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I guess it's not literature but it may be more appealing than Sartre's stuff to a group that has not looked at anything written in French since High School or college. The problem will be one of getting used to reading in french without having to cope, as well, with the existentialist qualities of Sartre.

I think, as a group, we can do one or the other but not both. Jeanne Bourin will attract more participants. The nice thing about Bourin is that we have lots of historically interesting periods to chose from. We can live in the 12th century or the 16th century or in the 11th century as is proposed. By the way, what is the number of the list. Is it back with Beowulf's funeral? English speakers who would try to reawaken earlier courses in French in order to read Les Peregrine can adopt some tricks that have helped me in the past.

Use an index card as a bookmark. Let the index card contain all the forms of the verbs; faire, etre, and avoir. On the back add all the common adverbs you can fit in the space with their translation. Very handy little document. It saves numerous trips to the dictionary. Buy a small edition Collins French English. Some of us use Le Robert Micro and you will too after your vocabulary buillds up. You will also find that an author's vocabulary is quite limited. There are words one prefers so they are used over and over again. You will get used to these and readilly recognize them.

You will probably start out reading and translating every word but soon you will read for gist and translate crucial words. Les Peregrine is going to be fun because it deals with a family that accompanies a warrior to Constantinople on one of the Crusades. It was either Louis' or Richard's. I forget. But the trip itself is worthwhile and the land they invade is well described. If you attempt the reading I know you will stay with it and what's more you will have opened a whole new world of French literarure for your self and the French catalogue is very rich.

Allow me to commend you on your helpful suggestions about reawakening one's French literacy. I'm not sure I ever really stopped reading but I think that the knack will return quickly to anyone who is out of practice. If anyone happens to have an old elementary text or book of easy pieces it should be fairly easy. I am still somewhat weak on the subjunctive.

Cetainly I'm not recommending that Camus or Sartre should be tackled here, atleast not now. I was simply preparing to defend myself if someone should challenge my ability to recognize literature when I see it. Gosh, I guess I hadn't checked this in a while. Oui, Ginny, je suis rentree testing accents ; I'll send you a trip report? Justin, did you try the link I suggested in post 6 for accents? I think keysetrokes are much easier than codes but maybe they doesn't work here?

Mac keystrokes do. The second-hand I ordered from alibris turned out not to be available so I am going to have to search around again. MmeW; Yes I have tried with out success. Perhaps, I am not doing it properly. I depress control and hold it while I depress "'", then I depress e or a but nothing happens.

VoiretPouvoir - Jean-Gabriel Ganascia

Control plus ' results in a no print. I'm just about halfway through Les Peregrines and if you haven't found a cheap copy by the time I finish I'll be happy to send you mine.

Are you Eloise or someone else? Justin: Are you on a Windows machine If so.. I am teaching a French friend of mine the basics and that's good because I am teaching her on a PC and it took a while to get her not to be so "controlling" on the keyboard. Roslyn, I am only MmeW what my students used to call me and thank you so much for your generous offer, but when I do a book for SN I've only done two I do drastic things to them because I have a memory like a sieve and if I want to discuss them after the fact, I have to mark them like crazy.

I'm sure I'll be able to find one? I just picked the one from Powell Books because I have such fond memories of that bookstore, which I visited with yearbook students when we were at a JEA conference. I may change my mind if things close up, but so far I think there are possibilities. Bonjour mes amis de Grenade en Espagne. For having been given such a high honour in France, Jeanne Bourin just had to have had the respect of the Academia in this very cartesian country. Hola Justin, just as you said it is an easy read, the story transports you and you feel like if you are walking with them on the Crusades as the daily concerns of each character within the family is described in minute detail.

I will try and come back. I have been able to make the character map work but the "control ' " has not yet given way to my touch. I will continue to try. It was nice to hear from Eloise, I know she will be much help for everyone when she gets back. All the way from Espagna! How is it there?

How fun to see you here and Mme, and now Roslyn, does this mean you won't be joining us after all? I hope not! I am fascinated by the Crusades and hope to pick up a lot of interesting historical fact here. Dust off those old French dictionaries, All, and join right in!

I intend to finish the book and find it moderately entertaining but can't pretend to be truly enthusiastic about it partly because of its heavily religious orientation. As you know I am not a Christian. It's possible to see the Crusades as a succession of brutal massacres rather rhan as a holy war, depending on one's point of view.

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I think some of the historical detail is interesting and want to read more about the period. What do you think will be points worth discussing in the book? I don't know, Ros, because I haven't read it yet, since it's scheduled for September I like to wait and be a little fresher if I can read: my mind won't cooperate this far in advance hahahaha and I leave Monday for Europe so I won't have a chance before then, however, just from what you've said I am already intrigued.

We sort of pride ourselves here in the Books in having discussions which can discuss all the points of view in any book and certainly the Crusades and the reasons for them will be of great interest and coridal, I trust, debate, no matter what religion a person personally espouses, this should be great fun, I think.

I am looking forward, actually, to seeing all the perspectives on the Crusades and I promise not to mention, even once, Monty Python and the Holy Grail. Not even once. It's amazing how many times the Crusades turn up in literature too, it's quite an intriguing period, to me. Your remarks have whetted my appetite but it's too big to lug on Eurail so I'll hit it when I get back in July.

I don't want to discuss the book now but I'm very happy to hear that you are going to be with us and that you want to read more about the period, that in itself seems promising, to me. I'm having a problem probably simply solved. I bookmarked this site, but it always comes up to the first page. Is there a way to do this with bookmarking?

My second attempt from alibris was cancelled. Maybe I will try bookstores directly. MME W: A bookmark or favorite will always take you to the exact "page" you bookmarked. That's why that method is not suggested here at SN. If you would click on Subscribe instead, when you come to SN and click Check Subscriptions, you'll be taken to the first new post since you were there last. Another way is to simply come to Books and Literature and come to this discussion manually. Clicking on it from the Main Books page, will bring you to the first new post since you were here last Thank you, Jane, and thank you, Mme, for those tricks!

I will put them in the heading. You can't do those yellow happy and sad faces on SeniorNet, about the best you can do is and ginny. I think I've got it. That must have been what I did last time. We shall see where it comes up when things are going fast and furious. Mme W: Just be aware that you will be missing posts by using that method. If 35 people post since you were in a discussion you've so bookmarked and you use a bookmark and are taken to the last page of posts, you may miss the intervening 30 or so posts and see only the last 5 or however many show on your screen.

