It is my conviction that by discovering affinities and alliances with both the sciences and the theoretical humanities, architecture as a practice can begin to reassess its privilege, priorities, and capacities for inscription within the archive of deep time. In what remains of the introduction, I explain the editorial organization of the contributions to this volume and very briefly describe their content.
I then conclude these introductory remarks by considering how strategies of problematisation used to approach the Anthropocene thesis enlist philosophy, politics, science, and architecture to engender an ecology of practices adequate to the contemporaneity of deep time. Encounters This collection is arranged according to a rhythm of interaction among the three types of contributions which comprise it — essays, conversations, and design projects and proposals — each of which produce distinct encounters through their specific concerns and their textual adjacencies.
The essays, which help produce new ways of navigating the interconnected trajectories of deep time and design, as well as the history and theory of architecture, offer a range of concerns, narrative strategies, and politics positions, each of which attends to a particular perspective elicited by the Anthropocene thesis. The essays begin with "Three Holes: In the Geological Present," a text by Seth Denizen, which endeavors to provoke the prag- matic and speculative questions of geological contemporaneity.
By asking how the soil of the earth becomes evidence — both of other processes and, eventually, of itself as a process — Denizen invites the reader to travel with the question of contempo- raneity as a political and epistemological problem accessed through the manifold technologies of vision and taxonomic classification.
Following these considerations, Adam Bobbette's essay "Episodes from a History of Scalelessness: William Jerome Harrison and Geological Photography," offers a reading of the singular history of the geological photograph, noting how the forces of photographic production suggest a minor repetition of cosmic forces which are inscribed throughout the solar econo- my into the archive of deep time.
In her contribution to the volume, "Architecture's Lapidarium: On the Lives of Geological Specimens," Amy Catania Kulper considers the role of the geological specimen within the history of the architectural imaginary. According to Kulper, this collection of specimens affords us a glimpse into the en- tangled history of architecture and vitalism — strangely operative on even the most static objects — that also connects to biographical and philosophical conceptions of "a life.
What we encounter here is the peculiar refrain of geological time which Introduction Etienne Turpin 5 marks its place, however obliquely, within practices of leisure and science. Mark Dorrian's essay, "Utopia on Ice: The Climate as Commodity Form," offers another approach to the leisurely landscape and its architectural ambitions by examining the history of climate modification as a manifestation of Utopian design. The cur- rent commodifi cation of the climate, in Dorrian's estimation, is thus suggestive of a longer history of architectural projections which imagined social emancipation to be inherently tied to the emendation of the natural environment.
Kaufman here contends that this denial of continuity may actually be more attentive to the obdurate inertia of inanimate objects than con- temporary theoretical trends promoting their continuity, whether as thing-power or object oriented-ontology. The social and cultural valences of metal — that peculiar "thing" which obeys its own rules of transformation — is taken up in Guy Zimmerman's essay, "In the Furnace of Disorientation: Tragic Drama and the Liturgical Force of Metal.
Finally, in his essay on the history of cultivation and conflict in Amazonia, Paulo Tavares contributes a series of remarkable insights on the politics and violence which have produced the Anthropocene. His essay, "The Geological Imperative: Notes on the Political-Ecology of Amazonia's Deep History," is a provocation to rethink the terms with which nature is constructed as well as the policies and planning that manifest the ideology of political regimes, because, as he contends, "nature is not natural. The multiplicity of these matters of discussion are intended to signal a certain intensive variability among architecture practices; between matters of fact and matters of concern, we are exposed to a heterogeneous meso-sphere where strategy and speculation become complimentary modes of inquiry.
In conversation with John Palmesino and Ann-Sofi Ronnskog of Territorial Agency, we are encouraged to consider the practice of architecture with a more precise, historical specificity; in so doing, we discover that architecture does not require an expanded field or a new imperialism, since, "The object of research and practice is architecture, and the means is architecture. Understanding more precisely how these asymmetrical co-productions operate can help us avoid the philosophical and political pitfalls of both actor-network theory and object-ori- ented ontology; where the former approach valorizes the connectivity of the net- work, and the latter position emphasizes the irreducibility of nodes as the primary constituents of the network, a more coherent and politically operative analysis requires a multi-scalar and multi-centered approach, where agency is negotiated as a co-production among vertical pressures from both above and below and heterogeneous lateral affinities.
In this discussion, we discover new approaches to the urgent problems of multilateral violence as it is modulated by international humanitarian law, environmental law, and non-human rights. These approaches are, of course, inevitably marked by the fundamental philosophical problem of temporality.
In conversation with Elizabeth Grosz — "Time Matters: On Temporality in the Anthropocene" — Davis and I attempt to further interrogate the chronotope of the Anthropocene by engaging the question of evolutionary time. Throughout this discussion, Grosz offers a series of insights that compel our reconsideration of the emergence, futurity, and precarious duration of the human species.
The precarity of the human species is likewise at stake in our conversation with Isabelle Stengers. In "Matters of Cosmopolitics: On the Provocations of Gala," Davis and I question the role of the human in relation to Gala as a force, which, for Stengers, both suggests a way out of the "reign of man" and "intrudes upon the use of the Anthropocene in trendy and rather apolitical dissertations. In addition to these conversations, the book includes a series of design projects and proposals which attempt, as Aby Warburg suggested, to "abolish de facto the distinction between accumulation of knowledge and aesthetic production, between research and performance.
In Michael C. Lin's exhibition project AnthroPark, we are invited to imagine a menagerie of primate visions that question the hier- archical ordering of nature as a linear line of evolutionary progress. Likewise, in Lisa Hirmer's photo essay Fortune Head Geologies, we encounter the park as a planetary condition, where stratifications of meaning are extracted from the heaps of refuse and debris that accompany our human will to progress. Yet, such stratigraphic mixtures are not only of the earth; they are also atmospheric, as the projects by Nabil Ahmed and Emily Cheng make especially clear.
Plate The production of knowledge is then also examined from the perspective of landscape literacy. In her illustrated field guide to San Francisco's shoreline, Bay Lexicon, a project developed in collaboration with the Exploratorium of San Francisco, Jane Wolff creates "a nuanced, place-based vocabulary that makes the hybrid circumstances of San Francisco Bay apparent and legible" to a range of audiences concerned with the future of this postnatural landscape.
Similarly, in her speculative mixed media design proposal, Amplitude Modulation, Meghan Archer imagines how design interventions could offer other narratives to the southern coal towns of Appalachia, where the industrial and geological scales have already become indelibly intermixed. Finally, projects by Chester Rennie and Amy Norris and Clinton Langevin of Captains of Industry both suggest, through a kind of speculative pragmatism, modes of adaptive reuse that challenge the hierarchies of traditional redevelopment.
By focusing on a derelict iron mine long abandoned by its former owners, Rennie suggests — with rhetoric reminiscent of the later land art proposals of Robert Smithson — that by Swimming in It, a leisurely reappropriation of the site would also afford a space of aesthetic meditation on the violent legacies of our industrial heritage.
For Norris and Langevin, their proposal for a Tar Creek Supergrid is supported by extensive research on landscapes disturbed by human industry, which carry with them the latent potential for new patterns of human settlement and innovation. Among the three series of inquiries — scholarly essays, contemporary conversa- tions, and design proposals and projects — the potential of the Anthropocene thesis as both a discourse to embolden design and theory, and as a condition within which these practices must struggle for social-environmental justice, begins to emerge.
While the work collected here does not exhaust the many new vectors of research animated by concerns regarding climate change, environmental crises, political ecology or land use interpretation, they are nevertheless exemplary of how the Anthropocene thesis encourages a mode problematisation that is especially valu- able for design practice in our all-too-human era.
Introduction Etienne Turpin 9 Problematisation A philosophy is never a house; it is a construction site. In his essay "On the Earth-Object," Paulo Tavares remarks: '"Global nature' is therefore and above all a space defined by a new socio-geological order in which the divisions that separated humanity and the environment, culture and nature, the anthropological and the geological have been blurred. In nearly every book he wrote, including those he co-authored with Felix Guattari and Claire Parnet, Gilles Deleuze managed, in one way or another, to integrate his favored refrain: problems get the solutions they deserve according to the terms by which they are created as problems.
The varied repetition of this notion is certainly not meant as a slogan; for Deleuze, the work of producing problems, that is, of problem-forma- tion, is a fundamental task of philosophy. With the provocation of the Anthropocene thesis, philosophy can produce new constructions that transform trajectories of thought; by developing affinities and collaborations through multi-disciplinary, multi-scalar, and multi-centered approaches, architecture too can discover its unique capacity to transform the present and future condition of the Earth System.
In the Anthropocene, designers, activists, and philosophers will all have the earth they deserve; we hope this collection contributes to the conversation about how it might be constructed. The Anthropocene is a yet-to-be formalized term designating an epoch in which human impact is considered to be significant enough to constitute a new geological era for its lithosphere. For instance, chlorine from atomic weapons testing has been found in ice core samples, as have mercury traces from coal plants.
The beginning of this epoch can be linked to the industrial revolution, after which it developed rapidly through the trinity of efficiency, consumption, and enjoyment, which together suggest a machinic modus operandi of the epoch. Meanwhile, individuals in late capitalist society are estranged from social relationships as we respond to incessant injunctions to "Enjoy!
Such an injunction both distracts and distances human beings from each other, creating a network of islands that co-produce contemporary reality. But the island is an illusion. In our inexorable interconnection, each action on each island has both direct and indirect consequences; as such, each is implicated in producing or dissolving our veils of isolation. Through telemorphosis, all distances begin to collapse as separations entangle to form a twisted knot of the contemporary.
