If a phrase is negative, ne changes to n'. In all plural forms, the s at the end of each subject pronoun, normally unpronounced, becomes a z sound and the n of on becomes pronounced when followed by a vowel. It is a type of pronominal verb a verb that includes a pronoun as part of it called a reflexive verb, which means that the action of the verb is reflected back onto the subject.
Literally translated, the verb means To amuse oneself. J'aime parler. When negating a sentence, remember that the negative goes around the conjugated verb. Je n'aime pas parler. Besides the new vocabulary you should also have a look at how the verbs are conjugated depending on the subject of the sentence.
Jean-Paul : Qu'est-ce que vous faites? Marc et Paul : Nous jouons au tennis. Marie : Je finis mes devoirs. Michel : J'attends mon amie. Pierre : Je vais au parc. Christophe : Je viens du stade. V: Recreation Qu'est-ce que vous faites? What are you doing?
You will learn their conjugation in a later lesson. Thus, mon amie is used instead of ma amie, while ma bonne amie would be okay. G: Indirect Object Pronouns lui and leur Indirect objects are prepositional phrases with the object of the preposition, a direct object is a noun that receives the action of a verb.
Lui and leur are indirect object pronouns. Il lui jette la balle. Il leur jette la balle. Whether lui means to him or to her is given by context. In English, "He throws him the ball" is also said, and means the same thing. When used with the direct object pronouns le, la, and les, lui and leur come after those pronouns. Il la lui jette. Note that while le, la, and les are used to replace people or inanimate objects, lui and leur are not used to replace innanimate objects and things.
Also note that unlike le and la, which are shortened to l' when followed by a vowel, lui is never shortened V: Jouer The verb jouer is a regular -er verb meaning to play. It can be used to refer to both sports and instruments. As always, jouer must be conjugated rather than left in the infinitive. Il habite Rue de Rennes. Partir is used in other phrases. You will learn how to conjugate these verbs in a future lesson. G: Faire The verb faire is translated to to do or to make. It is irregularly conjugated it does not count as a regular -re verb. Je veux te voir. If a perfect tense is used, these pronouns go before the auxiliary verb.
Je t'ai vu. Direct Object Replacement Il me voit. Il te voit. Il nous voit. Il vous voit. Indirect Object Replacement Il me l'appelle. Il te le jette. Il nous le jette. Il vous le jette. Exercises Try to describe your house or bedroom using the vocabulary. Don't forget prepositions. You may also wish to talk about what housework you do. Nous avons  aussi un bureau avec trois ordinateurs : un par personne! La cuisine est toute petite et   nous y mangeons le soir. Il y a une petite table et quatre chaises.
Le jardin est assez grand et nous y faisons pousser des fleurs. The ne is placed before the verb, while the pas is placed after. Formation and Rules Simple negation is done by wrapping ne Je ne vole pas. In a perfect tense, ne When an infinitive and conjugated verb are together, ne Je ne veux pas voler. Je veux ne pas voler. Je ne le vole pas. He is [a] lawyer. Il n'est pas avocat. He is not [a] lawyer. Nous faisons nos devoirs. We are doing our homework. Nous ne faisons pas nos devoirs.
We are not doing our homework. Je joue du piano. I play the piano. Je ne joue pas du piano. I do not play the piano.
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Vous vendez votre voiture. You sell your car. Vous ne vendez pas votre voiture. You do not sell your car. J'ai un livre. Je n'ai pas de livre. J'ai des livres. Je n'ai pas de livres. Examples Il est belge.. He is Belgian. Il n'est pas belge. He is not Belgian. Nous lisons un livre. We read a book.
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Nous ne lisons pas de livre. We do not read a book. Je mange une cerise. I eat a cherry. Je ne mange pas de cerise. I do not eat a cherry. G: Contractions Contractions have been discussed previously in the form of elision. They are a combination of two or more consecutive words that have been integrated into the language, for example, aujourd'hui. The definite pronoun la remains in full form. It's cloudy.
Cold and Windy Weather Il fait chaud. It's warm. Il fait froid. It's cold. The sky is clear. Il fait du vent. It's windy. The sky is clearing up. Le vent souffle. The wind blows. Le soleil brille. The sun is shining. It's snowing. It's hailing. The rain falls. Il y a un orage! There's a storm! Il pleut. It's raining. It rained. It's going to rain.