If you want to use bookmarks and yet not miss others posts, you'll need to bookmark the last page of messages you read every time ,ie, change the bookmark each time you've read everything in the discussion to that page. That is the same effect as reading a discussion and then coming back to where you left off by navigating to the discussion through the folder or by using subscriptions.

Thank you, Jane, for that explanation of the difference in the "bookmark" and the "subscription. I went to the home page on SeniorNet for those of you who don't know how to do this and made IT the page my browser opens to automatically. Then I click on the Discussions and it takes me to all the SN discussions.

From there I can pick and choose and I always choose Books and Literature. I think you miss a lot if you don't and I hate something else jerking me around and making me go somewhere when I want to choose for myself. Jane is working on a chart that will show how to get the accent marks up for French and Spanish, stay tuned, it will be very useful, thank you, Mme, and Jane! In post 6, MmeW posted a "chart for accents" clickable.

Guess what! Use this process to set your keyboard to do them in only 2 strokes! On the start menu, go to settings then control panel, choose keyboard then language then properties and click on the small arrow in the layout box right side you should see United States International as one of the choices, click on it and then click on ok and ok again. Just make sure to hit the space bar if you want the apostrophe or quote marks etc. I just realized that the chart link I gave in my first post on this stuff applies to MS Word; I just assumed that it would transfer over Mac does.

The numbers I gave above are html. I've read about the international keyboard thing, but I think it would drive me crazy trying to remember to space before the comma. Third time may be the charm? I think I have LP on order, this time directly from Powell bookstore. As has been mentioned, there are a number of ways to do the accent marks It's whatever works well for each individual.

Capitals are made with same code MmeW: You asked about sad and happy faces. As Ginny said, the software here doesn't do those colored, animated ones you see at some websites. We're left to sometimes trying to use special fonts, but whether or not one is successful depends on the fonts on your own machine For example, if you have Wingdings as a font see your Character map You also, of course, have to code for that font. Other wingdings include J where the keystroke in the wingdings font is J.

Others are the following keystrokes after you've coded for the wingdings font. If you don't have the wingdings font on your computer, or if others don't have it on theirs, they'll see the keystroke or whatever else their default shows for that keystroke. C [I hope! Jane, Thanks! C You have no idea what you have unleashed!

Ah lookit at all you guys, many thanks, Theron and Jane and many thanks Jane for the neat chart! I have a feeling we have unleashed a "Smiling Mme" for the Millenium! Yep, Ginny, that's the best we can do Bonsoir mes amis. I have to laugh about all those accents. My son-in-law just downloaded something and all I have to do to switch from English to French is "alt shift" and bingo I have all my accents and when I go back to English I do the same thing.

Here in Granada they have the main ones and I use those to write home. I continue to enjoy my stay here and if anyone cares to read my experiences, I write about Spain in the Quebec discussion in Geographic communities. I just love it here. Bonsoir Eloise, Happy to see that you are enjoying yourself so much. My copy of Les Peregines was shipped today. So I should have it in a few days. I will read it but still am not sure if I will be able to participate here. I have my computer set for the International Keyboard.

So all I do is type the accents and add a space. It is so convenient to use when you use alot of accent marks. My Les Ps arrived a few days ago third time was the charm! Mme W: It's great you have it finally. I've not started to look yet Bonjour, I have been home for a month and had to write reports, but on the 4th August I will leave for PEI for 2 weeks, then I will stay home.

I bought my book today. I will bring it with me and enjoy it all over again. I am looking forward to this discussion. Bonjour, Eloise, how nice to see you here again, Joan G! How nice to see you'll be joining us, too! I'm deep in the book now and looking up every other word, it's a challenge and a gas and I'm enjoying the entire experience mightily. It's fun even IF you have no earthly idea what it's saying. I've just come from Carcassonne and have the MOST fun thing to share with you, Carcassonne's history includes the Crusades and I bought for some reason a pack of cards and each one is different with a different scene from the history of Carcassonne explained in French.

I have asked Pat W to help me alter this heading so that we can include that and some of the extraordinary illustrations that I've found in a book called The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusdaes. A dear friend gave that book to me and it's a treasure. I urge you to get this book from your library just to feast on the illustrations. I will be putting up Crusade information pretty soon, there were 5 major Crusades and about a million minor ones and they all had different purposes, I think I can outline and name each one and our Tech Teams put it up in a link, it's fascinating.

While at Carcassonne we attended a sound and light show which took one character, Simon de Montfort and examined by asking him as he rose up as a ghost what his real motivation was? It's crudely done but it seems to stick in your mind for some reason, anyway I think we can all come out of this MUCH better informed and enjoy the trip, but I'm telling you, the old Larousse or new in my case is already very well worn. Do you all who are more fluent than I am forsee tearing thru this as if it were English or dragging somewhat?

Already the turns of phrase amuse and enchant. Hopefully we can do a line a day? Ginny - I am all for going with the flow. See what people want after we start. No need to set a pace is there? I notice that the French Bourin uses is not comptemporary sometimes, Don't let that discourage you. Some words for clothing and equipment are no longer used, such as 'Bliaud', a tunic, tbat is often mentioned. Are you going to post excerpts? I still love it even if I read it a few years back.

No I don't think we can post excerpts because of copyright, Eloise, although I'm not sure on that, but am open to any and all ideas on how to take this, and I DO like your thoughts on a leisurly pace, prepare for whining from SC. I am glad we can go slowly, thank you for saying it's not all contemporary, I truly thought I was losing it for a while, haahahah but once you persevere you begin to get the drift.

I hope.

Les Misérables - Tome 1 - Victor Hugo - Livre Audio Francais - Audio Book French

I'm getting SOME drift anyway, hahahaha, I do like the cast of characters outlined in the front of the book, that's helpful. Some of the constructions are quite strange to me, I can't decide if they are intended in humor or not, maybe once we start we can put THEM in the heading. As we can see I will probably be the slowest in the room, but I think it's a fun challenge anyway, and am looking forward to it. With so many fluent French speakers here I have no fear of failing to understand it, that's for sure! Hi, all! Thanks to my son and grandchildren, we certainly got our money? I need to go back and reread the cruise section of the Corrections.

It was wonderful being cool for a change?? It was fun to read a John Straley mystery set in the Alaska ports as I visited them. Peregrination was the word of the day yesterday on dictionary. J I love Carcassonne! Interesting area down there with some fascinating history. How come suddenly my message is sans serif huge print instead of normal????

