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James Somers

Where a single organization has more than one IT system that generates ONIX messages, the record reference should also include an indication of which system the record was generated by. See P. Any post-publication updates — for example price and availability updates — would be types 03 or When using a potentially very long series of block updates, it is still a useful practice to provide a full update type 03 at the time of publication for confirmation purposes.

This ensures that the record is corrected around publication time, even if earlier updates were applied wrongly for any reason. However, senders should check with recipients before introducing any block-level partial updates, since not all recipients can cope with records of this type. And it is inadvisable to mix live and test records in a single message. This happens when data from multiple sources is aggregated and redistributed, for example by a distributor, wholesaler or bibliographic data supplier.

The choice here should be guided by whether the aggregator simply resends exactly what is received, or whether the data is actively managed before redistribution. Conversely, if the aggregator actively manages the data prior to redistribution, the aggregator assumes effective responsibility for the data. This clearly indicates that the aggregator is responsible for the redistributed data.

Typically this will carry a standard identifier such as the ISBN that can be used for orders or sales reports within a trading relationship, but the whole composite is repeatable and other standard identifiers, and proprietary identifiers or SKUs may be sent in addition. All, of course, carry essentially the same number. In some trading relationships, the GTIN identifier is useful. There may also be a separate metadata record for the individual retail items in the pack, and that record should not include the GTIN The continued use of obsolete identifiers such as the ISBN is strongly discouraged, but they may still be needed by certain recipients within the context of a specific trading relationship.

This applies to all uses of proprietary identifiers or proprietary coding schemes within ONIX for Books — a name for the scheme or identifier should always be included.


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When minting such names, the data provider should try to promote uniqueness by for example including an appropriate organization or domain name, and some indication of what is being identified. Such proprietary identifiers should not usually be included in ONIX records, since they are not intended for communication between organizations. Where these are included in the Product record, they should be accompanied by one or more standard product identifiers. This composite specifies whether the product carries a printed barcode, and if so, its symbology and optionally its position.

Although in most countries the use of GTIN barcodes on physical products is ubiquitous and need not be stated, in North America the continued use of GTINs means that the symbology is valuable information for retailers. It should be repeated where a product carries more than one barcode. The composite can also be used to provide a positive indication that the product does not carry a barcode, even when it might be expected perhaps because the product is of unusually small size.

These two examples have exactly equivalent meanings, but the latter, simpler version is preferred, unless the multiple discs are or could plausibly become available separately or there is some other reason to describe the discs individually. These two examples have exactly equivalent meanings, but the former method is preferred. However, the latter method may be used whenever codes SB—SF do not adequately describe the packaging method. The associations listed in the table are not enforced by the XSD or RNG schemas, but may be enforced by an extended schema.

But they should exercise particular care in claiming FSC or PEFC compliance, where the provenance of raw materials for future manufacturing batches might be uncertain. If a particular impression is for any reason manufactured with non-compliant material, the scheme logo must of course be omitted from those copies. However, all metadata records must also be updated to remove the compliance statement in a timely way. This applies both to metadata held by the publisher or printer, but also metadata held by supply chain partners and third parties.

Statements that are not or cannot be updated and removed when necessary which might be on an impression-by-impression basis may affect future auditing and re-certification of the organization. This should be used with any packaged product to specify the nature of any packaging — for example to describe whether a CD is packaged in a card sleeve, a jewel case, a Digipak, an Amaray-style keep case or some other form of packaging, or to describe a book or a collection of books in a slipcase, or a book plus an audio CD in a blister pack.

The data element may be omitted if the product is not contained within any separate packaging. Although not necessarily a recommended best practice, the Trade category is important in some particular circumstances, as it is used, inter alia , to clarify the legal status of particular publications, which may affect their tax status. However, the use of these data elements is not limited to e-publications. In general, if omitted from the Product record, the contents of the product should be assumed to be primarily textual.

The whole composite is repeatable, and at minimum, the height and width across the front cover dimensions should be provided for all physical products. This may be based on specifications provided in advance to the manufacturer the printer and binder , or measured from the finished book-in-hand. Thickness spine width may not be known until production details such as the page extent and paper caliper are finalized, or until finished copies are available, and it may subsequently vary slightly between different impressions of the same product due to variations in the density and water content of the paper used.