Just as inevitably, false dichotomies beget false projects All of a sudden, they'll go apeshit and start to smash everything up because they can't stand the boredom, the absence of incident. Where lines are drawn, we reveal difference, perspective, and the multiplicity of realities. AnthroPark is a theme park for line-drawing. The park form offers an immersive experience and moves seamlessly from utilitarian to symbolic moments, intensifying both corporeal and psychological perturbations.
The AnthroPark experience is co-produced by a collection of by-products from Anthropocenic enjoyment, which, as they aggregate, become even more en- tangled in the participatory jouissance that reveals the tragicomedy of past and present enjoyments. Like an institutional chimera, AnthroPark brings together a mosaic of dis- parate objects to form a specialized repository of attractions suited for an epoch of telemorphic implications. The dynamic forces of managed life are celebrated among the collection of interactive assemblages that provide curious visitors with an unusual, hands-on experience of the Anthropocene.
In its original sense, the term "amusement park" referred to a garden open to the public for pleasure and recreation, often containing attractions beyond the plantings and landscape. Likewise, the particular form of the "menagerie," a pleasure garden containing a collection of common and exotic animals, is housed in some architectural structure.
These historical AnthroPark Michael CC Lin products can be read as precedents for the AnthroPark and its contempo- rary ambition to provoke both zoological and political responses to the Anthropocene. Notes 1 See Tom Cohen, ed. Matters of Observation John Palmesino and Ann-Sofi Ronnskog in Conversation with Etienne Turpin On Architecture in the Anthropocene Territorial Agency is an independent organization that promotes innovative and sustainable territorial transformations.
It is engaged in strengthening the capacity of local and international communities with regards to compre- hensive spatial transformation management. Territorial Agency's projects channel available spatial resources towards the development of their full potential, and work to establish instruments and methods for ensuring high- er architectural and urban quality in contemporary territories.
This work builds on wide stakeholder networks, combining analysis, advocacy and ac- tion. The activities of Territorial Agency are grounded in extensive territorial analysis, which focuses on complex representations of the transformations of physical structures in inhabited territories, and lead to comprehensive proj ects aimed at strengthening regional performance through seminars and public events as a process of building capacity to innovate. Following this tour of the Observatory, I spoke with John and Ann-Sofi about their ambition for the project and its relation to the discipline of architecture in the era of the Anthropocene; part way through our conversation, we were joined by the curator, artist, and writer Nabil Ahmed, whose work is included later in this volume; what follows is an edited transcript of our conversation.
Etienne Turpin I am trying to understand why so much architecture today is ultimately afraid of the world. We can see this through reactionary commitments to the building-scale as the "proper" index of the discipline. I am interested in how the Anthropocene thesis might challenge this reactionary tendency. Without making any argument for an "expanded field" for architecture — many others have already done so, with greater or lesser degrees of imperialist ambition — do you think that the Anthropocene occasions a rethinking, or reconceptualization, of the field of architecture? How does Territorial Agency see the relation between the Anthropocene thesis and the discipline today?
John Palmesino I think it might be an issue of viewpoint and perspective. In the sense that there is a possibility of thinking that if architecture is setting up the perspective, then it can easily fall into the conceptual trap of conceptualizing itself as being on the outside, and as looking at an object; from this view, the object is the point of reference and it is what architecture tries to shape. Yet, in structuring a perspectival space, both the point of view and the object are established at the same time: there is no outside.
So I don't think there is a need for re-conceptual- izing anything, but there is a need to be a little bit more clear about what we are talking about when we talk about architecture. The conceptual misunderstanding that architecture is an "object" — that it is sitting withinthe perspective drawing, ratherthancreatingtheperspectivedrawingitself — I think this might be the problem you are referring to.
At least since the fourteenth century, architecture has produced the possibility of understanding horizons, van- ishing points, and of setting views and view heights. So it's not necessary to re-con- ceptualize architecture. Architecture is not buildings; buildings are mainly stuff. Architecture is an active connection, a practice which activates a relation between material spaces and their inhabitation; and, it structures that relation, it structures what we call the relation between space and polity, as well as the construction of polities themselves.
This is a problem with many levels; it relates to sets that are in movement relative to one another, as well as to spaces being modified by shifting infrastructural proce- dures, political decisions, and social dynamics. Modifications of space and material configurations all eventually reshape and possibly hinder many of our spaces of cohabitation. Conceptually, I don't think we need to do much more than that.
The question is, then: from whose perspective does this occur? Whose point of view? What we are working on, as Territorial Agency, is a project that is both about the territory of agency and the agency of territories. We are trying to understand how to engage with this condition, or situation, which is apparently a conundrum of points of view, different territories, different agencies, etc.
In this sense, the work that we are putting forward for discussion, evaluation, and possible testing is that of re-tracing different territories according to different polities, and trying to understand how those re-tracings, and the reorganization of points of view, can activate paths toward the re-appropriation of resources, the reorganization of ac- tion, and so on. The point for us is to start with a horizon and multiply that horizon; it is not about fields or about reconceptualization because I think, somehow, it is very important for us as architects and urbanists to insist that this project is not about making something more about architecture; this is architecture.
There is no reconceptualization needed. The object of research and practice is architecture, and the means is architecture. ET Does the Anthropocene thesis pressurize that claim, or perhaps give it more leverage? Does it allow us to insist on architecture as a practice more precisely? Like architecture, the Anthropocene can be read through everything, but it is not just anything, as you have said. We are really not interested in claiming that there is a new land that might allow us to go on and do new work and be more and more contemporary about it.
That is exactly the paucity of the disci- pline; we have something happening outside the discipline, let's go and conquer it! This reveals how precariously the practice is in its current conceptualization. It also outlines architecture's condition of imperialism and with it the greed to occupy more and more space for the sake, I guess, of many academic careers. We must resist any conceptualization of a new land to be claimed. Contrary to geographical expansion, what we are actually seeing is a shift in intensity. Ann-Sofi Ronnskog Through this approach, what we are trying to do with many of our current projects is to look at the management of projects themselves.
In the last few decades, the architect has been the one who gets instructions at the end of a particular decision chain. The architect is told to address given parameters, meet certain requirements, etc. What we are trying to do is to look through the territory and determine where the architect can intervene earlier, before being given the object to design. Instead, we are considering how we can also work to design the overall perspective, that is to set up the instruction of design and briefs, to structure relations from the very outset of a project.
ET I would like to ask about the figure of Gilles Deleuze and the role of his phi- losophy in your practice. Much of Deleuze's work was drawn into a very formal architectural language and ended in so many dead ends. Could you say more about the role of Deleuze's philosophy in shaping your practice and what you try to devel- op through your engagement with his work?
JP It is happening on many levels. There is usually, as we know, a distinction between theory and practice. What we are interested in is how to see theory as a practice, and a very specific kind of practice in the sense that it does not outline the framework, the reference, or the margins within which you can operate and to which you have to refer in order to make sense; I think what it does, instead, is unhinge the reference points.
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Theory, as Irit Rogoff would say, undoes. What is a theorist? One who undoes. I think that the possibility of thinking of architecture as a practice of the project has, on one hand, enabled it to claim a central position as the master of the arts, and of the organization of transformation; on the other, this has put it in a deadlock situation in the sense that architecture is never really the master.
Such a position does not allow other practices to configure themselves in relation to architecture, even though it claims to be open to this negotiation. Architecture operates among other practices, and we are interested in this as a disorienting condition. Somehow we can take the discipline away from the central condition it imagines and have it negotiate with other practices.
In that sense maybe, it is important to understand that a negotiation is a situation which ends up in a transformation. JP In order to negotiate, you have to be able to give up something and you have to be willing to change what your claims are. It is not a game of who will win, a competition; rather, it's a transformative relation. In that sense, for us, the role of making so many projects in collaboration with schools, or within schools, and with different schools, is not because we want to be teaching, but because we are learning.
You mentioned Gilles Deleuze, and I think our position is approximating the wild condition, the wild creation of concepts, the possibility of a feral condition for ar- chitecture that tries many ways to come to grips with the world; it is about trying to make a claim for a central position without having to occupy this central position in stability. To use an expression that we like a lot, it is to be inter-alia, among things, out there among radically different practices that all claim a certain form of cen- trality.
Anthropology, sociology, politics — all of these claim centrality. Architecture, meanwhile, has had this enormous energy in recent years, all dedicated to defining the discipline, and not one of these definitions or demarcations actually looks at the other disciplines also claiming the same centrality. There is no real concep- tualization of a multi-centred organization for the transformation of space, or a multi-centred transformation of the social.
This is remarkable! It is a situation that is symptomatic, at least on one side, since it becomes the visible element of the un- derlying tension in the discipline; on the other side, it is interesting because I think it indicates a complete circularity and internalization of architecture.
If there is no other possible way of organizing the discipline of architecture as architecture, why even bother to practice it? It starts to sound a lot like Don Quixote fighting against the windmills, or breaking through open doors. To understand what architecture does, we do not need to accept this stable definition of the discipline. ET We often try to bring in people for our studio reviews who are outside of the discipline for precisely this reason — we don't want to waste all the time in the re- view talking about "Architecture" and spoil the conversation. But it is still difficult to explain why there is just so much empty talk about the discipline in nearly every review in the United States and Europe.
JP Architecture has recently become more self-referential, and through this process has oriented itself toward a sectorial condition. It has become a sector, sep- arated and inserted only in clearly outlined possibilities of knowledge production, diversion, mixture, departure, and even closure.
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It is mainly producing discourses of similarity and closure. It reasserts models of authority that quite clearly have a centralizing position; this is not something that interests us. We are trying to make a project with someone who, by insisting so much on the production of images, might be mistaken as the observer.