I've tried everything to fix it. I did manage to change the first paragraph to Times, but then it reverts back to Helvetica or whatever. And I can't change the size at all! Welcome back, welcome back there's nothing you can do about that font, this is something new? If you want your fonts to stay the same, you need to type in the font and color you want and not leave any spaces at all, that is type everything in one huge block with br br in brackets as the sole paragraphing.

I don't do it and so you see my fonts changing, ER.. I'm sure this is a glitch, if you want Times you type it in once and then type as I have described above! In this new book I have it says that in England up till the '50's I believe it said there were exactly 6 scholars in the whole country who were experts on the Crusades, but apparently now the tide has turned and people are more interested. That's interesting, we're, once again, in the forefront of whatever is happening in the world, even reading an older book. That's US!

Come on down those of you who have a vague memory of French , and have fun with us, we have retired French teachers and native French speakers and people like me who don't know from You're pioneers here, those of you who are assembling for our own Crudade into this new frontier!


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Ginny, I have never had to do that before.? How strange. Or maybe I never noticed it before. How do you change the size? Mme W. Are you using Netscape as your browser? If so, that would appear to be the difficulty. Since SN upgraded the software, Netscape acts "quirky. After that it appears to be larger and a different font face. That seems to hold the font face tag and the bolder look in some font faces. I don't think the size still shows in Netscape. Those spaces seem to cancel the tag I used spaces on this post because it's easier for me to read in the posting box, but I had to repeat my font face tag each time before the paragraph.

Ginny, as I was browsing through 'Les peregrines' one young woman mentions how beautiful 'La Chanson de Roland' was. I thought about you. I saw that Eloise! I think it would be fun to read that, too, I'm still working on getting stuff up in the heading, don't anybody despair! Thahnk you Jane for that information, we appreciate it.

Jane, then my problem is Netscape. Thanks for identifying it. This is so frustrating! I hate reading big print. I guess I'll just have to proof my posts well in Word. Oh, my, Mme I'll assume you said something nice above since I can't begin to read it. First off, from Carcassonne, site of the I think it was, Crusade, we have two things, one a photo of the inner and outer walls and the other a set of playing cards with the history of Carcassonne in French, no less, and they are simply charming. I've put not the first one but about the 4th in the sequence because the straw soldiers strike me as ingenious, don't they you?

There are 42 cards in the series and I'm hoping you enjoy them a lot as well as the illustrations which will revolve in the lower left hand corner, most of them from the Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades.


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As well we have some great links in the heading, please feel free to submit anything you'd like in the way of links, etc. And the title now has me wondering about Peregrine Falcons??!!?? This is difficult French, for me, to read, do any of you have any suggestions as to how we can handle this strange vocab? Glad I discovered this site, but where do I find Les Peregrines en francais?

My local bookstores don't have it. I was in Carcassonne last summer. Obviously the city has been named after Dame Carcas, one of the few French heroines in history.

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That city has been completely renovated to look as it did in the Middle Ages. You can probably find it on a website in France wanadoo. There were 9 crusades that I remember, starting in with the Pope's Council in Clermont-Ferrand - 70 kms north of my hometown - in the middle of France. There were also 2 "children's" crusades, which you don't find too much in the history books. I think it was a great political idea, rally against the "Infidels" - and around the Roman Catholic Church - and take your feuding elsewhere.

The Middle Ages are a fascinating period to me; but, in Carcassonne I deplored the tourism attack, all the plastic swords and helmets and assorted "souvenirs" everywhere. Dame Carcas would be astounded! If you want to read La Chanson de Roland in French, good lluck, it's not easy even for the French, we had to read it in school as one of the great medieval classics.

Yes yes, welcome, we are SOOO glad to see you here, welcome!!!!!!! OH you, too, to Carcassonne? Did you get in the exhibit where Simon de Montfort rises up? It was crude but strangely effective! Yes, we will need all the help we can get here, how are you all I will be the slowest and most pitiful of the bunch, but look at it this way, you'll all feel very competent when you see how pitiful I really AM do we think Les Peregrines means "the Pilgrims?

And so I wonder which this is! You are so right on Dame Carcas, I am putting the tale of Carcassonne up in the cards, but I, as you have noted did not start with Card I and I need to because of course the town is named after her, and the cards tell the tale, I was so struck by her and those straw soldiers, I had to start with them, but I'll go back. Our Eloise is out of town, and our Mme is likewise visiting friends but we all welcome you here and hope you can join us August 1 I hope I can get past page 1 by August 1 hahahaahah ginny. Let me tell you all about this second great book, in addition to The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, , which is just wonderful, but here's another one in paperback as well, Medieval Folklore: A Guide a Myths, Legends, Tales and Customs.

Now this one has almost no illustrattions, it's in the form of a dictionary, very succinct entries, and yet it's like your experience as a child, with the World Books? You'll read ONE entry and then there's another interesting one and you'll read that, and pretty soon you're reading a third and it's fascinating, quite short and sweet but you learn a lor. It was fascinating. Then I read the meaning of "Legend," Thomas Becket, gargoyles: what they really are and what they were supposed to do, and was shocked to see the church which we overlook when we stay in Paris, St. Germain l'Auxerois, mentioned for a particularly strange one!

I have tons of photographs of the gargoyles staring in my hotel window hahahahaha. Am now reading Pilgrimages which is why I ask about the title here? I'm back early because of my friend's mother became seriously ill and she wanted to be with her. Ginny, I read the book again once more and this time I saw in it things I had not seen the first time around. My computer is being repaired and I am using my SIL's portable and it does not have accents. Peregrinations means to travel, a series of incessant comings and goings, shifting, moving, displacement in several places.

This definition comes from the Larousse dictionary. It has nothing to do with Pilgrims. I plan to be part of this discussion using whatever miserable French I can muster up. I have Les Peregrines by my side given to me by a very good friend and a pocket edition of Larousse's French-English and English-French. I clicked in on all the links in the Heading and, after reading them, became even more enthused. Exactly when do we begin? Bonjour, Monsieur Robby!!! Quel plaisir de vous voir ici!! That's about it en Francais for me, what a joy to see you here, we commence on Septenber 1, and Eliose, thank you for that definition, so they were NOT on a pilgrimage, I appreciate that distinction, please keep MOI straight, I had told somebody else it meant wandering when I began thinking of the Peregrine falcon and then noticed an entry under Pligrminage in the Medieval Folklore book in which Dante referred to the peregrines as "pilgrims," so naturally assumed and we know what that makes out of me.