In a similar way, weight may not be known accurately until physical manufacture and is subject to equivalent variations. However, estimates of weight and spine width made prior to manufacture may still be useful to recipients and should be provided whenever possible: if weight and spine width measurements are provided greater than two months prior to publication, recipients should treat them as estimates, and senders should send updated data as soon as accurate measurements are available.

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Product height, width, thickness spine width and weight measurements should include any retail packaging — for a retailer, if a book is sold in a slipcase or box, then it is the dimensions of the slipcase or box that determine whether or not it can be conveniently shelved or shipped. This is doubly important for multi-item products.

Packaging expected to be discarded before retail should not be included. For broad international use outside USA, metric units should be used for linear dimensions millimetres and weight grams. For products sold only in USA, Imperial units inches, ounces should be used instead. If a product is sold in both USA and elsewhere for example, globally, or simply in both USA and Canada , inclusion of the same dimensions in both metric and Imperial is clearly the best option, but if only one set of dimensions can be provided, metric is preferred over Imperial.

Similarly, whenever unit conversions are necessary, the results should be rounded sensitively to avoid misleadingly precise measurements eg conversion of mm to Imperial units indicates a size of 7. For hardbacks, note that the overall width and height are not the same as the trimmed page size trimmed leaf size , as the cover boards overhang the book block.

For products such as maps, both folded or rolled and flat measurements should be included whenever possible, but if only one set of dimensions can be included, the folded or rolled sizes used at retail are preferred. For those products that are split before retail, the measurements of a single item must be obtained from the Product record for the individual product.

This information is required in some countries to meet legal requirements, so it is best practice to include it for all physical products available internationally. For a physical book, the country of manufacture is the country where it is printed and bound, not the country in which the publisher is based though of course they may be the same. If the product is a multi-item product, the country of manufacture should instead be specified individually for each of the physical components in the product, in P.

For a multi-item product or pack, a pack-level country of manufacture could be interpreted as the country in which the items were packaged together, rather than where they were each manufactured. This element should be used to specify any technical protection measures applied to the product, and should be used for all downloadable and where appropriate other digital products — including the case when no technical protection is applied.

Some types of e-publication are defined by their unique combination of file format eg. For these products, specification of the technical protection type is clearly vital. Note that technical protection need not necessarily be used for enforcement. Multiple repeats of the composite should be included to give a clear picture of what a purchaser may and may not do legitimately with the content of the product.

Note that there are no default usage rights or constraints: if no usage constraints are specified in the Product record, it means only that there is no information, and does not imply an unconstrained usage right. One unusual feature of many e-publications is that the range of possible uses or potential constraints may change post-publication, as the technical capabilities of the reading platform may be modified through software upgrades. For example, the addition of text-to-speech or temporary lending to a platform may affect prior purchases on that platform.

But there needs to be a clear understanding of whether any capability or constraint is associated with the reading platform or the product. Similarly, capabilities and constraints may in some cases be somewhat platform-specific, even for a single product usable with multiple reading platforms.

Where the same product is usable on multiple reading platforms, a constraint that is wholly related to the platforms should not be listed. For example, for a single product that is usable with two e-book reading platforms, where text-to-speech is enabled for all products without exception on one platform, but is completely unavailable on the other — perhaps because that platform lacks audio output of any kind — text-to-speech should not be included in the list of constraints.

This composite can be used to deliver details of the license terms for a digital product. The license must have a name or title, and if the license is available on the internet, a link to the actual license may be provided there may be several links to different expressions of the same license — for example a link to a legal document and a separate link to a summary intended for consumers.

Links to machine-readable license expressions — for example using ONIX-PL — are likely to become valuable in the future, particularly in library contexts. The main scale of a cartographic product should always be provided. When a cartographic product such as an atlas is comprised of maps at just one or a small number of scales, the same approach should be followed.