But, what we are interested in is exactly that thing — put- ting forward a little space, in the HKW — that observes the making, unfolding, and transformation of practices, including image-production and architecture, as they are variously charged by the thesis of the Anthropocene.
It that sense, we concep- tualize the observatory as part of the institution of the HKW. It is not just a project hosted by them; it is a part of the HKW, and it operates as both a sensor and a producer of background images. We are interested in the behind-the-scenes, in the procedures, complex machines, and "vast machinery," to quote Paul Edwards, of this very beautiful and word: the Anthropocene.
How to conceptualize the distinction between the sciences and the humanities? Suddenly, this invitation by science offers a way of creating and taking apart boundaries, borders, fractures and an array of evidence. This is what we are trying to trace and chart with the Observatory. At the same time, we are trying to intervene in the making and un- making of those boundaries. ET This is really important. For you, it is not just a matter of reflecting on, but also a question of intervening into, this situation, in relation to these reflections.
JP For instance, we are interested in understanding what are the images that architecture can produce of the Anthropocene? What does it look like? Where is it? Which part of the building? Perhaps the railing, because it was add- ed after ? This year is now being considered as demarcating the Anthropocene. ET Is the year related to the sought-after Golden Spike? There is the possibility of the Golden Spike in a place; that discussion is about whether or not it will be in a lake in Ontario, Canada. The Observatory is in the early stages, but this is what we are aiming for.
To somehow show that the relationship is not one of document- ation, of things that are happening outside; instead, it is a relationship of inter- ference. Margaret Mead, for example, in the first installment of the Observatory, epitomizes this figure of interference. You have to negotiate; you have to relate to other groups and people you are working with. ET Do you see the relationship between the Anthropocene thesis and the disci- pline of architecture as productively undoing some of the reactionary aspects of the discipline? I am afraid that the Anthropocene thesis, on the contrary, is reasserting certain conditions within architectural di course, as if we are the ones changing the surface of the earth — as if it is about architecture.
ET That architects read the Anthropocene as a valorization of architecture? JP That suddenly it is a new time for architecture.
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It reminds me a lot of s and s discourses on the "manmade landscape. At the same time — and this is a very interesting thing — other explorations in architec- ture are wild, and are taking completely unexpected turns, completely unexpected conditions, and hypotheses with radical transformations that are rethinking what a practice can be and how to organize a practice.
That is the interesting thing — you don't have a middle ground — you either have a very conservative take that says this has always been the case and remains reactionary, or you have people who are very excited about the Anthropocene and producing new concepts and practices. But, there is very little gradient in between these two positions. But another interesting element of the conservative understanding of the Anthropocene thesis for architecture is the question of scale. Scalarity but es- pecially multi-scalarity, is now what is at stake.
I think the possibilities are very close, in that sense, to thinking multi-scalarity and the multiplication of relations to what the practices of organizational theory and management theory have been working on for the last ten or fifteen years with respect to "integrated approaches. The integration, the possibility of bringing everything together within one overarching system and ordering capacity, is what fascinates the most conservative people in architecture. Suddenly, through the Anthropocene, there is a framework which allows us to think at the largest scale possible, allowing us to think of levels of agency that go from one to the other and somehow trace the entire supply chain of possibilities and mediations.
ET But this tends to remain entirely representational. JP It doesn't work, that's the problem, the entire take on architecture as repre- sentation; as opposed to interference, constructive practice, and making things up. It is quite interesting because it is reestablishing and locking in a lot of the recent discourse in a conservative way. Take, for instance, the entire problem of ecological architecture.
On many levels, it asserts the claim: "Look, we told you so! You have to be green. Again, environmentalism as conservatism. There are so many examples, which we know, but these proj- ects do not interfere — they are architecture as a wish-image, in Walter Benjamin's sense of the term. Nabil Ahmed Except that some of these projects are also redrawing the lines of conflict; these are very real politics implicating states of war.
JP What is interesting in this claim of reshaping the chessboard of politics is that there is also a growing incapacity for negation, or of having something to negate. We have been a part of many of these kinds of projects that try to re-imagine how conflictual conditions are represented and made in the conflict. What we have seen is the difficulty, almost an incapacity, of acting. There is no consequence in that there is no moment when the consequences are immediately traceable.
What is interesting, of course, is that at the same time as you start to see this incapacity to articulate consequences, there is a theorization of multi-causality. Somehow we hear the claims, "Look, this is it! We found the perfect solution. We will claim complete agency over the entire world, but without consequences for our actions because the world goes on by itself.
It will organize itself, and we will be a part of that self-organization through our institutions, through our representations, through our architecture, through our political stances. It is really interesting, but I am bothered by this because I don't think that one can keep the circle open without some kind of negation. ET You have suggested that the paradox is now quite clear — at the moment where we can recognize the maximum human impact on the world, we also discover a minimum human agency that would be able to do anything about it. What is the impetus for this line of inquiry with respect to the Anthropocene thesis?
JP It is not so formalized. I think that the simultaneous positioning of the Observatory as a space where the telescope is turned both toward the intensified ground of the Anthropocene and toward the theatre of this experiment is important. One of the main aims of the project is to create a theatre of experimentation.
From this perspective, it becomes really difficult to think of the Anthropocene, and of the architecture of the Anthropocene, as possibilities that are given. The institutions of Matters of Observation A Conversation with John Palmesino and Ann-Sofi Ronnskog 21 the Anthropocene are not given; the publics and the audiences of the Anthropocene are in the making. They are being shaped, carved, and molded as the discourse is unfolding. We are interested in this process, in seeing how the background is reshaping the frame of polities. For instance, we were recently in a discussion about how to organize multi-lateral policies in relation to logistics in a large metropoli- tan area of Europe.
Typically, the background, as conceived by architects, is both geological and institutional space; these spaces, for most architects, are just given. Mountains and institutions are given; these are what you cannot touch. ET Architects only put the figure, as object, in front of this backformation? JP Yes, exactly. In a way, following Le Corbusier and Modernism, you have the construction of the window that will build a new view. For architecture, this act of framing is the maximum engagement with the background.
The construction of the history of the context indicates that it is a project; but architecture is not the only variable, while the context is merely a given. Every action specializes insofar as it is limited as action. On Nietzsche , xxi-xxii. Consciousness operates in the same way as medicine in its sampling of the events and processes of the body and of what goes on in the total mind.
It is organized in terms of purpose. It is a short-cut device to enable you to get quickly at what you want; not to act with maximum wisdom in order to live, but to follow the shortest logical and causal path to get what you next want, which may be dinner; it may be a Beethoven sonata; it may be sex. Above all, it may be money or power. Steps , The fragmentary state of humanity is basically the same as the choice of an object. Each of your moments becomes useful. Similarly, if salvation is the goal. Every action makes you a fragmentary existence. On Nietzsche , xxvii. Adam and Eve then became almost drunk with excitement.
This was the way to do things. Make a plan, ABC and you get D. They then began to specialize in doing things the planned way. In effect, they cast out from the Garden the concept of their own total systemic nature and of its total systemic nature. After they had cast God out of the Garden, they really went to work on this purposive business, and pretty soon the topsoil disappeared. Steps , stops to take a draw on his Lucky.
The use of the word God is deceptive therefore; it results in the distortion of its object, of the sovereign Being, between the sovereignty of an ultimate end, implied in the movement of language, and the servitude of means, on which it is based this is defined as serving that , and so on. God, the end of things, is caught up in the game that makes each thing the means of another. In other words, God, named as the end, becomes a thing insofar as he is named, a thing, put on the plane with all things.
Be that as it may. Adam went on pursuing his purposes and finally invented the free-enterprise system. Eve was not, for a long time, allowed to participate in this because she was a woman. But she joined a bridge club and there found an outlet for her hate. Media philosophy rejects analytics in favor of communication. Explosive, outrageous communication is the lifeblood of hope in the world of simulacra, bureaucracy and collapsing ecosystems Imagologies , 9.
I condemn Christianity. I raise against the Christian church the most terrible of all accusations that any accuser ever uttered. It is to me the highest of all corruptions. To abolish any stress ran counter to its deepest advantages: it lived on distress, it created distress to eternalize itself. The Antichrist , sec. The images of Christian sanctimoniousness conjoined with those of capitalism, technological power and American beneficence, abound in the United States today, and do a great deal to shape the imaginations of the public.
KELLNER is led in chains by the Texas Rangers, since he has been associated with a drunken Frenchman speeding through the tumbleweeds and making dubious pronouncements about their beloved America; even though Kellner protests that he is mostly a critic of the mad Frenchman, this distinction is lost on the Rangers, who, in the meantime are suspiciously eying the book, The Persian Gulf TV War , which is almost mistaken for a special issue of TV Guide: then Kellner begins to read aloud :.
But Bush continued to play the war and religion theme, telling the annual gathering of the Southern Baptist Convention on June 6, , that he recalled praying at Camp David before ordering the start of the Gulf war. From the outset of the crisis in the Gulf, the media employed the frame of popular culture that portrays conflict as a battle between good and evil.
Saddam Hussein quickly became the villain in this scenario with the media vilifying the Iraqi leader as a madman, a Hitler, while whipping up anti-Iraqi war fever. New York Times editorialist A. Historically the American, and perhaps generally the Western, media have been sensory extensions of the main cultural context. Arabs are only an attenuated recent example of Others who have incurred the wrath of a stern White Man, a kind of Puritan superego whose errand into the wilderness knows few boundaries and who will go to great lengths indeed to make his points.