Welcome, Everyone, please do NOT be put off with the specialized words, we will try to get them in the heading here asap, it's like reading Casear? They will be used again! So we "begin" eleven days ago? What have I missed? I haven't even opened the cover. I believe that's a typo in Ginny's post. All the schedules and the top title bar here all say September 1, , for the start of this discussion.

I was getting ready to cancel out "Story of Civilization" and close up my private practice. I was most impressed and enlightened by the article in the Crisis Magazine listed in the links in the heading. I sat outside on my porch and read it through twice. It really requires being studied. Furthermore, it helped me to better understand what is going on in the world today. Sorry, sorry, my brain is in the deep freeze, hahahaha don't cancel your practice, Robby, Jane is right, September 1 is the day!!

Well with that recommendation I shall print it out and read it again, too! Sorry folks, I still have a lot to learn. MsSuzy - If you email me your full name, I have your address I will send you a copy of Peregrines that I found for you. Robby - I will see you in S of C. Robby, I'm glad the Crisis article was worthwhile. I have a terrible habit of finding info on the web and then saving it to read later because it's so dense. I'll print myself up a copy? I'm glad to see you all haven't taken off running yet cuz I haven't started due to lack of memory and I'm not talking computer.

I think I'll start about the 15th. Les Ps should be very edifying, I think. I'll check in at SofC, but being a bear of very little brain, I doubt that I'll have anything to add. By the way, Ginny, the Troyat novel mentions the St. Germain d'Auxerrois church, and as my bus went by I could picture the novel setting but not close enough to see gargoyles. You're back, what does the Troyat novel say about the church? It was in front of the church, apparently, that the famous St. The church is full of grotesques and gargoyles, and has one with the stretched mouth looking right in my friend's window.

Here, for those of you who have not seen it, is the view from ny own window in the Hotel de la Place du Louvre in Paris, that's the Louvre on the left and the church of St. Germain l'Auxerrois. If you are looking for a good hotel in Paris, centrally located, with rooms named for artists, you want this hotel. I did not get all the gargoyles photos this time, as I've taken their photos before but my friend did, and when she gets settled in the new school season I'll put a few in for you, quite interesting, actually.

Here's the guy who stared in MY window that photo above was taken from my window: a handsome gargoyle of Paris clearly showing the rain spout feature ginny. I am really worried about the inadequacies of my French after reading here about 'poor' French. Ginny and Robby, when I read your French, it is quite good. So don't wait for perfection, it does not exist. Troyat is one of my favorite authors. I will have to participate with a dictionary by my side, so I hope we will move forward slowly. At the beginning of the book, there are several words that are no longer commonly used such as 'ost' that I had to look up.

Ost is a feudal army. But as the book progresses we become familiar with those ancient words. I am really getting more enthusiastic about this Yes, Robby, you got that right, about a page a week? But I know with the helpful and enthusiastic support of our group here even the slowest of us that would be MOI can enjoy.

What DO you all think is a good schedule, shall we start and see if we can even get thru a page a week? I think the analogy to Caesar is apt, Caesar was fond of different words and structures, and was in the habit of using them over and over, I'm not sure if Bourin does that but it seems a normal thing to do, after a while you are cheerfully coasting along on your new vocab.

Please bring here your strange words so the others can pass looking THAT word up! Please note that French-Canadian Eloise says she is "worried about the inadequacies of her French. Robby - We all would like to know French better but to study it takes time. I only meant that even if French is my first language, it is not as good as if I had studied it in France we all know that. Ginny, I don't know if you plan to write exerpts like it is done in other book discussions so that we can discuss a particular page or chapter, otherwise how will we know what is being referred to?

Eloise, thank you for those terms, you can see I have managed amazingly enough to put them in the heading above under the photo of Carcassonne on the left and will put up any and all everybody will submit, many thanks! You asked this: Ginny, I don't know if you plan to write exerpts like it is done in other book discussions so that we can discuss a particular page or chapter, otherwise how will we know what is being referred to?

We have lots of different ways of doing book discussions here in the Books, but THIS one discussion is breaking a mold? You all are pioneers here and I would like to hear from you how you would like this to be handled? For instance, how many pages do you reasonably think we can look at in one week? I would like to hear from all of you on this one? We have people here of vastly differing ability in the French language, we have native French speakers and people like me who will look up, at first, almost every other word.

And we want this experience to be fun for Toute La Monde if that's right so I need to hear from you in the first week, will you want to try, for instance, a page a day? Or how many pages in one week? I CAN if needed, put a passage in the heading but if you all have the book I think I would rather save my energy and simply note the page number?

I welcome you ALL, Pioneers, All, to this first and hopefully not last readings in French, please let me know how fast you want to take this, and please, those of you fluent, have patience with those of us who may, by the end of the year, be reading like CHAMPS! How fast? We have receipts for making all sorts of cakes and puddings, fattening hens and geese, preserving figs during winter; as also medical prescriptions for the cure of various diseases, both of man and beast.

Sometimes, however, his cures for diseases are not medical recipes, but sacrifices, atonements, or charms. The prime of all is his remedy for a luxation or fracture. The most remarkable feature in the work of Cato, is its [pg 16] total want of arrangement. It is divided, indeed, into chapters, but the author, apparently, had never taken the trouble of reducing his precepts to any sort of method, or of following any general plan.

The hundred and sixty-two chapters, of which his work consists, seem so many rules committed to writing, as the daily labours of the field suggested. He gives directions about the vineyard, then goes to his corn-fields, and returns again to the vineyard. His treatise was, therefore, evidently not intended as a regular or well-composed book, but merely as a journal of incidental observations.

That this was its utmost pretensions, is farther evinced by the brevity of the precepts, and deficiency of all illustration or embellishment. Of the style, he of course would be little careful, as his Memoranda were intended for the use only of his family and slaves. It is therefore always simple,—sometimes even rude; but it is not ill adapted to the subject, and suits our notion of the severe manners of its author, and character of the ancient Romans.

Besides this book on agriculture, Cato left behind him various works, which have almost entirely perished. He left a hundred and fifty orations 19 , which were existing in the time of Cicero, though almost entirely neglected, and a book on military discipline 20 , both of which, if now extant, would be highly interesting, as proceeding from one who was equally distinguished in the camp and forum.

