to develop suicidal impulses Grad, Emerging literature has also highlighted the negative consequences of failure to recognize the complexity and demands of practice in this area for professionals.
Indeed, Hawton suggests that it is in the best interests of all concerned to acknowledge the inevitability of death by suicide in order to allay unwarranted guilt and distress across personal and professional systems. One such myth is that talking about suicide can make the person feel worse; another that those who attempt suicide but do not die do not intend ending their lives. Indeed, it could be argued that such social and professional beliefs fuel practices that focus primarily on the physical safety of the person overshadowing the need for emotional safety and holistic care.
The cited study addressed these theoretical and practice gaps by drawing directly upon the views and experiences of young men who had been highly suicidal, and had been involved with the mental health services, to inform practice in this area. The emergent theory, re-vitalizing worthiness, describes and explains how participants resolved their painful pull between life and. The study also highlighted key social and treatment practices that facilitated and hindered this process, for example, acknowledgement of their struggles with life was deemed helpful while responses that minimized their subjective experiences were viewed as unhelpful.
The study In-depth face-to-face interviews were conducted with 17 men, with an average age of 25 years, who had contact with the mental health services. ID No. Age Marital No. L Cert Manual 1 6 weeks. L Cert Manual 3 6 weeks. Figure 4. Educational level: Primary — did not progress to secondary level, Jnr. Cert — mid-secondary level, L Cert — completed secondary level, 3rd Level — university. A GT study generates a substantive theory in a particular area. First, it identifies the core concern or the issues that preoccupy those involved in the substantive area and then goes on to explore and theorize how this concern is resolved, which is captured in the theory.
Thus, while an initial literature review can inform researcher sensitivity and provide a sound rationale for a study, a thorough literature review is conducted at the later stages of theory- building which serves as further data Glaser, A GT study incorporates a number of interlinked processes as outlined in Figure 4.
Ethical considerations Suicide research involves a number of ethical considerations as the topic is deemed sensitive and the population may be viewed as vulnerable and are frequently transient, which contributes to recruitment, engagement and follow-up challenges Grad, ; Gibbons et al.
In this study it was important that participants had adequate information and time to be able to make an informed choice about participation. Theoretical Sensitivity refers to researcher attunement to the study topic and context which guides the research process. Sampling comprises initial selective sampling to gain broad yet relevant data followed by theoretical sampling to bring depth to emerging categories. The Constant Comparison Analytic Method assists with the identification of patterns within the data by making connections, drawing distinctions and seeking variation across data.
Coding involves initial open coding for the formation of multiple categories, followed by theoretical coding across categories to saturate the theory. Theoretical Memos track and enhance theory development through a conceptualization process that informs further sampling. Field Notes incorporate observations throughout the study process, highlighting methodological, ethical and practical issues. Additionally participants were directed to sources of further information and support when this emerged as an issue for the interviewee.
Hence, recruitment from well-established services provided a safeguard for participants as support could easily be accessed. The theory The main concern, negotiating a dialectic of destiny, describes two opposing pulls felt by the participants, one that yearned for death and the other that yearned for life. They attempted to conceal this inner battle in order to protect themselves and others from their deep pain. They experienced profound ambivalence and were caught between their desire for life and their drive toward death, while because of perceived social and moral stigma they feared recrimination if this were revealed.
This concern occupied their daily living and being, as they tried to work out if and how they should be in the world. The process describes how the young men faced their worst fears about themselves and their lives and transformed their identities in the move from a preoccupation with death to a focus on life, thereby transcending suicidality.
Helpful practices were those that were validating of the participants and their lives, such as acknowledging their struggles and fears, while unhelpful responses involved those that perpetuated their sense of difference and powerlessness, such as exclusionary and controlling actions.
Re-vitalizing worthiness has two interlinked stages, confronting a crisis of destiny and earning a life, described in detail elsewhere Gordon et al. Enacting a Worthy Identity. Briefly, confronting a crisis of destiny refers to how participants faced and resolved their torturous pull between life and death, which they had endured for some considerable time as they lived through a period of intense crisis. Finding themselves devoid of value as human beings due to their profound sense of failure and lack of belongingness, they tried to protect themselves and others from their inner pain by cutting themselves off from the world.
They believed that they had nothing to offer to the world, describing themselves in derogatory terms such as a freak or a failure. They were also not sure that life had anything to offer them and sometimes experienced living as more painful than dying. Hence, it made sense to think that they did not belong and were not deserving of life. I was so pissed off with people around me and so pissed off with myself because there was nothing I could do to change it [life]. Eventually their lives and their uncontrollable state of being became intolerable and, having reached a point of no return, they were forced to decide whether to live or die.
If I wanted to stay alive I had to change my life, I knew I had to change the situation. The second stage, earning a life, refers to how the participants re-established themselves in the world as people of value who were deserving of life, thereby realizing their own worthiness. They began to develop a sense of importance as individuals who mattered to themselves and others and had something to contribute in their lives. They opened their ears, eyes and selves and began to see positive aspects of themselves and others.
They reconsidered their negative self, other and world perceptions and began to appreciate the simple yet rewarding aspects of their lives. They also became involved in activities that demonstrated to themselves and others that they had purpose and meaning in their lives. I started to think about the future. What do I want from my life? Re-vitalizing worthiness captures the process which the young men in this study underwent to address their profound existential questions about the meaning and nature of their relationship with living and dying.
They confronted and overcame their deep fears about their selves, their lives and their fates, repairing their sense of fragmentation and emerging as stronger and more integrated people. They reclaimed their place as people deserving of life, thereby transcending their suicidality and resolving their crises of destiny. Enhancing worthiness: what helped and hindered? The study highlighted that mental health professionals, among others, through their encounters with these young men both enhanced and reduced opportunities for re-vitalizing worthiness.
Thus, examples of helpful and unhelpful interactions across treatment domains and practices are provided. In general, interactions that were experienced as invalidating, such as controlling, coercive, objectifying and stigmatizing actions further alienated them and confirmed their sense of unworthiness and aloneness.
For example, when the professional worked on rather with them, focused on their suicidal behaviour rather than on them as a person and excluded them from decision-making about their own care and treatment. At the time the powerlessness, the injustice, the lack of being heard, was excruciating. Still when I think back to it, and talk about it now, I feel quite upset.
I still feel angry about that. Despite their shame about their suicidal thoughts and feelings, acknowledgement of their pain, concerns and suicidal desire was experienced as helpful. This facilitated them in confronting and resolving their fears. They also valued a collaborative approach that involved them in their own care and treatment decisions which supported them in re- engaging with living on their terms and at their pace. This was important in helping them to regain a sense of control in their lives and fostering their sense of self-agency and self-esteem.
I just thought that this transparency, this openness. I will share even the mode of work I do with you and see if that is interesting for you, or see if it might inform how we work together. The study drew attention to how the person in suicidal distress can be highly sensitive to their environment, particularly criticism, and that apparently minor exchanges can make a big difference in their lives.