Resounding silence, then. And as you arrogate all mind to yourself, you will see the world around you as mindless and therefore not entitled to moral or ethical consideration. The environment will seem to be yours to exploit. Your survival unit will be you and your folks or conspecifics against the environment of other social units, other races and the brutes and vegetables.
Therefore is death anything other than the separation of the soul from the body? And [is it not so] that death is this, the body becoming separate from the soul and alone by itself, as well as the soul coming to be alone by itself separate from the body? NARRATOR trying now to improve on the Ancients, yet disaffected from the Moderns — who may as well be seen as gangs competing for intellectual turf — attempts to explain, from a newly constructed post on the frontier of modernity, simply represented on stage by a soap box :.
The separation of the one from the other, so that each is alone by itself, is, as we pointed out earlier, the apex of the Socratic-Platonic philosophical quest: to die, to exist as an entity alone by itself. So the NeoChristian Genie of the Living Dead produces a new evolution of Faustian Creatura: synthetic replicants, Event-Scenes, robots, creations without originals, simulacra in ever more fantastic and insidious forms, including in part your Manichean Narrator, programmed to serve their idol: the spectral SELF in its utopian politeia.
Nietzsche, as a classical scholar, saw all this clearly, and had the foresight to reveal it genealogically right down to the deep cultural logic of Platonic software. This imageology of the neocapitalist sacred is wrought subtly and insidiously in the realm of information technology, especially artifical intelligence and virtual reality.
It is the role of the priesthood to maintain themselves, their unilateral, hierarchic power over the populace, particularly by manipulating the imagery of the sacred which is actually a projection of their own egotism, their own acquisitiveness, into the absolute, so making it unassailable. The script of the new order is read by Republican or Democrat, yet the play is very similar. The football fans at home, in turn, were rooting for the troops while watching the game. We live in a culture which strives to return to each of us full responsibility for his own life. The moral responsibility inherited from the Christian tradition has thus been augmented, with the help of the whole modern apparatus of information and communication, by the requirement that everybody should be answerable for every aspect of their lives.
What this amounts to is an expulsion of the other, who has indeed become perfectly useless in the context of a programmed management of life, a regimen where everything conspires to buttress the autarchy of the individual cell. NARRATOR trying to deflect the attention of the Rangers from one of his their favorite post-philosophers, fearing his mouth will be taped shut, raises a question he hopes will resonate in police ears :.
The new megamachine, in the act of being made over on an advanced technological model, also brought into existence the ultimate decision-maker and Divine King, in a transcendent, electronic form: the Central Computer. As the true earthly representative of the Sun God, the computer had first been invented. Pentagon of Power , The megamachine is nominally run by two classes, the technical specialists or technocrats and the presidents of corporations or Commanders, the magicians and priesthood of celestial electronics.
To visit these labs is a singularly depressing experience. Singularly astonishing to realize how sophisticated the development of demonic power in the hands of the technocrats has become; and singularly depressing to realize that the technocrats are immensely pleased to abandon their selves, abandon their bodies, abandon any kind of individuation of emotion as quickly as possible. These are really Dead Souls. But at the same time they are dead souls with real missionary zeal — because they equate technology with religion and they call it freedom.
What is even more disturbing is the expansion of religious awe on the part of the public, at least the believers, to the realms not only of the arts, which is understandable in a culture otherwise bereft of meaning, but into politics and science as well. The wealth of religious feeling, swollen to a river, breaks out again and again, and seeks to conquer new realms: but growing enlightenment has shaken the dogmas of religion and generated a thorough mistrust of it; therefore, feeling, forced out of the religious sphere by enlightenment, throws itself into art; in certain instances, into political life, too, indeed, even directly into science.
Where one perceives a loftier, darker coloration to human endeavors, one may assume that the fear of spirits, the smell of incense, and the shadow of churches have remained attached to them. Human, All too Human , sec. Media philosophy insists that one must take his or her life seriously as being-for-the-other in the space of spectacle. So we do NOT suggest spreading computer viruses and other forms of infosabotage—the tools of literal-minded war. This Daimon is well played not by God but rather by none other than Nietzsche, just arriving at the electronic Altar.
The God of the European tradition was an imperious moralizer, looking down on his children below, pointing a threatening finger at sinners, handing down the law, allowing no revisions. The specter of God the Father has haunted European culture like the Ghost of Hamlet Senior, compelling it to violence and retribution in the Oedipal cycle of the patriarchic nuclear family: male struggle for power within hierarchic structure, One king dominates kingdom just as One god rules the cosmos; one father, in heaven as in the family, ruling over his wife and children; a son who must in turn overcome the father to take his own position beside the surrogate mother, his wife or queen, to complete the cycle of the generations.
It is furthermore to this Oedipal religion that Nietzsche, significantly, counterpoises the genuine evangel:. The consequence of such a state projects itself into a new practice, the genuine evangelical practice. The life of the Redeemer was nothing other than this practice — nor was his death anything else.
He no longer required any formulas, any rites for his intercourse with God — not even prayer. True power is not the use of the holy to wow the congregation but to wake yourselves and them up to the presence of mystery, of unlimited creative power, here and now. An entire human being is partly a clown, partly God, partly crazy. On Nietzsche , xxix. God and the Devil in a new, immanent polymorphous savoir. Man is thought language , and he can be sovereign only through a sovereign thought.
Accursed Share , III, Here I stand in the midst of the surging of the breakers. Then suddenly, as if born out of nothingness, there appears before the portal of this hellish labyrinth, only a few fathoms distant, — a great sailing ship Segelschiff gliding silently along like a ghost. Oh, this ghostly beauty!
With what enchantment it seizes me! Has all the repose and silence in the world embarked here sich hier eingeschifft? Does my happiness itself sit in this quiet place, my happier ego, my second immortalized self. As a ghost — like, calm, gazing, gliding, sweeping neutral being Mittelwesen? Similar to the ship, which, with its white sails, like an immense butterfly, passes over the dark sea. Pass over existence! That is it! Spurs , She hurls herself wildly toward the end of love; eating Achilles, incorporating him, devouring him with kisses.
The space of metaphor has collapsed, fantasies are carried out. Why not? Sounds like Cixous says of Achilles Nietzsche? Yes, all is well, beyond History. Where Achilles is comprehended within Penthesilea, whom he comprehends beyond any calculation. Aside to Nietzsche, and Reznor : How to love a woman without encountering death? A woman who is neither doll nor corpse nor dumb nor weak. But beautiful, lofty, powerful, brilliant? So the betrothed fall back into dust. Vengeance of castration, always at work, and which the wounded poet can surmount only in fiction.
Eroticism is the brink of the abyss. The abyss is the foundation of the possible. This is the stage of rupture, of letting go of things, of looking forward to death. Guilty , But she, she who made Satan, who made everything — good and evil, who smiled on so many things, on love, sacrifices, crimes. What becomes of her?
There she is, alone on the empty heath. Newly Born Woman , To laugh at oneself as one would have to laugh in order to laugh out of the whole truth — to do that even the best so far lacked sufficient sense for the truth, and the most gifted had too little genius for that. Even laughter may yet have a future.
Gay Science , Ch. I, sec. Nonmeaning normally is a simple negation and is said of an object to be canceled. But I make an affirmation in which all life is clarified in consciousness. Whatever moves toward this consciousness of totality, toward this total friendship of humanness and humanity for itself, is quite correctly held to be lacking a basic seriousness. On Nietzsche , xxx. I should actually risk an order of rank among philosophers depending on the rank of their laughter — all the way up to those capable of golden laughter. Beyond Good and Evil , sec. It is significant that Umberto Eco, in The Name of The Rose , represents medieval Christendom as being dependent on the suppression of laughter, which would be validified by the discovery of a secret manuscript, the work on comedy written by the ultimate authority of the Gothic Church, Aristotle.
Jorge feared the second book of Aristotle because it perhaps really did teach how to distort the face of every truth, so that we would not become slaves of our ghosts. Perhaps the mission of those who love mankind is to make people laugh at the truth, to make truth laugh, because the only truth lies in learning to free ourselves from insane passion for the truth. To destroy transcendence, there has to be laughter. On Nietzsche , If Bateson is right the paradoxical shift of the messages of literal behavior into those of play, which require the constant oscillation between the literal message suggested by the nip and its negation the nip is both bite and not-bite is fundamental to the creation of social life and culture.
So, what about laughter? Inhabiting my writing are peculiar boundary creatures — simians, cyborgs, and women — all of which have had a destabilizing place in Western evolutionary, technological, and biological narratives. These boundary creatures are, literally, monsters, a word that shares more than its root with the verb to demonstrate.
Monsters signify. The sudden recognition of this, as in the story of Dunkett, provokes laughter. And so, when Nietzsche arrives at the altar as bishop or philosopher king, expect him to kneel, remove his crown, and toss it over his shoulder, with a chuckle, directly into your devoted hands. School of the Arts University of California-Irvine sfbarker uci.
To attempt any genealogy, let alone a Nietzschean one, of the kind of fragment one confronts in Nietzsche, Derrida, Blanchot, and Beckett, and to do so within the context of the faux-postmodern, 1 is to invite more and less obvious problems of orchestration, content, and performativity. What is the work of which the marginal, the parergonal, the fragmentary, is outside? How is one to map this exchange, of terms and of texts, and how will this economy of the marginal, the transgressive, the nameless, or unnamable, operate within the aestheticized space of writing and reading?
The will to truth which will still tempt us to many a venture, that famous truthfulness of which all philosophers so far have spoken with respect — what questions has this will to truth not laid before us! What strange, wicked, questionable questions! We asked about the value of this will. Suppose we want truth: why not rather untruth? These opening fragments of Beyond Good and Evil have come to fascinate Derrida more and more in recent years, with their implicit questions not only of truth and value but of the transgressive desire for untruth that transparently shines through the cruder truth-questions with which we seem to occupy ourselves.