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G: Aller The verb aller is translated to to go. It is irregularly conjugated it does not count as a regular -er verb. Usage There is no present progressive tense in French, so aller in the present indicative is used to express both I go and I am going. Aller must be used with a place and cannot stand alone.
Je vais au stade. Instead of a preposition and place, you can use the pronoun y, meaning there. Y comes before the verb. Remember that aller must be used with a place there or a name when indicating that you are going somewhere, even if a place wouldn't normally be given in English. J'y vais. Tu y vas. Nous y allons. The negative form of aller with the y pronoun has both the verb and pronoun enclosed between ne and pas. Il n'y va pas. Il va pleuvoir demain.
Il va faire froid. Remember that the negative goes around the conjugated verb. Il ne va pas pleuvoir demain. Idioms Allons-y - ahlonzee - Let's go! On y va! On y va? Liaison Usually, whenever a vowel sound comes after This process is called liaison. However, since allons and allez begins with vowels, nous allons is pronounced nyoozahloh and vous allez is pronounced voozahlay. In order to have a pleasing and clean sound, two liaisons should not go consecutively.
To conjugate, drop the -ir to find the "stem" or "root". C'est mon livre. In English the possessive adjective agrees with the subject his sister, her brother. But in French, possessive adjectives act like all other adjectives: they must agree with the noun they modify. Elle lit son livre. Liaison and Adjective Changes Liaison occurs when mon, ton, and son are followed by a vowel.
Il est mon ami.
Français régional de Touraine
Ils sont mes amis. Elision to m', t', or s' does not occur. Elle est mon amie. To conjugate, drop the -re to find the "stem" or "root". Add endings to the root based on the subject and tense, as demonstrated below for the present tense. Common -re Verbs Compared to -er verbs, -re verbs are not very common. Consonant Masc. Vowel Fem. The grammar now becomes a lot more advanced, and each lesson now gives much more information. Also remember to go to the lessons planning page if you would like to help improve this course.
You will eventually learn everything that is covered in it, but if you would like a preview, read it, and if not, continue on to the school section. You will eventually learn everything in here. Whereas American grade numbers go up as you approach your senior year, they descend in France. You will learn to conjugate it in the next section. While in English, you would say my hand or your hand, the definite article is almost always used in French. The hand is broken if you speak about your own hand. It is not necessary to add a preposition to the verb. It varies from other '-re' verbs in the plural conjugation, by adding a 'v'.
Lire is an irregular french verb, meaning to read. It's plural conjugation adds an additional 's'. With most verbs, that auxiliary verb is avoir. Auxiliary Verb - Avoir Conjugate avoir in the present indicative. We have played. You have played. He has played. They have played. The culture of France is diverse, reflecting regional differences as well as the influence of recent immigration. Also, try and reflect on how your culture is similar and different to French culture.
Others are regular -ir or -re verbs or are simply irregular. Voir is an irregularly conjugated -re verb. How old are you? French butchers do not sell pork, pork products, nor horsemeat. For these products, go to a charcuterie. However, a lot of boucheries are also charcuteries, and are called boucherie-charcuterie 2. In France, bakeries only sell fresh bread; e. A direct object pronoun is used to refer to the direct object of a previous sentence: Pierre voit le cambrioleur.
Pierre sees the burglar. Pierre le voit. Pierre sees him. The following table shows the various types of direct object pronouns: French me, m' te, t' le, l' la, l' nous vous les English me1 1 1 1 you him, it her, it us you them Notes: 1 me, te, nous, and vous are also used as indirect objects to mean to me, to you, to us, and to you respectively. The pronoun form with an apostrophe is used before a vowel.
The direct object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject. When the direct object comes before a verb in a perfect tense, a tense that uses a past participle, the direct object must agree in gender and plurality with the past participle. For example, in the phrase Je les ai eus, or I had them, the past participle would be spelled eus if the direct object, les, was referring to a masculine object, and eues if les is referring to a feminine object.