If the maps in an atlas are drawn at a wide variety of scales, it is not useful to specify them all individually: specify only the two or three scales used most widely in the product. This can be critical in international trading, and where prices are typically communicated exc-tax, the recipient of the ONIX data can usually decide the local tax rate or any tariffs that are applicable to the product based on the commodity code. As a result, much of the structure of the composite is identical to P. But for some legacy systems, it may not be possible to provide full details of each component within the product.

What is the minimum amount of component information that can be supplied? So the absolute minimum information required is — in effect — the number of components there are:. Providing such minimal information about multi-component products is obviously poor practice, and enhancing the data so it at least clearly specifies the product form of the components should be a priority.

Omission implies that all parts are of similar importance. For example, the individual volumes within a boxed set may or may not be available individually, but in either case may have individual ISBNs. See Product identifier composite within P. Note that product form features such as safety warnings should normally be described at product level, even if they apply to only one part of a multi-item product. Collections can be prescribed by the publisher, or ascribed to a range of independent products by a party other than the publisher — for example by a wholesaler or data aggregator.

Members of a collection share a collective identity, including at least a common collection title, and may share other attributes. For example, each product in a collection might have the same contributors, and collections usually have a consistent physical form, size and design style. A collection may have an identifier for the collection as a whole, and the whole collection may be available as a single product, or as many individual products — ONIX makes no distinction.

Collection identifiers and the shared identity of ascribed collections are always carried in P. Choosing between P. However, this is not part of the collective identity: it is product-level data. Thus while typically a part or volume number will appear in the same Group as the collection-level title either P. Supplying a numeric collection sequence number make such collections much simpler to sort into order. It is also possible that a collection identifier or collection sequence number be included in P. Additional guidance and extensive examples on the description of collections are included in a separate document ONIX for Books: Product Information Format: How to describe sets, series and multiple-item products.

This composite should be used to specify any relevant identifiers for the collection as a whole. It is unlikely that any formal identifiers exist for ascribed collections, but it would be possible to include a proprietary ID for an ascribed collection. Where the collection is ordered in some way, this composite should be used to provide or confirm that ordering. However, the main use for this composite is to provide sequence information that is not shown on the product, for example, a narrative order for a fiction collection, or an original publication order for collected works previously published independently.

Any of P. In addition, the P. Spacing and punctuation should follow that used on the book itself. Repetition of title elements on the product itself should be replicated in the metadata. Every Product record must carry a title. It is best practice to deliver title text in a structured and granular fashion, rather than simply providing text with punctuation to indicate the difference between collection, main title and subtitle.

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By providing the title in a structured way, it ensures the recipient of the data can store and process it in the most appropriate way in their own system. Do not add extra information to the title that properly appears elsewhere in the ONIX record. While a recipient might not display such alternative titles, they can be helpful as search terms. Such titles often also mix collection and product-level elements, or other non-title details such as binding type, edition and so on eg 12th N sch ed w.

Either is acceptable. For recipients, if a title statement is provided, this should be used for display purposes wherever possible, while the individual title elements may be used for more advanced search or collation purposes. Note that a title statement should include the subtitle, and any intermediate punctuation, but should not include the text of any alternative titles — alternative titles may have a title statement of their own.

The other two choices should be used when the system can differentiate. When a title is not in the same language as the main text content of the product itself, the language attribute should be included. It is not normally expected that metadata provided by publishers follows formal library cataloging rules for example the AACR2 or RDA content rules.

With the exception of the case of the text, the title information provided in an ONIX record should follow the title as it is provided on the product title page or equivalent. It is best practice to follow the conventions of the language of the title, and to include the textcase attribute. Subtitles should always be presented in sentence case. In scripts where the sort order is not essentially alphabetic — for example in Japanese Kanji where names and titles are sorted phonetically, or in Traditional or Simplified Chinese Hanzi where Pinyin or Zhuyin phonetics or occasionally the number of brush strokes in individual characters control the collation order — the collationkey attribute can be included.

This would typically contain a phonetic transliteration of the data element in Hiragana, Katakana, Pinyin or Zhuyin etc. When the language of the title is not the expected language of the message, then the language attribute should also be provided. It is a common error to supply a part number or year at collection level, when it belongs at product level.