This subtler work is addressed by Derrida as work to. Truth in Painting If, as Nietzsche declares, the world is a work of art that gives birth to itself, does it give birth wholly? In part? Can a fragment be born? What is the gestation of a fragment, on and as the margin? These questions lie at the metaphorical core of, and are perpetually addressed by and in the work of Blanchot and Beckett, as they are in that of Nietzsche and Derrida, de forming a web of associational vectors linking strategies of writing and reading. Any apocryphal core of this work is radically metaphorical, and thus a function of the connectives, the affinities and tropic tightropes, by which metaphorical associations are forged: the core is and is not a core, but always dispersed out into magnetic, imagistic constellations; meaning and value as revaluation , so-called, are functions of this elementalism.
Nietzsche and Derrida as philosophers of the fragment; Nietzsche for a poetics of aphoristic compactness, Derrida for highly-styled fragmentary and interrogative treatments of marginality and presence. Beckett and Blanchot as poets of the fragment. Nietzsche read none of the others; Derrida reads all. Codes of beauty, and even of being, threaten to shatter and fall before this Nietzschean reinscription, in becoming functions of parallax. Perspectivism is a function of experience in the world, of the moment of experience both Blanchot and Beckett seek so diligently and which is always chimerical.
The chronicling of that metaphoric search produces the anthology of fictive selves and their stories, while simultaneously producing the generative conditions of work under which such stories can be produced. Since self-creation demands an accounting for excess in the form of that Dionysian impulse, such stories are always alien.
To lay out a paramodern map, then, pointing toward an aesthetic of disruption characterized by Nietzsche, clarified and codified by Derrida, implemented by Blanchot and Beckett, one might start with five propositional fragments:. Transposing the modern; the paramodern permutation : addressing the paramodern means confronting the possibilities of a transgressive permutation of the modern, subtle but radical, from a humanistic, artist-centered revolutionary viewing of the world to a para-humanist, mediatized, theorized positionality which is not a worldview.
For Nietzsche the world consists of an absolute parallax, infinite points of view determined and defined by and within a fragmented poetic fabrication. The Theoretical Tightrope : For the paramodern, this ambivalence itself consists of the theorization of the world, acceptance that experience is indeed virtual experience, hyper-experience, self-conscious without self, in the hypothetical fabrication of a self-position from which self-operations take place within the limits of discourse.
If this is all-too-familiar familiar territory, it is chiefly because we paramoderns have accepted the theoretical frame of the world in which we live. The world is the space of theory that gives birth to itself. Why and How Disruption? Modern ist self-focus, that is a focus on the self, provides the culminative crisis of reality-formation that humanism fermented in the Premodern world; it requires a tendentious and strategic response. The paramodern, then, is disruption — of meaning, of style, and of the philosophic and poetic project.
The paramodern is para- rather than post- because of the collusive element at its core. The law, in this case subject-centered modernism, is in a necessary collaboration with its violation. Nietzsche is said to write aphoristically — but in fact this is rarely true. Fragmentation, then, is the Dionysian threat in reaction to reason and the Law. This atomism is echoed in the elementalistic language strategies of Blanchot and Beckett, in which the most fundamental elements are examined for inclusion and rejection.
But in a reversal of expectation as dramatic as anything in these texts, the Nietzsche-position on the fragment and thus to the nature of meaning can present itself in all of its duplicity, as these two contiguous fragments from Beyond Good and Evil demonstrate:. This juxtaposition emphasizes the atomism and synaesthesia — the poetic violence — of the Nietzschean disruption which, as a disruption of the senses, is for Nietzsche a gateway to pre-semiotic writing drives, and at the same time a strategic and parodic juxtaposition of not logical discourse, another step not beyond.
The fragment, as Derrida says,. Because it is structurally liberated from any living meaning, it is always possible that it means nothing at all or that it has no decidable meaning. There is no end to its parodying play with meaning, grafted here and there, beyond any contextual body or finite code. Its secret is rather the possibility that indeed it might have no secret, that it might only be pretending to be simulating some hidden truth within its folds.
Its limit is not only stipulated by its structure but is in fact intimately con-fused with it. Thus the transgression is an act outside the law that enforces the law.
The poetic logic of the fragment and its disruption in both Nietzsche and Derrida is the theft of a trace from any quasi-originary source and from any telos of value or meaning. For Derrida, fragment-thinking insists on its radical liminality and leads to the most abyssal of dialectically encrypted thoughts.
Here Derrida takes up the genealogical baton and creates conditions for a paramodern poiesis :. Margins of Philosophy , The signified concept is never present in and of itself, in a sufficient presence that would refer only to itself. Essentially and lawfully, every concept is inscribed in a chain or in a system within which it refers to the other, to other concepts, by means of the systematic play of differences. Margins , Any play of differences must of course involve both space and time, and must involve the re-theorization of the space in which it occurs. As its name indicates, aphorism separates, it marks dissociation apo , it terminates delimits, arrests horizo.
An aphorism is an exposure to contretemps. It exposes discourse — hands it over to contretemps. Literally — because it is abandoning a word [ une parole ] to its letter. The aphorism of discourse of dissociation: each sentence, each paragraph dedicates itself to separation, it shuts itself up, whether one likes it or not, in the solitude of its proper duration. Its encounter and its contact with the other are always given over to chance, to whatever may befall, good or ill. Nothing is absolutely assured, neither the linking nor the order.
One aphorism in the series can come before or after the other, before and after the other, each can survive the other — and in the other series. This aphoristic series crosses over another one. Because it traces, aphorism lives on, it lives much longer than its present and it lives longer than life. Death sentence. It gives and carries death, but in order to make a decision thus on a sentence of death, it suspends death, it stops it once more. There would not be any contretemps, nor an anachrony, if the separation between monads only disjointed interiorities.
Attridge, Not only so-called interiorities are disjointed by fragmentary separation; the law of the fragment is not one of absolute disintegration nor of erosion but of proliferation and expansion. The paramodern fragment is a network transgressing without transforming, opens without ending, just as the last aphorism in a series is not closed but hangs suspended, as Nietzsche and Derrida show, truncated and never concluded.
As Nietzsche so emphatically declares, any seeming finality of content is undermined and synaesthetized by form. Thus literature, in the paramodern, reveals what it conceals: its movement toward and play with its own disappearance in silence, at the threshold of discourse. Absence in and of the text, and of the textual subject. Characteristics of this double page as emblematic of the work are such things as multiple voices, lists, key terms and obsessions, complete diffusion of subject-position:. In so doing, these spaces enact their own tightrope walk of steps taken and not taken.
Blanchot is obsessed in this text with both the texture and the tendentiousness of additive fragments oscillating within a strategic slippage. Transcendence, transgression: names too close to one another not to make us distrustful of them. Whether it is moral, logical, philosophical, does not transgression continue to make allusion to what remains sacred both in the thought of the limit and in this demarcation, impossible to think, which would introduce the never and always accomplished crossing of the limit into every thought.
Even the notion of the cut in its strictly epistemological rigor makes it easier to compromise, allowing for the possibility of overstepping or of rupturing that we are always ready to let ourselves be granted, even if it is only a metaphor. I am not master of language. I listen to it only in its effacement, effacing myself in it, towards this silent limit where it waits for one to lead it back in order to speak, there where presence fails as it fails there where desire carries it.
Fragmentarity speaks directly to the ontology and teleology of the text. The fragment. There is no experience of it, in the sense that one does not admit it in any form of present, that it would remain without subject if it took place, thus excluding every present and all presence, as it would be excluded from them.
Fragments, marks of the fragmentary, referring to the fragmentary that refers to nothing and has no proper reference, nevertheless attesting to it, pieces that do not compose themselves, are not part of any whole, except to make fragmentary, not separated or isolated, always, on the contrary, effects of separation, separation always separated, the passion of the fragmentary effects of effects. Its referent: nothing. Fragmented, atomized, but never isolated. Here the paramodern death wish surfaces again, and will not conceal itself.
Like the paramodern fragment, the fragmentary effect which is death itself, an effect that cannot take place piles itself before us relentlessly and limitlessly. As for Nietzsche and Derrida, for Blanchot the acknowledgement of the paramodern fragment produces the death-effect in and of language, as a threshold or fold of a slippage in which each proper step pas is a misstep.
Transgressive passivity, dying in which nothing is suffered, nothing acted, which is unconcerned and takes on a name only by neglecting the dying of others. The Unnamable consists entirely of these unstructured and yet highly structured reversals of expectation, bringing character, substantiality, and any veracity of narrative radically and unresolvedly into question. But for Beckett, these short, first-person narratives then develop into something quite different. The very idea of the first-person, with all of its claims to agency, is undermined in Beckett, who uses it to confess the absolute conundrum of the paramodern storyteller.
Who now? When now? By aporia pure and simple? On the other hand, we have seen the way in which impossibility discourses with possibility chez Blanchot, and that this aspect of tightrope logic is a seminal aspect of the transgressive texts of Blanchot and Beckett. For Beckett, this discourse of fragments in their liminal heap requires something more than aporia, since the gaps by which we recognize the paramodern are held in place by the gestures of a poetic prose operating in the tightrope logic of poiesis we have visited in Blanchot.
Can one be ephectic otherwise than unawares? But Beckett goes on:. With the yesses and the noes it is different, they will come back to me as I go along and how, like a bird, to shit on them all without exception. The fact would seem to be, if in my situation one may speak of facts, not only that I shall have to speak of things of which I cannot speak, but also, which is even more interesting, but also that I, which is if possible even more interesting, that I shall have to, I forget, no matter. And at the same time I am obliged to speak.
