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Every reader experiences Phantasien differently. Indeed, even if someone reads the same text twice, it will likely be different each time, since the reader will approach the text with different experiences and thus genereate different associations. Each time, Bastian learns, you must give the Childlike Empress a new name. The playing field is different each time. Herein lies one of the fundamental pleasures of reading.

Why else read a book twice? And in a strange way, the world also looks slightly different, too. Phantasien and Reality We read because it takes us somewhere new. And yet, throughout the process of reading, the self remains in the background. Iser describes there being essentially two selves at work in the act of reading: the real me and the alien me.

In reading, the reader will try to bring these two in accord. At the end of his journey, Bastian returns home more confident than in the beginning. Besides this experience, he cannot not take anything back from Phantasien. In the book, Ende explains that you can only take back the experiences you make in Phantasien. There is one exception, though. Before returning home, Bastian bathes in the Water of Life. Like Bastian, his father had entered a state of despair after his wife passed away.

In this sense, the reading experience not only affects a change in Bastian but in his father as well. How long was Bastian in Phantasien? It seems it all could have happened in one night. Was it perhaps a dream, then? Indeed, he raises the question how real or unreal a dream really is. To Ende, reality and fiction exist side by side and, in fact, complement each other. The role of literature in shaping a new reality To Ende, reading is essentially about experiencing a different world and then returning to our world in a new state of consciousness.

Ideally, Iser holds, the text should confront the reader with two divergent worlds. In this sense, the text provides an outlet for the most fundamental values of our society. As Iser puts it, while social structures use negation to stabilize our view of reality, literary systems use them to expand it. Wiedenmann 55 L. For one, it is too specific because his theoretical framework does not apply to all types of literature. Similarly, though Iser himself is skeptical of film, his theoretical framework works just as well with many works of cinema.

Particularly nowadays, there is a constant dialogue between media. To him, writing and art could complement each other. Indeed, he was curious to see The Neverending Story turned into a movie. And yet, he was later greatly disappointed with the result. What kind of changes did the movie medium call for? And why was Ende so disappointed by the movie?

In the next section, I will address some of these questions, drawing on adaptation theory. Wiedenmann 56 Notes!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! This quote originates from a typescript from Ende, belonging to a bequest. Personally, I never read the book as a child.

I would assume that the metaphysical dimension of the book is not as pronounced with young audiences. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Holland, Wiedenmann 57!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Compare to hermeneutic circle 45 Compare to James P. For my intents and purposes, this was a too specific topic. Still, it is highly interesting, and may in fact inform my studies here.

I welcome any further insights on the topic. For more information, see Bruyn, Wolfgang Iser, Wiedenmann 58 IV. Introduction The movie turned out to be a great commercial success. At the time, it was the most expensive German movie ever made. Particularly Michael Ende, who had been an enthusiastic collaborator in the early stages of production, was ultimately disenchanted.

Ultimately, the movie became his greatest source of frustration and perhaps what he may have also considered his greatest regret. Where did it all go wrong? In the end, the adaptation of The Neverending Story illustrates the paradigm of how an author will often find issues with an adaptation of his own work. Geissler Secures the Rights to Make the Film After the book became a bestseller, there were many companies interested in securing the rights to the movie.

Among these were a number of international companies, including the Walt Disney Production Company. Ende and Geissler agreed that the movie should become a distinctly European fantasy film rather than a kind of Star Wars spectacle. He was hoping that the movie could present his book in a new and meaningful way.

After news circulated that there would be a movie adaptation of the book, Ende received many letters of protest from his readers. They strongly objected to the idea of a movie adaptation. Ende saw himself compelled to address the general question of whether an author can draw on the filmic medium for artistic purposes. Hopes — Michael Ende defends the film medium Though film represents a medium for the masses, Ende argued that it should not be dismissed simply for this reason.

Ende reasoned that the film medium also has the potential to be an artistic medium, since there were several movies he considered works of art. Ende concedes that there are many more bad movies than there are good movies. However, he notes, there are also many more bad books than good books. Indeed, Ende offers some very compelling views on the subject. One of the concerns brought forth by his readers was that a film denies a viewer his imaginative agency. In this sense, one might argue, it fulfills the exact opposite function of a book. Ende points out that the fear of the image is as old as European culture itself, referring to iconoclast movement that prohibited the portrayal of deities.

He says this fear is unjustified, since he himself knows hundreds even thousands of images of Christ, yet his own image remains intact. Similarly, he mentions having seen numerous film adaptations of the Brothers Karamasov by Dostoyevsky. In general, Ende was very optimistic about film medium. Still, there were a few potential dangers he anticipated.

Whether this kernel may be retained, Ende holds, depends entirely on the director and the quality of the movie. Making a movie of his book prompted the challenge of adapting the story to the screen. In all, it took around three years to compose the script, while it only took half a year to shoot the movie. How could you keep them distinct? He was also the first to compose a script.