If anything more than a simple number is used, ensure the terminology matches that on the product, and that the text is presented consistently including consistent spacing and abbreviation so that items in the collection will sort correctly into order whenever possible. This composite is particularly useful with sub-collections. Consistency is important, or the individual products of a collection will not sort into the correct order even when simple sorting is possible. Personal naming schemes are complex, sensitive and vary greatly between cultures, so data suppliers and recipients should take great care that names are presented correctly.

For the American name Sharon Stanton Russell, Stanton is her unmarried family name maiden name retained after marriage, whereas for British Anna Margaret Lindholm, Margaret is a second given name. The sequence number should always reflect the order used on the product, and not, for example, alphabetical order or an order based on their roles.

This sequence number should always be used by ONIX recipients to collate and display contributors. Do not rely on the order that contributors are listed within the ONIX file, although where possible ONIX senders should arrange files so that the sequence numbers do occur in order in the Product record. If there are also contributors listed in P. The contributor role specifies the function of a contributor in the creation of the product. There is as yet no well-established public standard for name identifiers.

However, since few publishers have yet adopted the ISNI, even internal identifiers used by publishers can be helpful to ONIX data recipients who wish to collocate products by a contributor, or distinguish products by two contributors with identical names. The form of a name may change on successive products by a single contributor Steve Jones, Dr. Steve Jones, Prof. Steve Jones etc. A name may be very similar or identical to that used by a quite different contributor one UK publisher publishes two separate authors called Professor Richard Holmes , or a contributor may use one or more pseudonyms without any particular wish for anonymity eg Ruth Rendell and Barbara Vine.

Names change over time eg through marriage, legal changes, or through the addition of titles, qualifications and honors , and the exact form of a name used on a product may also be influenced by marketing requirements — a popular dieting book and an academic treatment of nutrition may use subtly different forms of name for the same contributor.

In all of these cases, collocation is aided even by proprietary identifiers. Of course, a public identifier such as an ISNI is of greater utility for cases where multiple publishers are involved or when a contributor is active in other creative fields too a specific feature of ISNI is that it bridges between books, music and other fields. It is strongly preferred to supply personal contributor names in a fully-structured manner, using the elements P. Recipients may then use the former for display and the latter for collation and possibly both for search.

Note that names provided in this form cannot reliably be collated ie sorted into alphabetical order. The primary name supplied should be the name as it is used on the product , and should be the name used by recipients for display purposes. Providing alternative names and name identifiers can help collocation, where different forms of the same name are used on different products. Sort order is a feature of the user interface. For non-alphabetic writing systems such as Chinese or Japanese, the collationkey attribute is important, and it should be used to provide phonetic or other sort order information for machine processing.

In cases where the reading of the name needs to be clarified for human readers, rather than for automated sorting, the phonetic information is provided in a ruby gloss. Where phonetics are needed for both human reading and for sorting purposes, both a collationkey and a ruby text should be included. Unicode interlinear annotation delimiters cannot be rendered on-screen unless an application provides specific support for them. Occasionally, as in the example above, a single data element may need a gloss provided as an attribute for sorting, and as a display gloss.

All names presented in fully-structured style must have a Key name — this is the part of the name that is used first for collation purposes. Note that although names are conventionally sorted using the family or inherited name, there are exceptions for names that include titles, where for example a given name Charles , a taken name Benedict or a title Dalai Lama may be used as the key, and for other names that do not have a family component such as Icelandic names, which consist of given name and patronymic.

When constructing a structured name, always start with the key name element and arrange other parts of the name around it. Exactly what constitutes the key name varies according to the culture from which the name arises. But this is a cultural shift, not a matter of language , and many also choose to retain their name structure for example, English poet Walter de la Mare. Note that often, there is some choice about how names that include titles may be presented:.

Presentation of primary names should follow the form used on the product. A publisher may provide an alternative name when another form is more familiar. If there is a prefix, there is some value in providing both forms as with personal names. Such alternative names can provide important search term matches, aiding discovery of the product online or within retailer systems. While the primary contributor name in P. In contrast, the P. Transliterations are often useful where the recipient of the data may not be able to cope with the characters in the native script — for example selling a book in Russian, with a Cyrillic author name, in a country where many data recipients might only be able to deal with Latin characters.