I shall never be silent. Alternatively, one might float at the very edge of silence with impunity, even transgress its law. And indeed, Beckett has here produced not paragraphs, not aphorisms, but paragraph-elements declaring that if meaning is in the surface of the text if it is anywhere , if the representative or mimetic quality of the text is truly eradicable while not eradicating the text itself, as Nietzsche called for i. Or, as the characterless voice of the unnamable occupying the subject position in The Unnamable says:.
A poetics of desire, of remnants and remains. Here, any notion of the transcendental teleology of aphorism is eradicated; what remains, as remains, is the impossible heap, in equivalency, transmuting and permutating before our eyes into their own negations, authorizing the page on which they are to be found, and simultaneously, opaquely, remaining behind, earthbound yet afloat. Beckett operates here as the ironist on a tightrope of paramodern discourse, a perpetual-motion machine poised at the threshold of the abyss yet always slipping on away from it, forcing us to rely on these substantial and insubstantial words.
And why? Toward what end? In this notion of the transgressive fragmentation of language, the door of sense can only be opened transgressed in the storyesque, and always operates to occlude the subjecthood of experience that would cross over. This dialectic of limitation and limitedness, of the possible and the impossible, points toward the nameless non-transcendence of the fragment.
There is no name for it. This unnamable is not an ineffable being which no name could approach. This unnamable is the play which makes possible nominal effects, the relatively unitary and atomic structures that are called names, the chains of substitutions of names. For Nietzsche, Derrida, Blanchot, and Beckett, poiesis is unavoidable simulacrum, what Derrida calls ineviterability. I have explored, in a series of essays, the strategic parallel strategy of subversion within the so-called modern, at least from the Enlightenment to the present.
No discussion of Blanchot, Beckett, the marginal, and transgression can proceed without reference to Bataille who, throughout his work, explores the nature of excess and the creative negativity of the margin. Gregg has a good deal to say, very usefully, about the relationship between the transgressive and the economy of the law. Gregg states that at the heart of the aesthetic experience is the transgression of the law.
This turning symbolizes for Gregg the central elements of transgression: impatience and desire. This inversion of so-called success and so-called failure is an emblematic marker for both Blanchot and Beckett, as it is for Nietzsche and Derrida. For Blanchot and Beckett, the issue of transgression and the fragment is integrally enmeshed with the theme of death. Transgression, in writing, is a spectacle in which culture witnesses the illegal without committing it. The fragment takes the form of the emblematic sparagmos , parodying the nature of the sacrifice without giving up its agency.
So, I will use one man to get another; I leave Marcus I and turn on Eddie Vedder, lead singer of Pearl Jam, whom I turn into an apparatus rather than a mere object although he is this also in order to shed light upon the work of Roland Barthes and Peter Handke. Second, I distrust the fact that they have consistently been written about in such complete accordance with the stereotypes about French and German language and culture which have functioned for at least years i.
Maybe, or maybe their presence make any party more interesting, as Leslie Gore once tearfully implied. In the 21st Century, the Open Studio often taking the form of a virtual or web location focuses on the creative act of making and sharing, in a flexible space equipped with a range of contemporary media and multimedia. Artists and non-artists come together in a social act of collaboration, the only entry requirements being an inquisitive nature, a curiosity about new and traditional media, and a lack of inhibition about creating in a semi-public space. Is this some form of micro-relationship?
How might this moment of simultaneously affecting and being affected by -both equally active states- be recorded and amplified? Minute but nevertheless tangible and vital forms of affect may be unsolicited, involuntary — perhaps this is a form of disinterested or passive affect? This need arises out of a more general demand for our i. Do those relationship generate capital or exchangeable data, and can that data be monetarized? When people are consumers are encouraged to recognise themselves as consumers who should present themselves as products, who really benefits from all that productivity?
The attraction lies in its potential to offer rest, down-time, but also a space for undetermined speculation, a space for potential itself. It might well be that in some cases being passive, refusing to act, constitutes, conversely, a form of activity, and vice versa. When tireless activity, self-exploitative working patterns, and the constant assertion of our own subject-hood might seem to define our contemporary landscape, then recognising passivity as vital, generating spaces for passivity, and choosing when or how to adopt a passive position might be increasingly necessary.
The effects of excessively competitive and self-exploitative patterns of work arguably take root in the body. Immaterial or cognitive labour materializes, if anywhere, in or on the body, e. I want to consider the ways in which these areas might be co-dependent. Intrinsic to such an expanded, holarchic practice is a complete refusal to accept the given parameters of consensus reality.
This refusal extends through anarchist deconditioning philosophies and into transcendental psychic spaces. Camplin presupposes that the ways our minds can function and connect are not limited to the web of constructed systems that work to establish the normative presumptive limits of human reality. She believes that the human mind is capable of much more than we are conditioned to accept, and that there has historically been an interest in keeping our minds from expanding.
Like her description implies, the work offers a space that seems to oscillate between a work of fiction and the offering of an actual premonition, though not one with an insistent or pointed agenda. In this case the drama speculatively posits far-future Jamaica as a key time-space vector that might assist in the evasion of neuro-mechanical and cybernetic systems of control.
Visually reminiscent of enlarged text book graphics, but with coded fragments of pictographic material that are pulled from metaphysical or even mystical symbolic sources, the black-and-white diagrams are not decipherable in the way that educational graphics are designed to illustrate factual authority. Instead, the graphics allow for associative and instinctive connections. Rather than producing the panels as simple pictorial information, Camplin designed an installation of geometric shaped wood panels that float throughout the space.
The panels are painted white and directly printed upon in black ink giving them a surface quality more rich and complex than if printed on paper or vinyl and mounted. The viewing experience within the clean black-and-white space feels like entering an illustration of an astral projection, perhaps from the mind of a theoretical physicist or a perhaps from the mind of a precognitive pycho-physician or perhaps from the mind of an artist.
Here I met a Utah cowboy, West Taylor, and his horse and I shot a film exploring their relationship and the vast performative landscape that surrounds them. Lay Down asks how power is constructed and understood through the iconic figure of the American cowboy, the influence of the sublime landscape and the authority of the screen.
Lay Down was a video sculpture with continual performance. Its materials list included 29sqm cast rubber sheet, steel, surround sound, video and live performance. She was also invited to undertake a 2 month residency at Matt's Gallery prior to the exhibition. The compositions from these field trips work in parallel to fifty word texts and a number of photographs with collaborator Chiara Caterina.
The compositions, texts and photographs are revealed on the dedicated micro-site, and the texts and photographs appear in the limited edition publication. The publication involves two singer-stitched booklets bound into a clear cover that has been hand spray-painted with the project logo, an abstraction of the red painted stripes that mark the mountain sentieri or paths. Few organs are as charged as the human heart.
From varied backgrounds, the assistants' responses illustrate the different ways in which the evolution of sculptural language has been negotiated. They provide immediate access to artists' thought processes and an insight into the complexity of changing roles. Collectively they reflect and offer a range of perspectives on the frequently contentious and widely discussed role of the artist s assistant and modes of sculptural production.
This newly designed website creates an online patchwork of over 1, embroideries that make up the full text. The exhibition at Arts Catalyst was titled Memory Bug. During his time in the UK, Takeuchi researched the deep time concerns of monuments, site markers and memory around the UK and Belgium. Especially in the aftermath of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster, nuclear crisis has come to mean catastrophic accident rather than military conflict.
Yet the coordinates of the nuclear spatial imaginary remain disturbingly consistent. The immensely destructive capability of nuclear technologies has again become evident in the civilian realm; the scale of the contamination of populations and the environment remains an enormous challenge, as do the containment of toxicity and the issue of how to dispose of radioactive materials that will remain deadly for thousands of years.
The promise of the nuclear — to end all wars; to generate cheap and boundless energy — is in many ways itself a toxic remnant of a triumphant industrial modernity that has failed to account for the experience on the ground. This nuclear modernity is part of a complex belief system that has sedimented faith in scientific solutions into everyday practices which maintain the nuclear status quo. How might the nuclear be approached otherwise? Can the abstracting gaze of modernity in its nuclear form be addressed through an attention to the materials that make up the industries driven by nuclear technology?
How might the nuclear be apprehended not, from above and outside the target zone, but from below, from within, close at hand? Can art practice engage with and find new ways of addressing belief in scientific modernity, its specialist knowledge and operating procedures? Is it possible to think beyond the permanent dread produced by a notionally un-inventable technology?
What kinds of knowledge need to be retained, and what might be lost? These are some of the questions addressed by artists dealing with the contemporary nuclear threat. In this culture of extremes, artists engaging with contemporary nuclear culture walk a political tightrope interrogating how nuclear aesthetics are reproduced whilst avoiding the simplifying tropes of industry and activism. In parallel to artistic practices, this essay explores some of the constructions of nuclear modernity, and the means of escape and betrayal, which contribute to rethinking nuclear aesthetics in the early twentieth century.
The SDP Advisory Group have been invited to hold their final meeting in Plymouth, to enable the group to view the exhibition, meet artists, and take part in a round table discussion with people from the naval base, retired submariners, and artists and activists in Plymouth. The exhibition brings together twenty-five international artists from across Europe, the USA and Japan, investigating nuclear aesthetics through the material sensing of nuclear sites and experiences. Perpetual Uncertainty is curated by Ele Carpenter and the title refers to the instability of knowledge, not-knowing, risk perception and deep time.