In this first version, Bastian is not in an attic reading a book, but in an old, run-down cinema watching movies. Koreander, who in the book is the old bookshop owner, is here a movie projector, who uses old celluloid strips to lure Bastian into the film world. The fantasy figures in the book became references to other movies like vampires, monsters, and werewolves.

The next person Geissler put to work was his assistant, Dr. Christian Schneider. As Ende later recalls, Schneider was the one originally responsible for convincing him to sell the rights to Geissler. However, this also proved to be a brief stint. Schneider worked on conceiving a script for a total of three months, before ultimately giving up. When he heard about it, he was at his home in Italy.

This marked the beginning of a series of legal disputes. From the start, Ende had tried to prevent selling the rights to a large production company. However, it seems that Neue Constantin had always intended for the movie to be an extremely ambitious and costly endeavor. The German box offices would not yield enough for this undertaking. Therefore, it was clear from the start that the movie would have to be made in English since the American box offices presented a huge potential market. Like Geissler, Eichinger promised that it would be a distinctly European film.

Ende himself described his relationship with Neue Constantin as exceedingly positive ungeheuer positiv , and thus the work began. Ende actively collaborated with Dietl. Still, both admitted to being anxious about making the movie. This time, the set-up seemed very promising. Ende even invited Dietl to his home in Italy, to work on the script together. However, even at this early point in the collaboration, there were already many disagreements with the production company, which constantly requested changes be made to the script.

A number of times, scenes had to be rewritten, and the preparations for the movie constantly demanded new decisions to be made. To them, it was still too complicated and especially far too lengthy. Still, the production company seemed to have a different vision for the script. Without telling Ende, they hired the scriptwriter Hermann Weigel, who had become popular after having written the script for Christiane F. Ende was flabbergasted. The speed of production had grown too fast for him. In a stroke of good fortune, they were able to convince Wolfgang Petersen, director of the internationally renowned movie Das Boot, to headline the project.

However, Ende was still not convinced the project was going in the right direction. At this junction point, Ende and his legal advisors met with representatives of the Neue Constantin, including Eichinger and Petersen, to discuss points of conflict regarding the story. By this point, Ende had also come to learn that a script inevitably had to take some departures from the original. To him, it was too dark and heavy. Ende and Petersen tried to rework the script into something the production company might like more. One day, Petersen called Ende at his hotel, to report that he was going to quit.

This was the fourth director that had become discouraged with the project. However, at this point, the production of the movie was well underway, and the production company could not afford looking for a new director. In the end, Eichinger managed to convince Petersen to stay on board. Wiedenmann 67 I.

In a covert operation, they contracted a so-called script doctor named John Hill. Together, Hill, Weigel, Petersen, and Eichinger, spent one month working on the script. The Neue Constantin was finally satisfied and the production began soon after.

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The story goes that Ende heard about this new version only by chance. Apparently, Ul di Rico called him to ask how he liked the new script. Since Ende had never received this script, he was shocked to hear about this new version. He contacted the Neue Constantin immediately, and they delivered him the script. He was greatly disappointed with what he saw. However, at this point, the production company could not possibly abort the project. In the end, the production company forced Ende to back off.

Ende had fought long and hard, but in the end he had no choice but to admit defeat. The odds were not in his favor. The project left him feeling betrayed and pretty cynical towards film adaptations in general. In a later interview, he remarked that he ought to have been thankful to see his book turned into a movie. The Movie — Minor Changes So what remained of the book? It was clear fairly early on that the movie would only cover the first half of the book. By and large, the changes introduced by the movie were fairly innocent.

Most of them were little gags for entertainment value. For instance, some of the characters have little quirks in the movie. In a similar vein, Fuchur has a constant itch behind his ear, and he winks at Atreju far more often than he should. Though these details may somewhat distract from the story itself, they do nothing to really hamper with the story. For instance, when the Childlike Empress is searching for her hero, the movie leaves out an intermittent step, in which a representative of the empress seeks the kingdom to find Atreju.

In the book, this scene primarily serves to illustrate Phantasien more than representing an actual plot point.

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There are many more minor changes similar to these. However, they are surely not important enough to warrant further enumeration here. Most likely, Ende would have agreed on these changes. In fact, he may have proposed some of these himself to fit the format of the movie.

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The changes that likely frustrated Ende most were those that conflicted with the ideology of his book. Wiedenmann 70 K. Though these laws may not directly pertain to the plot, they relate to some of the more general themes of the book. On a few occasions, the movie departs from the laws set up in the book. For instance, at the end of the movie, Bastian returns home riding Fuchur. Together, they are able to scare away the bullies, effectively giving the bullies what they deserve and providing the movie with a happy ending.