It is obviously preferable to supply the primary name in Cyrillic, for those recipients that can make use of it, and a Latin transliteration for those that cannot. Although in this particular case the author Daniel Domscheit-Berg is German by nationality, the book is in the Korean language, the majority of the metadata is in Korean, and the author name is listed on the book in Hangul Korean script.

Birth and death dates are often use in libraries to distinguish between authors of the same name. They are not typically made explicit in book trade metadata, but equivalent information may be incoporated into any biographical notes. In general, providing a name identifier such as an ISNI is better for disambiguation purposes. Affiliations — effectively a job title and organization name — are used when the professional position of the author is important to the market positioning of the product — for example to emphasize the credentials of academic author, or the credibility of any other expert.

Any named contributor — personal or corporate — may be associated with a short biography. Typically these are relatively short, perhaps no more than to words — around — characters. Although there is no specified maximum, a practical upper limit of perhaps characters is reasonable for senders. Simple biographical notes can be provided as plain text. Embedded markup is the only reliable way to deliver multi-line or multi-paragraph text. ONIX data should be processed this way too ie with the the xml:space attribute set to its default value.

Data senders should aim to send only the third option, and recipients should normalize whitespace characters they receive. But where a tag is intended to allow multiple lines or paragraphs of text, embedded markup provides the solution. If you have only plain text, and want to include multi-paragraph biographies, then you must include some markup within the data element. The simplest process would be to:. Second, recipients will often strip out some tags, or might even ignore the supplied text altogether because they are reluctant to include the supplied tags on their website even though they might be technically valid.

In practice, the following should be usable without problems:. Avoid them. If using named character entities or numerical references in this manner ie escaped within embedded HTML markup , ensure proper end-to-end testing with each ONIX recipient. Of course, in most cases, textual metadata is provided in the same language used in the book. Parallel metadata in multiple languages might be required in territories where multiple languages are in everyday use for example, Switzerland , in language learning and gift giving scenarios where a book might be purchased by someone who cannot read the language used in the book itself, and in cases where the product itself contains parallel text.

This allows a recipient to either accept and process the multiple languages, or to select the single language that is most appropriate for their needs. It should be included, for example, on products sold in Canada where a contributor is a Canadian citizen. This element should be used to give a positive indication that there are no contributors, either named or unnamed, in either P. If the product is not linked to a particular conference, this Group can be ignored entirely. These details may be important for certain publishers, particularly in the academic and technical sectors, and for library cataloging.

In many cases, the conference details may repeat information that is also included in the title of the product.

So different editions may be distinguished by their content by the addition, revision or removal of material , or more occasionally by some other aspect of their product form or nature. For example, because many audiobooks on CD are abridged, an unabridged product may carry the UBR Edition type code, even when no abridged version is available. Note that an abridged version must carry the ABR code. Conversely, DGO digital original should be used to indicate that no physical counterpart of a digital product exists because the normal expectation is that a physical version does exist , or where a physical counterpart does exist, that the digital version was published a significant time before the physical version because the normal expectation is that the physical and digital versions were published together or that the physical version came first.

Edition number may also be used to carry a version number for a software product, where for example numbered major revisions of the software are released and the number is not considered part of the title. The Edition statement may be repeated in multiple, parallel languages if required.

If it is repeated, the language attribute much be included with each repeat. This element should be included whenever there is no other edition information. It is one of the few ONIX data elements that is defined as an empty element. It would be equally useful for native Spanish readers and native English readers. Products like phrasebooks or textbooks for foreign language learning need different treatment.

Such a book would not be useful to an English student trying to learn Spanish! A second useful criterion — for such language teaching products and phrasebooks — is the language of the primary readership the product is intended for. It contains significant text in both languages, and might be useful in slightly different circumstances for both English and Spanish readers. Some languages — a well-known example being Serbian — can be expressed in two entirely separate scripts, in this case both Latin and Cyrillic.