Indirect Objects An indirect object is an object that would be asked for with To whom? He gives some bread to Pierre. Il lui donne du pain. He gives bread to him. The following table shows the various types of indirect object pronouns: French me, m' te, t' lui nous vous leur English to me1 to you1 to him, to her to us1 to you1 to them Notes: 1 me, te, nous, and vous are also used as direct objects to mean me, you, us, and you respectively.
The indirect object pronoun for nous and vous is the same as the subject. The indirect object pronouns do not agree with the past participle like the direct object pronouns do. When me, te, nous, and vous are used in a perfect tense, the writer must decide whether they are used as direct or indirect object pronouns. This is done by looking at the verb and seeing what type of action is being performed. The bread is given by the man direct. Pierre gets the given bread indirect.
The stem change applies to all forms except nous and vous. When y is part of the last syllable, it changes to i in order to keep the ay sound. In the present indicative of -yer verbs, this affects all forms except nous and vous. Payer The verb payer translates to to pay. Est-ce que vous avez des cerises? Marie : Oui Useful vocabulary: "Qu'est-ce que vous avez Lesson 2. The preposition de can indicate an origin, contents, possession, cause, manner, and several other things which will be covered later.
When le follows de, the de and le combine into du. Similarly, de and les combine into des. V: Leisure Activites Les loisirs refers to leisure activities. Some other verbs use sortir and partir as stems. One would normally use "une place" whenever "a seat" is used in English. Prenez place! No article before place, you should not say Prenez la place Les films sont fascinants! Vous aimez les films? G: -enir verbs -enir verbs are irregularly conjugated they do not count as regular -ir verbs. Venir The most common -enir verb is venir.
The verb venir is translated to to come. When it means to come from, venir is used with the preposition de. Nous venons du stade. You can also use venir with a verb to state that you have recently accomplished an action. This should help you ask for and give directions. Je suis perdu. Je cherche Other -uire Verbs produire - to produce traduire - to translate reduire - to reduce V: Driving ouvrir to open fermer to close G: -rir Verbs These verbs are conjugated irregularly, and normally follow the -er conjugation scheme.
A common -rir verb is ouvrir. In a general case, these verbs indicate a change in state or position. I went to the cinema. I came to France. The train has arrived. She left to go to work. I stayed home. He returned to the restaurant. I fell into the pool. I was born in october. He died in It happened in front of the house. I climbed to the top. He got out of the train. I went out with my friends. I entered my room. He came back early from school. Direct Objects One must know that these verbs take their conjugated avoir when they are immediately followed by a direct object For Example: Je suis descendu with the direct object "mes bagages" becomes: J'ai descendu mes bagages.
Note that there is no agreement if these verbs are conjugated with avoir. If the subject is masculine singular, there is no change in the past participle. If the subject is feminine singular, an -e is added to the past participle. If the subject is masculine plural, an -s is added to the past participle. If the subject is feminine plural, an -es is added to the past participle. I respond to the questions. Note that lui and leur, and not y, are used when the object refers to a person or persons.
Replacement of Places - there The French pronoun y replaces a prepositional phrase referring to a place that begins with any preposition except de for which en is used. Les hommes vont en France. The men go to France - The men go there. Note that en, and not y is used when the preposition of the object is de. However, if the subject were to act on someone else, the verb is no longer reflexive; instead the reflexive pronoun becomes a direct object. Je m'habille: I get myself dressed. Je t'habille: I get you dressed. These pronouns are me, te, se, nous, and vous and are used as either direct objects or indirect objects, depending on the verb that they modify.
There are three types of pronominal verbs: reflexive verbs, reciprocal verbs, and naturally pronominal verbs. Reflexive Verbs Reflexive verbs reflect the action on the subject. Je me lave. Nous nous lavons. Ils se lavent. Reflexive verbs can also be used as infinitives. Je vais me laver. Je ne vais pas me laver. Reciprocal Verbs With reciprocal verbs, people perform actions to each other. Nous nous aimons. Naturally Pronominal Verbs Some verbs are pronominal without performing a reflexive or reciprocal action.
Tu te souviens? Falloir is always used with the impersonal il only in the 3rd person singular, whereas devoir can be used with all subject pronouns in all tenses. Falloir expresses general necessities, such as "To live, one must eat" or "To speak French well, one must conjugate verbs correctly. Reflexive Verbs In perfect tenses, the past participles agree with the direct object pronoun, but not the indirect object pronoun, in gender and plurality.