In the book, Bastian cannot take anything back from Phantasien besides his experiences This constituted a key metaphysical aspect of the book that the movie disregarded—deliberately or not. In the context of the movie, this scene does not make sense because it raises the question, whose version of Phantasien we have been seeing. Reactions to the Movie: Michael Ende On March 29, , the production company invited Ende to a private screening of the movie Nullkopie. He had already seen the script, and he had visited the set several times in the initial stages of production.

However, this was the first time he saw the movie in full. The script had already been difficult for Ende to tolerate. However, seeing a visual rendering of what he had read was probably more than he could bear. Ende clearly felt that the movie had not stayed true to the basis of his story. Reactions to the Movie: Press In general, the movie received mixed reviews from the press. In his review of the movie, Canby jeered the film as a "graceless, humorless fantasy for children. He described Fuchur as "an impractical bathmat. A more positive review stated the movie provided a convincing illusion of "an entirely new world.

Still today, people who have read the book maintain that the movie does not do justice to the book. Differences in Media: Reality of the trade Though this may seem obvious, a book and film are subject to two fundamentally different modes of production. To fund these various aspects of production, a large budget is required. While still working with Geissler, Ende assumed that the movie would cost no more than a few million Deutsche Mark to make. To Geissler, it was clear from the beginning that the project would cost more like ten to twenty million Deutsche Mark.

They were expecting for the movie to become huge international success. Still, the production company tried to keep the budget at a minimum, which naturally informed decisions in the making of the movie. Ende likely envisioned for the movie to be just as multifaceted and thought-provoking as his book. However, at the risk of being unclear, the producers had to keep the movie simple, especially since this movie was intended primarily for a young audience.

In addition, as the production moved along, the budget kept increasing, as unexpected costs came up. He envisioned for the movie adaptation to become a work of rare artistic quality. A book is often adapted to the screen precisely because it presents such a popular medium. The theorist Bazin alludes to this fact in one of his early essays, published in One must also realize that most adapters care far more about the latter than about the former.

Wiedenmann 75 O. Differences in Media — Showing vs. Telling Books and movies represent two fundamentally different modes of storytelling. While novels represent a primarily verbal medium, movies represent a primarily visual medium. Though they may both be utilized to narrative ends, both media are diametrically opposed: Novels show by ways of telling, while movies tell by ways of showing.

With movies, images must be arranged to tell a story. In this sense, one may consider a movie to offer a more specific rendering of a novel. For this reason, Anthony Burgess, the author of A Clockwork Orange, holds that novels almost demand movie adaptations. Of course, Burgess, being an author himself, is only being facetious here.

Nonetheless, his remark serves to illustrate a key distinction between novels and films; where novels describe, movies may provide concrete images, bringing the reader one step closer to this fictive universe. Images have a more immediate impact on a viewer. While these images may make for a compelling experience, they may, in other cases, be perceived as offsetting. Differences in Media: Time Another fundamental difference between the two media concerns the aspect of time.

All movies have a predetermined runtime. In movies, time is ongoing. With a book, the rate at which the story progresses depends entirely on the reader. It is indeterminate. Still, given the relatively short runtime of a movie, the assumption is that it will be consumed in one sitting. A movie is supposed to provide an experience, given the time allotted. Here, again, the movie and the book are at odds with one another: "The novel renders the illusion of space by going from point to point in time; the film renders time by going from point to point in space.

As Bluestone puts it, a novel has three tenses, while a film has only one. Only through film grammar can you allude to changes in the temporal plane, i. Still, these distinctions are not easily conveyed and are arguably not natural to the medium. More abstract notions of time or deliberately vague notions of time cannot be presented. As alluded to in Section II, Ende was deliberately ambiguous about notions of time. Similarly, he raises the question how long everything in Phantasien has already existed.

After Bastian creates Perelin, the Colorful Forest, he later asks Gramaogran how long it has already been there. Ende alludes to the fact that stories are never new. According to Ende, since history is constantly recreated, every story represents a recreation of the past. Of course, this concept would be virtually impossible to convey in a movie. Before I address the question of fidelity, I should therefore like to convey the arguments on both sides.

Divorcing Form and Content: Those Against Michael Ende is among those that argue that a story cannot be divorced from its form. Um nichts anderes! The two complement each other. Nonetheless, Ende encourages creating art across all media. It turns out that The Neverending Story was not the first adaptation of his work that he found unsatisfactory. In the novel, Momo is described as only ever listening, rarely ever speaking herself. Divorcing Form and Content: Those In Favor On the opposing front, there are many who believe that form and content can indeed be separated.

Ende did not deem this possible, since he considered his book to represent a kind of Gesamtkunstwerk. If it is true what Bazin says, then it should be possible to break The Neverending Story down into certain basic narrative elements. Hypothetically speaking, how far could you abstract the story before it becomes unrecognizable?