Nearly a third part of these orations were pronounced in his own defence.

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF BOOKS RELEVANT TO COURT HISTORY

He had been about fifty times accused 21 , and as often acquitted. When charged with a capital crime, in the 85th year of his age, he pleaded his own cause, and betrayed no failure in memory, no decline of vigour, and no faltering of voice By his readiness, and pertinacity, and bitterness, he completely wore out his adversaries 23 , and earned the reputation of being, if not the most eloquent, at least the most stubborn speaker among the Romans. It was delivered in opposition to the tribune Valerius, who proposed its abrogation, and affords us some notion of his style and manner, since, if not copied by the historian from his book of orations, it was doubtless adapted by him to the character of Cato, and his mode of speaking.

Aulus Gellius cites, as equally distinguished for its eloquence and energy, a passage in his speech on the division of spoil among the soldiery, in which he complains of their unpunished peculation and licentiousness. One of his most celebrated harangues was that in favour of the Rhodians, the ancient allies of the Roman people, who had fallen under the suspicion of affording aid to Perseus, during the second Macedonian war.

The oration was delivered after the overthrow of that monarch, when the Rhodian envoys were introduced into the Senate, in order to explain the conduct of their countrymen, and to deprecate the vengeance of the Romans, by throwing the odium of their apparent hostility on the turbulence of a few factious individuals. It was pronounced in answer to those Senators, who, after hearing the supplications of the Rhodians, were for declaring war against them; and it turned chiefly on the ancient, long-tried fidelity of that people,—taking particular advantage of the circumstance, that the assistance rendered to Perseus had not been a national act, proceeding from a public decree of the people.

Tiro, the freedman of Cicero, wrote a long and elaborate criticism on this oration. To the numerous censures it contains, Aulus Gellius has replied at considerable length, and has blamed Tiro for singling out from a speech so rich, and so happily connected, small and insulated portions, as objects of his reprehensive satire. All the various topics, he adds, which are enlarged on in this oration, if they could have been introduced with more perspicuity, method, and harmony, could not have been delivered with more energy and strength The Greeks themselves acknowledge, that the chief beauty of composition results from the frequent use of those forms of expression, [pg 18] which they call tropes, and of those varieties of language and sentiment, which they call figures; but it is almost incredible with what copiousness, and with what variety, they are all employed by Cato Aulus Gellius has instituted a comparison of Caius Gracchus, Cato, and Cicero, in passages where these three orators declaimed against the same species of atrocity—the illegal scourging of Roman citizens; and Gellius, though he admits that Cato had not reached the splendour, harmony, and pathos of Cicero, considers him as far superior in force and copiousness to Gracchus But the loss of the seven books, De Originibus, which he commenced in his vigorous old age, and finished just before his death, must ever be deeply deplored by the historian and antiquary.

Cato is said to have begun to inquire into the history, antiquities, and language of the Roman people, with a view to counteract the influence of the Greek taste, introduced by the Scipios; and in order to take from the Greeks the honour of having colonized Italy, he attempted to discover on the Latin soil the traces of ancient national manners, and an indigenous civilization. The first book of the valuable work De Originibus, as we are informed by Cornelius Nepos, in his short life of Cato, contained the exploits of the kings of Rome. Cato was the first author who attempted to fix the era of the foundation of Rome, which he calculated in his Origines, and determined it to have been in the first year of the 7th Olympiad.

In order to discover this epoch, he had recourse to the memoirs of the Censors, in which it was noted, that the taking of Rome by the Gauls, was years after the expulsion of the kings. By adding this period to the aggregate duration of the reigns of the kings, he found that the amount answered to the first of the 7th Olympiad. This is the computation followed by Dionysius of Halicarnassus, in his great work on Roman antiquities.

It is probably as near the truth as we can hope to arrive; but even in the time of Cato, the calculated duration of the reigns of the kings was not founded on any ancient monuments then extant, or on the testimony of any credible historian. The second and third books treated of the origin of the different states of Italy, whence the whole work has received the name of Origines.

The fourth and [pg 19] fifth books comprehended the history of the first and second Punic wars; and in the two remaining books, the author discussed the other campaigns of the Romans till the time of Ser. Galba, who overthrew the Lusitanians. In his account of these later contests, Cato merely related the facts, without mentioning the names of the generals or leaders; but though he has omitted this, Pliny informs us that he did not forget to take notice, that the elephant which fought most stoutly in the Carthaginian army was called Surus, and wanted one of his teeth In this same work he incidentally treated of all the wonderful and admirable things which existed in Spain and Italy.

Some of his orations, too, as we learn from Livy, were incorporated into it, as that for giving freedom to the Lusitanian hostages; and Plutarch farther mentions, that he omitted no opportunity of praising himself, and extolling his services to the state. The work, however, exhibited great industry and learning, and, had it descended to us, would unquestionably have thrown much light on the early periods of Roman history and the antiquities of the different states of Italy.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus, himself a sedulous inquirer into antiquities, bears ample testimony to the research and accuracy of that part which treats of the origin of the ancient Italian cities. The author lived at a time which was favourable to this investigation. Though the Samnites, Etruscans, and Sabines, had been deprived of their independence, they had not lost their monuments or records of their history, their individuality and national manners.

Cicero praises the simple and concise style of the Origines, and laments that the work was neglected in his day, in consequence of the inflated manner of writing which had been recently adopted; in the same manner as the tumid and ornamented periods of Theopompus had lessened the esteem for the concise and unadorned narrative of Thucydides, or as the lofty eloquence of Demosthenes impaired the relish for the extreme attic simplicity of Lysias The few remains first collected by Riccobonus, and published at the end of his Treatise on History, Basil, , are believed to be genuine.

They have been enlarged by Ausonius Popma, and added by him, with notes, to the other writings of Cato, published at Leyden in Any rudeness of style and language which appears either in the orations of Cato, or in his agricultural and historical works, cannot be attributed to total carelessness or neglect of the graces of composition, as he was the first person in Rome who treated of oratory as an art 32 , in a tract entitled De Oratore ad Filium. Cato was also the first of his countrymen who wrote on the subject of medicine Rome had existed for years without professional physicians Like all semi-barbarous people, they believed that maladies were to be cured by the special interposition of superior beings, and that religious ceremonies were more efficacious for the recovery of health than remedies of medical skill.