The exhibition focuses on contemporary experiences of radiation, nuclear aesthetics and future archives. Artworks investigate the aesthetics of nuclear dismantling with new perspectives on nuclear culture and archives in a post-digital age. New commissions investigate the Swedish nuclear context and the complexity of intergenerational memory through belief systems, folklore and site markers.
The exhibition will contribute to the discourse of the Nuclear Anthropocene, where the impact of human activity is evidenced in fallout from atomic testing and nuclear accidents, and the insertion of radioactive waste into the fossil record. Dimension: 5 x 3. Placed on top is a partially rolled out 11 x 5 metre roll of Berber Carpet. On Saturdays a group of teenagers reside on the ramp and unravel threads using instruction sheets, scented liquids and apparatus provided.
Unpicking threads are amplified through contact mics. A photograph of Seedbed can be viewed in relation to a view of underneath the ramp. Immaterial and creative labour in adolescence is unpacked, performed and articulated over time. The work began with basic instructions which became worker led leading to unknown relational outcomes. Methods of critical pedagogy are explored. Channels of communication and documentation were kept open through a WhatsApp group. An accelerated slideshow is available for educational talks only. However, amongst these earnest attempts to change public opinion there is a realm of decidedly queer fat activist activity that indulges in unabashed revelry in fatness, highlighting ways in which fat subjectivities are constructed through narratives of trauma, shame and ill-health.
Critical pedagogic models were enacted through three primary approaches: a broad selection of source material spanning art, popular culture, and academic theory, active engagement with the role of affect in pedagogic encounters, and the combination of performative, embodied modes of learning with more traditional pedagogic methods in the art museum.
A confluence of planes formed from cast concrete, aluminum chains and works on paper, project out into the gallery along axes defined by the isometric grid. Isometric meaning equal measure , is a type of axonometric projection where linear axes appear equally foreshortened suggesting a dynamic interrelation and equality of space and form unaffected by perspectival proximity. Isometric projection centers the viewer at all points without focusing on any one predominant convergence. Instead, an unfocused yet fundamental peripheral vision suggests multiple non-determinate points of interaction and enquiry.
Through the intersection of horizontal and vertical planes of varying material and opacity, Charman delineates the grid into a series of recesses and subdivisions that draws the senses and the body towards intimate encounters between planes. Dwelling spaces open up activated by the body, suggesting a perception and physical engagement with objects, not as they are, but as we are in relation to them.
Charman will transform a room into a camera obscura projecting the view outside onto the interior walls. Brennan begins a long-term project that seeks to engage residents in their experiences of life in the area and presents new work, including graphite rubbings of doormats. The thematic appraoch features almost items of twentieth and twenty-first century design viewed through the angles of the designer, manufacturer and user, including a crowdsourced wall.
The exhibition covers a broad range of design disciplines, from architecture and engineering, to the digital world, fashion and graphics. Designer Maker User features a bold, colourful and engaging display developed to encourage engagement for general and specialist audiences. The show was timed to celebrate one of the recently graduated MA students who was awarded an Artist in Residence position, Chihiro Yoshikura Kurara and who was leaving the UK at the end of that month to return to Japan. The exhibition explored different aspects of the artificial taking its roots meaning from the Latin term 'artificium'.
The four artists' practices variously interrogated what it might mean to produce and work with visuals and materials that were by their nature highly artificial. The exhibition also hosted a symposium on Thursday 14th January in the Herbert Read Gallery that was open to all schools within Canterbury and was very well attended by both staff and students with standing room only.
The event was recorded on video and the whole event is to be archived. The exhibition was curated by Edward Chell. The fonts and design templates used for the show plates are unique and specific to this side of the automobile show plate industry often used on customised cars. Taking into account the text fonts and visual templates these also cue the British side of this industry in a post Brexit and European Greece.
The world most endangered species is the aptly named Bastard Gum Tree. There are only two survivors in existence — both on opposite sides of the same island, St Helena, in the middle of the Atlantic and still a remote outpost of a dwindled one-time British empire. St Helena is an essay in environmental degradation. One such is a species of daisy that grows into a tree — a tree daisy, an unlikely species if ever there was one. The plates are manufactured to the standard size in laminated plastic and are small and light enough to be carried in hand luggage. The piece is flexible enough to be configured in a range of different ways from a single cluster to a linear installation, clustered in groups and scattered like seeds or germinating weeds around an exhibition.
Carbon is the most stable form of the Carbon element. Drive Thru was conceived by Roger Clarke who has curated and exhibited at this unusual venue for the last three years. He negotiated individual requirements with the owners for each of the contributing artists. The exhibition included over sixty artists and on the Saturday 8th October included a day of live events, performances and film screenings. My ten-minute film Orbital was screened at this event. Taking inspiration from the experience of seeing things out of a moving car, the artists are invited you consider presenting work or works that can be quickly viewed and are of a scale that can be digested in the fleeting moment or otherwise pertinent to the car parking environment and its associated narratives.
The exhibition encompasses artists working in a range of media - sculpture, video, performance and painting.
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The work can be encountered from the car travelling either moving or parked. In this case the number plates will take up position as the nomenclature of private parking bays. It is an intimate portrait of a peripheral and charismatic community of the high desert, struggling to find meaning and moments of grace in a hostile environment. The work explores the encounters between people and nature, it is a play with light, impermanence and the faculties of seeing. During the mile journey, Childerley met people who live on both sides of the line and learnt about their relationship with place, past and present and how two recent referendums have exposed angst over sovereignty and the significance of the border.
Much of her recent work has explored the rural experience and relationship to place, how this forms identity and represents belonging told through story. Walking through this often wild and remote land it is hard to imagine the days of the Reivers who fought over it. However this border is again a focus for debate over sovereignty whilst international borders have become significant barriers for huge numbers of refugees in their perilous journeys across Europe raising issues of nationalism and identity. The artwork appears as a page in the journal Schizm. Now as ever, painting is a ritualized display of surfaces.
Yet we hesitate to forge an ideological link between surface and value today. And for good historical reasons. But by thinking speculatively, historically and disjunctively, we can discern two or three major sites of possibility in painting today, each of which approaches surface strategically.
Successive moments of art-critical resonance — like Greenberg in the late s, minimalism modelled by Morris and Judd in the 60s, relational aesthetics in the 90s according to the gospel of Bourriaud — all these can be grasped as shifting claims for immanence. And immanence itself equates to an insistence on a surface level; as opposed to transcendence with its implication of heights, depths and levels of hierarchy.
The paper then lingers on some of the complex implications of immanence for painting in its relation to the range of postconceptual practices. That complexity will have a lot to do with thinking surface both spatially and temporally. The review argues that Riley's oevre is characterized by a tension between a potetntially disruptive opticality, on the one hand, and a sober formalism, on the other; the curation of surveys like this seems dedicated to concealing this basic tension, which is what is most interesting in Riley's body of work.
The exhibition engaged eleven contemporary artists from Scotland, UK and Europe who presented new, existing and commissioned work alongside these artefacts from the collection of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.
Maurice Blanchot: A Critical Biography
The artefacts include a variety of species originating in South America and the Asia-Pacific regions including Archontophoenix alexandrae, and the now threatened species Cryosophila nana, as well as sections of Livistona australis which was in the tallest palm in Britian at 72ft. From the Glasgow International description:. The anthropologist Michel de Certeau suggested that a reader might temporarily inhabit a written text like a house guest or a tenant.
Considering the remnants of former domestic architecture within the gallery, and the wider festival audience, Renderuin invites visitors to occupy it momentarily and change its topology with their presence. Hmn aims to provide a simple, intimate, and unique platform for testing what sound is and can be.
It is concerned with the dialectic exchanges between my work and the places in which its meaning is defined. The exploration of the relationship between the notion of time and my practice has profoundly affected my research, which has itself endured for an extended period of time. This is described in chronological sequence: 1 initial site-specific installations, 2 site-writing: the thesis and photographic documentation of the installations, 3 installation of the documentation of the initial site-specific installations on the occasion of my viva.
The hypothesis advanced is that by adjusting the limits between the double experience of the fluidities and continuities of space and time, on the one hand,and their ruptures and disconnections, on the other, site-specific art may allow viewers to think and experience apparent contradictions as sustaining relations. Their documentations emphasise the paradox of representing site-specific work on the page. Another set of documentation will be exhibited at the viva, comprising the material of anew situation with its own spatio-temporal relationships other than those of the initial installations , and will require anew the physical participation of the viewer to be perceived.
Casas de artista, casas-museo. Historias marginales y simuladas de lo domestico. Research comprising detailed analysis of the action outlined in the text has uncovered complex formal patterning of events evidencing underlying conceptual constructs. These are combined to say the unsayable. The analysis raises questions about the implicit in training, whether in writing or in person. The text is neither record nor template, but evokes the implicit, communicating experience and embodied practice on the page through structural and narrative devices.
When reflected back onto the practice from which it emerges, this situates the choices made by actors as contributing towards the construction of a stable attention field with which they enter into relationship during performance. A system behind the system: but is it Stanislavski? Form revealed content: examination of narrative patterns facilitated the discovery of underlying conceptual constructs. The structure of the narrative appears to deliver a systematic encounter with a spatial adpositional model in which bodily experience originates the sensory, spatial and relational terms of inner experience, which are then applied back onto the body.
Experience is embodied, and embodiment is experienced. During the training, and within the framework of the gradually emerging spatial adpositional model, Stanislavski teaches his students to manipulate naturally occurring experiential phenomena in specific ways for the purposes of acting. Addressing the subject of human experience alongside that of acting truthfully, Stanislavski uses the parallel to shed light on both.