Therefore it would only agree when the reflexive pronoun is the direct object. Also remember that the past participle does not agree with the direct object if it goes after the verb. Reciprocal Verbs Like reflexive verbs, the past participle of reciprocal verbs agrees in number and gender with the direct object if it goes before the verb.
It therefore agrees with all reciprocal pronouns that function as direct objects. The reciprocal pronoun can also function as an indirect object without a direct object pronoun. Naturally Pronominal Verbs In perfect tenses, these verbs agree with the direct object if it goes before the verb. Otherwise, the past participle agrees with the subject.
Elle s'est souvenue. Le chien se couche. Note that assis e es , the past participle of s'asseoir to sit , does not change in the masculine plural form. The most common -ger verb is manger. For manger and all other regular -ger verbs, the stem change is adding an e after the g. This only applies in the nous form. In this case, the change is made to preserve the soft g pronunciation rather than the hard g that would be present if the e were not included.
As learned earlier, de and le contract combine into du, as de and les contract into des. Also, instead of du or de la, de l' is used in front of vowels. When speaking about food, the partitive article is used at some times while the definite article le, la, les is used at other times, and the indefinite article un, une in yet another set of situations. In general "de" refers to a part of food a piece of pie whereas the definite article le refers to a food in general I like pie in general.
The indefinite article refers to an entire unit of a food I would like a whole pie. When speaking about preferences, use the definite article: J'aime la glace. I like ice cream. We prefer steak. Vous aimez les frites You like French fries. When speaking about eating or drinking an item, there are specific situations for the use of each article. I ate the whole pie. I ate a pie. I ate some pie. In the negative construction, certain rules apply. As one has learned in a previous lesson, un or une changes to de meaning, in this context, any in a negative construction.
Similarly, du, de la, or des change to de in negative constructions. We ate a pie. We ate some pie. Note : Now you should understand better how that "Quoi de neuf? G: En To say 'some of it' without specifying the exact object, the pronoun 'en' can be used. Additionally, 'en' can mean 'of it' when 'it' is not specified. For instance, instead of saying J'ai besoin d'argent, if the idea of money has already been raised, it can be stated as 'J'en ai besoin'.
This is because en replaces du, de la or des when there the noun is not specifically mentioned in that sentence. Like with 'me', 'te' and other pronouns, en meaning 'some' comes before the verb. Tu joues du piano? Non, je n'en joue pas Do you play piano? No, I don't play it. Vous prenez du poisson? Oui, j'en prends. Are you having fish? Yes, I'm having some. Oui, nous en avons Did you order some water? In France, bakeries only sell fresh bread. Do not confuse with le livre book.
I would like V: Ordering G: -cer Verbs -cer verbs are regular -er verbs, but are also stem changing. The most common -cer verb is commencer. Savoir is used to say that you know a fact or piece of information. G: Appeler Appeler is used to say what your name is. Appeler is a regular -er verb, but, as you may have noticed, is also stem changing. Lesson 3. The verbs fall into three categories:. Reflexive verbs: Express an action done by the subject to itself, such as Je me regarde I look at myself.
Reciprocal verbs: Indicate that two subjects are doing something to one another, as in Ils se parlent They talk to each other. Idiomatic pronominal verbs: The extra pronoun indicates neither to oneself nor to one another, like tu te souviens you remember.
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The only difference is that you also conjugate the added pronoun. No idea, it's both a direct transliteration [including the reflexion] and idiomatic English. It's just less of a literal translation and more of an idiomatic one. Think of it as 'we get ourselves ready quickly'. One 'nous' for the 'we', the other for 'ourselves'. Get started. Topic: French. November 15, For the French it evokes medieval anarchy; for Belgians it describes the separation of powers between the Walloons and the Flemish.
For the Swiss it refers to the integration of different parts into a whole. There are less confusing examples of Swiss institutional terminology. In Switzerland a vote is votation instead of vote , as in France and Quebec. Rescuers are called samaritains rather than secouristes. The Swiss have preserved a number of old French expressions, such as dent-de-lion dandelion , long replaced in France by pissenlit.