Deriving, as they did, much of their worship from the Etruscans, they probably derived from them also the practice of attempting to overcome disease by magic and incantation. The Augurs and Aruspices were thus the most ancient physicians of Rome. In epidemic distempers the Sibylline books were consulted, and the cures they prescribed were superstitious ceremonies.

We have seen that it was to free the city from an attack of this sort that scenic representations were first introduced at Rome. During the progress of another epidemic infliction a temple was built to Apollo 35 ; and as each periodic pestilence naturally abated in course of time, faith was confirmed in the efficacy of the rites which were resorted to. Every one has heard of the pomp wherewith Esculapius was transported under the form of a serpent, from Epidaurus to an islet in the Tiber, which was thereafter consecrated to that divine physician.

The apprehension of diseases raised temples to Febris and Tussis, and [pg 21] other imaginary beings belonging to the painful family of death in order to avert the disorders which they were supposed to inflict. It was perceived, however, that religious professions and lustrations and lectisterniums were ineffectual for the cure of those complaints, which, in the 6th century, luxury began to exasperate and render more frequent at Rome.

At length, in , Archagatus, a free-born Greek, arrived in Italy, where he practised medicine professionally as an art, and received in return for his cures the endearing appellation of Carnifex But though Archagatus was the first who practised medicine, Cato was the first who wrote of diseases and their treatment as a science, in his work entitled Commentarius quo Medetur Filio, Servis, Familiaribus. In this book of domestic medicine—duck, pigeons, and hare, were the foods he chiefly recommended to the sick His remedies were principally extracted from herbs; and colewort, or cabbage, was his favourite cure The recipes, indeed, contained in his work on agriculture, show that his medical knowledge did not exceed that which usually exists among a semi-barbarous race, and only extended to the most ordinary simples which nature affords.

Cato hated the compound drugs introduced by the Greek physicians—considering these foreign professors of medicine as the opponents of his own system. Such, indeed, was his antipathy, that he believed, or pretended to believe, that they had entered into a league to poison all the barbarians, among whom they classed the Romans. It is evident that they were still esteemed in the time of Pliny, who expresses the same fears as the Censor, lest hot baths and potions should render his countrymen effeminate, and corrupt their manners But it does not seem certain what became of Archagatus and his followers.

The author of the Diogene Moderne, as cited by Tiraboschi, says that Archagatus was stoned to death 41 , but the literary historian who quotes him doubts of his having any sufficient authority for the assertion. Whether the physicians were comprehended in the general sentence of banishment pronounced on the learned Greeks, or were excepted from it, has been the subject of a great literary controversy in modern Italy and in France The only other work of Cato which I shall mention, is the Carmen de Moribus.

This, however, was not written in verse, as might be supposed from the title. Misled by the title, some critics have erroneously assigned to the Censor the Disticha de Moribus, now generally attributed to Dionysius Cato, who lived, according to Scaliger in the age of Commodus and Septimius Severus On agriculture, has descended to us more entire than that of Cato on the same subject; yet it does not appear to be complete.

In the early times of the republic, the Romans, like the ancient Greeks, being constantly menaced with the incursions of enemies, indulged little in the luxury of expensive and ornamental villas. Even that of Scipio Africanus, the rival and contemporary of Cato the Censor, and who in many other respects anticipated the refinements of a later age, was of the simplest structure.

This philosopher paid a visit to a friend who resided in it during the age of Nero, and he afterwards described it in one of his epistles with many expressions of wonder and admiration at the frugality of the great Africanus When, however, the scourge of war was removed from their immediate vicinity, agriculture and gardening were no longer exercised by the Romans as in the days of the Censor, when great crops of grain were raised for profit, and fields of onions sown for the subsistence of the labouring servants.

The patricians now became fond of ornamental gardens, fountains, terraces, artificial wildernesses, and grottos, groves of laurel for shelter in winter, and oriental planes for shade in summer. Matters, in short, were fast approaching to the state described in one of the odes of Horace—. Agriculture, however, still continued to be so respectable an employment, that its practice was not considered unworthy the friend of Cicero and Pompey, nor its precepts undeserving to be delivered by one who was indisputably the first scholar of his age—who was renowned for his profound erudition and thorough insight into the laws, the literature, and antiquities of his country,—and who has been hailed by Petrarch as the third great luminary of Rome, being only inferior in lustre to Cicero and Virgil:—.

Varro was born in the th year of Rome, and was descended of an ancient senatorial family. It is probable that his youth, and even the greater part of his manhood, were spent in literary pursuits, and in the acquisition of that stupendous knowledge, which has procured to him the appellation of the most learned of the Romans, since his name does not appear in the civil or military history of his country, till the year , when he was Consul along with Cassius Varus.

In , he served under Pompey, in his war against the pirates, in which he commanded the Greek ships Hispania Ulterior was specially confided to his protection, and two legions were placed under his command. Varro appears to have been little qualified to cope with such an adversary. One of the legions deserted in his own sight, and his retreat to Cadiz, where he had meant to retire, [pg 25] having been cut off, he surrendered at discretion, with the other, in the vicinity of Cordova On his return to Italy he withdrew from all political concerns, and indulged himself during the remainder of his life in the enjoyment of literary leisure.

If we cannot benefit the commonwealth in the forum or the senate, let us endeavour, at least, to do so by our studies and writings; and, after the example of the most learned among the ancients, contribute to the welfare of our country, by useful disquisitions concerning laws and government. The contemplative hours you spend at your Tusculan villa, are, in my estimation, indeed, what alone deserves to be called life Varro passed the greatest portion of his time in the various villas which he possessed in Italy. The latter place had been among the earliest Greek establishments in Italy, and was long regarded as pre-eminent in power and [pg 26] population.

It spread prosperity over the adjacent coasts; and its oracle, Sibyl, and temple, long attracted votaries and visitants. Its immediate vicinity was not even frequently selected as a situation for villas. Besides immense flocks of sheep in Apulia, and many horses in the Sabine district of Reate 54 , Varro had considerable farms both at his Cuman and Tusculan villas, the cultivation of which, no doubt, formed an agreeable relaxation from his severe and sedentary studies. He had also a farm at a third villa, where he occasionally resided, near the town of Casinum, in the territory of the ancient Volsci 55 , and situated on the banks of the Cassinus, a tributary stream to the Liris.