Where such distinctions are an important product attribute, they should be specified. However, Braille can also be treated as as script in the relevant ISO code list. It is not recommended that Braille books be described or discovered only or primarily via a script code. It also covers ancillary content such as illustrations. In very simple cases, this extent might be equal to the highest page number. Note that neither of these necessarily matches the highest page number in the book which in most cases will be the total numbered page count minus any Roman-numbered front matter.

Nor do they match the production page count. It is not best practice to supply only Roman numerals. Recipients should accept Roman numerals in either upper or lower case, though lower case is more usual when numbering pages. For audio running times, values in minutes are preferred to hours and minutes or just hours ie minutes is preferred to 3 hours and 15 minutes or simply three hours. There is no real benefit in a precision greater than two significant digits ie kilobytes or 1. Extents can also be specified by the number of words.

However, while the weightiness of a , word manuscript is familiar to some within the publishing industry, word counts are not always simple for consumers to interpret. They are not recommended as the only indication of extent — though they may become more useful in future as reflowable publications become the norm. It is likely that the exact extent — whether a page count or a running time — will not be known until relatively late in the production of a new product.

Extents provided more than three months prior to publication should be treated as estimates, and publishers should provide more accurate values as early as possible. Filesizes are unlikely to be finalized more than a month prior to publication. Audiobook products on CD are commonly divided into many tracks — the equivalent of songs on a music CD — typically around three to six minutes per track. It may sometimes be useful to be able to declare the number of tracks in the metadata — though this should never be at the expense of describing the actual running time.

So a product which consists of four page volumes in a slipcase has a combined extent of pages. And a product that includes both a book and an audio version of the text might have both a page extent and a running time. A trade pack of four copies of a page book does not have a combined extent of pages. This composite is the preferred way of listing details of the number and type of any graphical and other material within a primarily textual product. It can be used to highlight extensive tabular content, maps, charts and diagrams, or the presence and extent of any bibliography or index.

Repetitions of the composite are used to specify ancillary content of more than one type. Gazetteer content within an atlas may be counted as an index. But because of differences in terminology used in different countries, the meanings of the common codes for images included in a book are not always clear. The secondary distinction is whether they are color using multiple inks or mono using a single ink, thus usually a black and white image.

The tertiary distinction is whether they use a halftoning process thus allowing graduated shades or tints or are line art solid ink only, no halftoning. Unfortunately in this case, the distinctions between tables, figures, diagrams, graphs and charts are not at all clear cut, and usage of these terms varies:. Amherst: U of Massachusetts P, Adell, Sandra.

Urbana: U of Illinois P, Andrews, William L. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Asante, Molefi Kete. Atwater, Deborah F. Austin, Algernon. Baldwin, James. Morrison, Collected Essays. Banita, Georgiana. Benstock, Shari, ed. Callahan, John F. The Collected Essays of Ralph Ellison. New York: Modern Library, New York: Lang, Cone, James H. Maryknoll: Orbis, Crouch, Stanley.

Daley, James, ed. Martin Luther King, Jr. Mineola: Dover, Du Bois, W. The Souls of Black Folk. The Oxford W. Du Bois Reader. Eric J. New York: Oxford UP, Dudley, David L. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, Eakin, Paul John. Early, Gerald, ed. Callahan Frank, David A. Franklin, V. Fraser, Carly. Gaines, Ernest J. The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman. New York: Bantam, Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. Harris, Fredrick. Harrison, Maureen, and Steve Gilbert, eds. Barack Obama: Speeches Carlsbad: Excellent, Hill, Rickey. Hollinger, David A.

The ONIX for Books framework

Hurston, Zora Neale. Alice Walker. New York: Feminist Press, James, Stanlie M. Kelleter, Frank. Heidelberg: Winter, Kelley, Robin D. Boston: Beacon, Malcolm X, as told to Alex Haley. The Autobiography of Malcolm X. New York: Grove, Marable, Manning. Mastey, David. Morrison, Toni, ed. James Baldwin: Collected Essays. New York: Library of America, Obama, Barack. New York: Crown, Jaclyn Easton. Publishing , Olive Ogbar, Jeffrey O. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, Olive, David, ed. Toronto: ECW, Pinckney, Darryl. Posnock, Ross. Cambridge: Harvard UP,