Training is thus a process of learning to manage and direct attention deliberately within the potentiated subjective experiential environment. Truthful acting, or living through the given circumstances, is reframed within this attentional environment as the creation of attention fields with which the actor enters into a specific spatio-temporal relationship that remains generative during performance. The system behind the System may correspond with contemporary neuroscientific developments. It takes us right into the burning issue of drones and all other monitoring systems that use photo and video cameras.
These cameras quite often bear a sticker with a smiley asking those being recorded, whether in a car park, at a supermarket check-out, or on public transport, to smile. A number of artists, hackers and political activists have refused to smile, instead appropriating these surveillance devices momentarily. Their actions have remained isolated, because never before has a grassroot movement fought against the increasingly invasive presence of depersonalised cameras in public spaces.
It has also been a quarter of a century in which street photographers, both amateur and professional, have met with hostility, or even aggression from citizens, the same citizens [ In another series, Clark investigated the unconceivable existence of so-called Control Order Houses in the United Kingdom. In recent work, Mountains of Majeed, Clark delved into the world of military camps in Afghanistan. With documents, juridical protocols and photographs, Clark weaves a complex net of information, revealing the overwhelming scale of this system and the consequences the world will continue to experience.
This exhibition is a unique arrangement and installation of material for Zephyr's primarily German audience. Fools Rush In is a solo print exhibition, exploring the autobiography and in particular how a contemporary ubiquity of its form has almost completely obliterated any sense of value, distinction and esteem. He is interested in a consumerist obsession with premature legacies and fabricated life stories that often form the foundations of these books, against genuine heroic endeavours and achievements. Clarke is concerned with the ever-increasing inequality gap in the UK and how the media use celebrity hero worship as a means of keeping people apathetic.
He dissects the books, leaving only the embossed spine which he then paints and applies printmaking ink to. This process of working removes any hierarchy or status between the famous personalities, creating equality through the process of making. For his project at AirSpace, Clarke will work with students on the BA Fine Art course at Staffordshire University to locate and collect every autobiography to be found in charity shops across the six towns of Stoke-on-Trent. These discoveries will become the subjects and material for the exhibition. To act as a counter to the celebrity culture which these glossy autobiographies represent, and to celebrate the life stories of local people in Stoke-on-Trent we have invited six local writers to ghost write a limited edition of autobiographies about local heroes.
As a close to the exhibition, a book signing will take place allowing the public to meet the writers and their subjects. The books will be available to buy on the evening. The exhibition explores themes of value and the re-defining of redundant material that is specifically collected, recycled and re-contextualised by a group of British based artists. The themes within this exhibition vary from the theoretical, political or practical but all the artists share a similar compulsion to return to a particular and unusual substance to drive their work.
Like the hoarder, who acquires the unwanted, each artist finds great potential and resourcefulness in what is discarded, undesirable and abandoned. Illustration as a practice, as an idea, as a tool, is so powerful, charming and winsome, seeing it differently as an object or practice feels impossible. In this feature they use the work in Mut Mut, and the film they made about the show, as a platform to explore new ways of seeing illustration. Visitors will witness how the working classes went from objects in photos, to heroic representations of industry and finally to photographers themselves.
The exhibition highlights unseen images from important photographic collections. This is an exhibition on loan from the Peoples History Museum, Manchester. The exhibition is in partnership with Ian Beesley, with original works by the poet Ian Macmillan. Places exist as talismanic for the artist — the studio of course, the retreat, the mountain, the street, the cave… the interface between the artist and artifice. The context changes whatever it includes; inelegant Moses, stumbling after the words he lacks, falls prey to suave Aaron who can betray the truth in making it more comprehensible.
Secondary shadows can falsify the ideal… There are slogans, defiant stands are taken, or comfort in the un familiar. Always a dialogue with oneself hoping someone is listening in — the cave echoes with voices. The pictorial offers us a way to explore these experiences and reinvent the world we see. While the picture plane may be viewed as a window onto an illusion of space, it is also the surface upon which spatial reality may be rebuilt.
This was followed by open discussion with the panel, as well as time for questions from the audience. Hosted by Tate Modern, this event brought together key actors in socially engaged art including artists, educators, academics, curators and policy figures. Sarah Cole's talk focused on her practice, with specific reference to using documentation as both a record and a spur for the generation and dissemination of socially engaged methodologies.
For this exhibition Sarah Cole revisited her work TRIBE , installing elements, notes and plans to consider where the participants young women aged were then and are now. In Polarised we are presented with lenses that alternately allow or block views into an installation, simultaneously reflecting and refracting projected moving image in a space, incorporating sculpture, lighting and sound.
Here the artists present light as a form of control, with a role both in social and cultural posturing, as well as in the dynamics of looking and being looked at, riffing on the formal relationships and cultural connotations embedded into the shaded gaze. This is a work that destabilises the act of looking, one that forces us to see it in a different light. In Polarised Kim and Laura create a carefully constructed enterprise, a world of light and sound where our experience of it is electrifying. The video 'Polarised' is a self-reflective video that circumspectly unravels a cluster of relationships.
Recorded on-site in the gallery while developing a collaborative exhibition of the same name, the work exposes dynamics between two artists whose processes are both characterised by a heightened awareness of the sensual effect produced between the electric bodies of light and camera, between video and sound, and between the reflector and the reflected. Polarised was a first collaboration between Kim Coleman and Laura Buckley and was originally developed as part of an installation created as Artists in Residence at Block , London Collaborative projects include a live performance with Paul Purgas at the Whitechapel Gallery London.
The work was created for 'Here is Information: Mobilise' at The Showroom, London - a weekend of events celebrating the life and work of Ian White By the time of his early death in , Ian White was a uniquely influential figure: an artist, performer, curator, teacher and writer, whose ideas had affected a generation of artists working with the moving image. In the work, a projected video work shows an apartment illuminated through various forms of lighting - candlelight, lamps, a video projector and a strobe —as they each demonstrate their in turn soft, sharp violent, or atmospheric effect on the space.
This single screen work is presented alongside a pre-programmed colour-strobe. Mobile phones are also dropped intermittently. This work was created for 'Here is Information: Mobilise' at The Showroom, London - a weekend of events celebrating the life and work of Ian White Kingston Public.
The Disembodied Voice is a collaborative research project which sets out to investigate the relationship between the disembodied voice and contemporary visual culture. Internal monologues, social desires and multiple selves are revealed through the interface of this character's voices. The glistening, dark presence of the rig is punctured by Youtube-culled footage of the rig's counter-character, Meat. Footage looking out into high-rise, night-time lights from the rotating restaurant form the page background, a static yet revolving frame for the other page elements.
The page features — text blocks, anchor shaped hotspots, videos and audio clips — scroll over the top of the revolving background, controlled by the computer user. The scripted monologues of the islander written in collaboration with novelist Yannick Hill , become blocks of text and an audio file that activates as the user scrolls down the page.
Positioned next to strategic elements of the page, anchor symbols mark points at which the viewer can activate the appearance of text from the screen play and the script of a narrator who ruminates on the previous versions of the work written in collaboration with art writer Rachel Emily Taylor. This web version incorporates multiple voices, that form a polyphonic sound track to the work.
From traditional to online expressions, we found individual routes to the unbook within dispersed geographies of time, place and the varieties of human voice. The work comes in two parts — a data driven moving image work and a physical installation showing the yearly summer-winter fluctuations of arctic sea ice age minima-maxima over an extended period of 25 years.
The installation presents a terser set of approaches by arranging the entire data set as stacked print-outs. Organised quasi-bureaucratically, the data is opened to public scrutiny and navigation, reminding us that data is always situated and embodied in contextual, discursive and material practices that exceed a technical base. It starts by identifying the removal of the human figure in minimal art and with notions of objectivity, repetition and indifference.
Krauss, by claiming that there is a necessity to reflect upon the sculptural object and the subject beyond that which is produced by the principles outlined by these artists and critics. Working through readings of Judith Butler, Alain Badiou, Hannah Arendt, Bernard Stiegler, Jacques Lacan and others, the argument establishes the contingency and polemics of the term hero, the way it pertains to the introduction of the new and how it coalesces action and narrative with constant negotiation.
Additionally, the problem of knowing what constitutes a subject of heroism is associated with the formation of an ethical subject. I conclude, in contrast to Simon Critchley and Jacques Derrida, that this subject can be articulated using the hero strategically as a conceit. I also suggest that, as such, it can be realized through the work of figurative sculpture and the agonist space it produces. Alongside this, the thesis rethinks the materiality associated with figuration in terms of construction, and elaborates on the importance of the hero to the post-mannequin condition of figurative sculpture based on how it combines invention with political determination.
This is further examined by looking at the work of Isa Genzken, Rachel Harrison and Mark Manders, and especially at the practice-based component of this thesis. By legality of colours, this thesis references the quality or state of being in accordance and observance of laws that address colour. Colour is a phenomenon of visual light perception described in terms of hue, lightness, and saturation in tandem with the understanding that colour is a vibrating wavelength interpreted through the brain within a complex neurobiological construction.
What are the impacts, force, and agency of colours in public spaces? How do colours re produce socio-cultural power relationships in neoliberal societies? How do colours contribute to fixing and replicating social, national, and economic differences? In what ways do colours either implicitly or explicitly work as mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion?
It is argued that colour is a mechanism for the commodification of public spaces within neoliberal societies. By commodification, this thesis refers to the theory used to describe the process by which something that does not have an economic value is assigned a value and thus illustrating how market values can replace other social values. Colour has been controlled, manipulated, and regulated within public spaces by authoritative powers to psychologically influence human populations. Within this argument, a concern for the effects of colour in public spaces has predominately been overshadowed by a concern for capitalization.