This stream, which was fifty-seven feet broad, and both deep and clear, with a pebbly channel, flowed through the middle of his delightful domains. A bridge, which crossed the river from the house, led directly to an island, which was a little farther down, at the confluence of the Cassinus with a rivulet called the Vinius Along the banks of the larger water there were spacious pleasure-walks which conducted to the farm; and near the place where they joined the fields, there was an extensive aviary Hoare, who says, that it stood close to Casinum, now St Germano: Some trifling remains still indicate its site; but its memory, he adds, will shortly survive only in the page of the historian Its lawless occupation by that profligate and blood-thirsty triumvir, on his return from his dissolute expedition to Capua, is introduced by Cicero into one of his Philippics, and forms a topic of the most eloquent and bitter invective.

The contrast which the orator draws between the character of Varro and that of Antony—between the noble and peaceful studies prosecuted in that delightful residence by the rightful proprietor, and the shameful debau[pg 27] cheries of the wretch by whom it had been usurped, forms a picture, to which it would be difficult to find a parallel in ancient or modern oratory. From the third hour, it was one continued scene of drinking, gambling, and uproar. The very roofs were to be pitied.

O, what a change of masters! But how can he be called its master? And, if master—gods! Marcus Varro made his house the abode of the muses, and a retreat for study—not a haunt for midnight debauchery. Whilst he was there, what were the subjects discussed—what the topics debated in that delightful residence? I will answer the question—The rights and liberties of the Roman people—the memorials of our ancestors—the wisdom resulting from reason combined with knowledge. But whilst you, Antony, was its occupant, for you cannot be called its master, every room rung with the cry of drunkenness—the pavements were swimming with wine, and the walls wet with riot.

Antony was not a person to be satisfied with robbing Varro of his property. This illustrious and blameless individual had now passed the age of seventy; and nothing can afford a more frightful proof of the sanguinary spirit which guided the councils of the triumvirs, than their devoting to the dagger of the hired assassin a man equally venerable by his years and character, and who ought to have been protected, if not by his learned labours, at least by his retirement, from such inhuman persecution. But, though doomed to death as a friend of law and liberty, his friends contended with each other for the dangerous honour of saving him.

Calenus having obtained the preference, carried him to his country-house, where Antony frequently came, without suspecting that it contained a proscribed inmate. Here Varro remained concealed till a special edict was issued by the consul, M. Plancus, under the triumviral seal, excepting him and Messala Corvinus from the general slaughter But though Varro thus passed in security the hour of danger, he was unable to save his library, which was placed in the garden of one of his villas, and fell into the hands of an illiterate soldiery.

After the battle of Actium, Varro resided in tranquillity at Rome till his decease, which happened in , when he was [pg 28] ninety years of age. The tragical deaths, however, of Pompey and Cicero, with the loss of others of his friends,—the ruin of his country,—the expulsion from his villas,—and the loss of those literary treasures, which he had stored up as the solace of his old age, and the want of which would be doubly felt by one who wished to devote all his time to study,—must have cast a deep shade over the concluding days of this illustrious scholar.

His wealth was restored by Augustus, but his books could not be supplied. It is not improbable, that the dispersion of this library, which impeded the prosecution of his studies, and prevented the composition of such works as required reference and consultation, may have induced Varro to employ the remaining hours of his life in delivering those precepts of agriculture, which had been the result of long experience, and which needed only reminiscence to inculcate.

It was some time after the loss of his books, and when he had nearly reached the age of eighty, that Varro composed the work on husbandry, as he himself testifies in the introduction. Wherefore, as you have bought a farm, which you are desirous to render profitable by tillage, and as you ask me to take this task upon me, I will try to advise you what must be done, not only during my stay here, but after my departure.

Varro talks of the Syrens and Sibyls,—invokes all the Roman deities, supposed to preside over rural affairs,—and enumerates all the Greek authors who had written on the subject of agriculture previous to his own time. The first of the three books which this agricultural treatise comprehends, is addressed, by Varro, to Fundanius, who had recently purchased a farm, in the management of which he wished to be instructed.

The information which Varro undertakes to give, is communicated in the form of dialogue. He feigns that, at the time appointed for rites to be performed in the sowing season, sementivis feriis, he went, by invitation of the priest, to the temple of Tellus. There he met his father-in-law, C. Fundanius, the knight Agrius, and Agrasius, a farmer of imposts, who were gazing on a map of Italy, painted on the inner walls of the temple. This introduces an eulogy on the soil and climate of that favoured region, and of its various abundant productions,—the Apulian wheat, the Venafrian olive, and the Falernian grape.

All this, again, leads to the inquiry, by what arts of agricultural skill and industry, aiding the luxuriant soil, it had reached such unexampled fecundity. These questions are referred to Licinius Stolo, and Tremellius Scrofa, who now joined the party, and who were well qualified to throw light on the interesting discussion—the first being of a family distinguished by the pains it had taken with regard to the Agrarian laws, and the second being well known for possessing one of the best cultivated farms in Italy.

Scrofa, too, had himself written on husbandry, as we learn from Columella; who says, that he had first rendered agriculture eloquent. This first book of Varro is accordingly devoted to rules for the cultivation of land, whether for the production of grain, pulse, olives, or vines, and the establishment necessary for a well-managed and lucrative farm; excluding from consideration what is strictly the business of the grazier and shepherd, rather than of the farmer. After some general observations on the object and end of agriculture, and the exposition of some general principles with regard to soil and climate, Scrofa and Stolo, who are the chief prolocutors, proceed to settle the size, as also the situation of the villa.

They recommend that it should be placed at the foot of a well-wooded hill, and open to the most healthful breeze. An eastern exposure seems to be preferred, as it will thus have shade in summer, and sun in winter. They farther advise, that it should not be placed in a hollow valley, as being there subject to storms and inundations; nor in front of a river, as that situation is cold in winter, and unwholesome in summer; nor in the vicinity of a marsh, where it would be liable to be infested with small insects, which, though invisible, enter the body by the mouth or nostrils, and occasion obstinate diseases.

Fundanius asks, what one ought to do who happens to inherit such a villa; and is answered, that he should sell it for whatever sum it may bring; and if it will bring nothing, he should abandon it. After this follow the subjects of enclosure—the necessary implements of husbandry—the number of servants and oxen required—and the soil in which different crops should be sown.

We have then [pg 30] a sort of calendar, directing what operations ought to be performed in each season of the year. Thus, the author recommends draining betwixt the winter solstice and approach of the zephyrs, which was reckoned to be about the beginning of February. The sowing of grain should not be commenced before the autumnal equinox, nor delayed after the winter solstice; because the seeds which are sown previous to the equinox spring up too quickly, and those sown subsequent to the solstice scarcely appear above ground in forty days.

A taste for flowers had begun to prevail at Rome in the time of Varro; he accordingly recommends their cultivation, and points out the seasons for planting the lily, violet and crocus. The remainder of the first book of Varro is well and naturally arranged. He considers his subject from the choice of the seed, till the grain has sprung up, ripened, been reaped, secured, and brought to market. The same course is followed in treating of the vine and the olive. The party in the temple immediately separate.

The subject of agriculture, strictly so called, having been discussed in the first book, Varro proceeds in the second, addressed to Niger Turranus, to treat of the care of flocks and cattle, De Re Pecuaria. As in the former book, the instruction is delivered in the shape of dialogue. Varro being at the house of a person called Cossinius, his host refuses to let him depart till he explain to him the origin, the dignity, and the art of pasturage. Our author undertakes to satisfy him as to the first and second points, but as to the third, he refers him to Scrofa, another of the guests, who had the management of extensive sheep-walks in the territory of the Brutii.

Varro makes but a pedantic figure in the part which he has modestly taken to himself. Scrofa, in commencing his part of the dialogue, divides the animals concerning which he is to treat into three classes: 1. With regard to all animals, four things are to be considered in purchasing or procuring them—their age, shape, pedigree, and price. After they have been purchased, there are other four things to be attended to—feeding, breeding, rearing, and curing distempers. According to this methodical division of the subject, Scrofa proceeds to give rules for choosing the best of the different species of animals which he has enumerated, as also directions for tending them after they have been bought, and turning them to the best profit.

The qualities specified as best in an ox may perhaps astonish a modern grazier; but it must be remembered, that they are applicable to the capacity for labour, not of carrying beef. Hogs were fed by the Romans on acorns, beans, and barley; and, like our own, indulged freely in the luxury of mire, which, Varro says, is as refreshing to them as the bath to human creatures.

The Romans, however, did not rear, as we do, a solitary ill-looking pig in a sty, but possessed great herds, sometimes amounting to the number of two or three hundred. Flocks of sheep, which pastured during the winter in Apulia, were driven to a great distance from that region, to pass the summer in Samnium; and mules were led from the champaign grounds of Rosea, at certain seasons, to the high Gurgurian mountains.

With much valuable and curious information on all these various topics, there are interspersed a great many strange superstitions and fables, or what may be called vulgar errors, as that swine breathe by the ears instead of the mouth or nostrils—that when a wolf gets hold of a sow, the first thing he does is to [pg 32] plunge it into cold water, as his teeth cannot otherwise bear the heat of the flesh—that on the shore of Lusitania, mares conceive from the winds, but their foals do not live above three years—and what is more inexplicable, one of the speakers in the dialogue asserts, that he himself had seen a sow in Arcadia so fat, that a field-mouse had made a comfortable nest in her flesh, and brought forth its young.

This book concludes with what forms the most profitable part of pasturage—the dairy and sheep-shearing. The third book, which is by far the most interesting and best written in the work, treats de villicis pastionibus, which means the provisions, or moderate luxuries, which a plain farmer may procure, independent of tillage or pasturage,—as the poultry of his barn-yard—the trouts in the stream, by which his farm is bounded—and the game, which he may enclose in parks, or chance to take on days of recreation. If others of the agricultural writers have been more minute with regard to the construction of the villa itself, it is to Varro we are chiefly indebted for what lights we have received concerning its appertenancies, as warrens, aviaries, and fish-ponds.

There they found Appius Claudius, the augur, whom Axius began to rally on the magnificence of his villa, at the extremity of the Campus Martius, which he contrasts with the profitable plainness of his own farm in the Reatine district. In your splendid abode, there is no sign of the vicinity of arable lands, or vineyards. We find there neither ox nor horse—there is neither vintage in the cellars, nor corn in the granary. In what respect does this resemble the villa of your ancestors? A house cannot be called a farm or a villa, merely because it is built beyond the precincts of the city.

It seems to be at length agreed, that a mansion which is without these, and is merely ornamental, cannot be called a villa; but that it is properly so termed, though there be neither tillage nor pastu[pg 33] rage, if fish-ponds, pigeon-houses, and bee-hives, be kept for the sake of profit; and it is discussed whether such villas, or agricultural farms, are most lucrative. Under the first class, he comprehends birds, such as thrushes, which are kept in aviaries, to be eaten, but not any birds of game.

Rules and directions are given for their management, of the same sort with those concerning the animals mentioned in the preceding book. The aviaries in the Roman villas were wonderfully productive and profitable. A very particular account is given of the construction of an aviary.

Varro himself had one at his farm, near Casinum, but it was intended more for pleasure and recreation than profit. The description he gives of it is very minute, but not very distinct. The pigeon-house is treated of separately from the aviary. As to the game, the instructions do not relate to field-sports, but to the mode of keeping wild animals in enclosures or warrens. In the more simple and moderate ages of the republic, these were merely hare or rabbit warrens of no great extent; but as wealth and luxury increased, they were enlarged to the size of 40 or 50 acres, and frequently contained within their limits goats, wild boars, and deer.

The author even descends to instructions with regard to keeping and fattening snails and dormice. On the subject of fish he is extremely brief, because that was rather an article of expensive luxury than homely fare; and the candidate, besides, was now momentarily expected. Fish-ponds had increased in the same proportion as warrens, and in the age of Varro were often formed at vast expense.

Instances are given of the great depth and extent of ponds belonging to the principal citizens, some of which had subterraneous communications with the sea, and others were supplied by rivers, which had been turned from their course. At this part of the dialogue, a shout and unusual bustle announced the success of the candidate whom Varro favoured: on hearing this tumult, the party gave up their agricultural disquisitions, and accompanied him in triumph to the Capitol. This work of Varro is totally different from that of Cato on the same subject, formerly mentioned.

It is not a journal, but a book; and instead of the loose and unconnected manner in which the brief precepts of the Censor are delivered, it is composed on a plan not merely regular, but perhaps somewhat too stiff and formal. Add to Cart. Have an Access Token? Enter your access token to activate and access content online. Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.

Have Institutional Access? Forgot your password? PDF Preview. Table of Contents. Related Content. Editors: Manfred Beller and J. Joep Leerssen. Of all European landscapes and regions, the Rhine is one of the most heavily overlaid with cultural and political meaning.