What if you changed the names of all characters? Or if Bastian was a girl, instead? This issue has preoccupied scholars since the inception of adaptation theory as an academic field of study and certainly well before as well. Most scholarship on adaptation theory suggests that staying true to this kernel marks a successful adaptation, while a failure to retain this kernel marks an unsuccessful adaptation. As more recent scholarship has argued, this question of fidelity is insufficient to properly evaluate an adaptation. The Question of Fidelity To address the question of fidelity, recent scholarship has introduced new terms to describe an adaptation in relation to its source material.

The scholars Michael Klein and Gillian Parker, establish a similar rubric. It seems some contemporary scholars are almost deluding themselves into believing that there could be an objective system of classification. What does it mean to stay true to the script? What distinguishes a partial adaptation? Ideology at the Core Films and books transmit ideology. What, otherwise, is the point of a story?

Contained within the narrative of a story lie the fundamental values of a society, its ideology. Stories cannot exist without ideology. You could replace characters from different movies for one another, and the movie would essentially remain the same. And yet, obviously an interest remained in the movies, otherwise more would not have been made.

But how do you define ideology? It is truly an elusive concept. A movie may represent so many different iterations of ideology that it is impossible to ascribe any one ideology to a movie. As Ray points out, some authors may sometimes not even be aware of their own intentions. Wiedenmann 83 U.

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Beyond Fidelity: Towards a Better Understanding of Adaptation Theory The notion of fidelity is essentially about judgments of personal aesthetics or values. Nonetheless, why should the movie be regarded as inferior to the novel? In the past, literature has often been given primacy.

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However, this is not be regarded as inherently bad. In fact, it is only natural, since new media always arise from old media. Often, these media vie for legitimacy, as is still the case with literature and cinema today. Postmodern critic Jameson describes this battle of forms as ongoing. He says, new forms are always in battle with old forms. Similarly, written narratives appropriate oral tales, just as television borrows from cinema. Adaptations across various media are more prevalent than ever. With the primacy of literature slowly fading, the question of fidelity ought to be reconsidered.

Intertextuality and New Media While narratives used to be conceived for a single medium, the lines today are being increasingly blurred. Unlike in the early days of cinema, movies can now be watched at home. Furthermore, DVDs allow viewers to pause a movie, as well as to watch it over and over again. In addition, it has become normal for a whole host of supplementary material to accompany a movie, such as dedicated webpages and DVDs featuring cut scenes act.

This material acts as almost an extension of a movie. This expansion across media means that the characters can grow beyond the confines of a movie. In some cases, it seems that movies are being conceived with the notion of marketability and adaptability across media already in mind. Furthermore, video games based on movies now allow viewers to play out, so to speak, some of these movies on their own.

Now more than ever, various media inform each other. As alluded to earlier, literature also shaped the film medium. Today, a video game may just as likely serve as a basis for a book. In the following years, a number of other novels have been published based on the games. One of them is said to take place after the first and before the second video game, acting as a bridge between the two.

Similarly, video games may also inform movies. Instead, everything is already an adaptation. These different media may be thought of as the various languages forming the intertextual whole of our society. The exchange between these languages can generate new ideas and perhaps even new languages of discourse altogether.

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Referring to work in translation, Benjamin points out that the result of a confrontation of languages around the case of a treasured text can reveal something new about the original while always expanding the two languages involved. If two people are asked to tell the same story, it would invariably be slightly different with each person, even if both people were to use same medium of expression. For instance, there are many movie adaptations of many classic works of fiction, like Romeo and Juliet.

And yet, no two are exactly the same. In general, the issue with most adaptation theory to date is that they are overly critical of adaptations. The notion of a self-sufficient work of art is relatively new. For most of human history, stories, such as those from the Bible, were recycled countless times over. More important than the work of art itself was the content and the effectiveness of its message. The Neverending Story is itself by no means an original work of art, though Ende may perhaps have considered as such.

And yet, even these recognized literary forms can not be considered original, either. When Ende criticizes the movie adaptation of his book so severely, perhaps he is himself forgetting this aspect of his book. This project was led by a completely different crew than the first movie. While the first movie covered the first half of the book, the second mainly covered the second part. While the second movie was hardly as successful as the first, there was evidently enough interest to produce a third movie, Neverending Story III Again, the crew as well as the cast was completely different.

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Curiously, though, the screenwriter of the second movie, Karin Howard, was also involved in writing the script for the third movie. In August , Michael Ende passed away as a result of a stomach cancer. Again, Karin Howard was involved in writing the script. The TV series was also relatively unsuccessful. One source notes that the original producer Geissler may, in fact, be involved again.

However, there is no clear indication whether any producers have been able to secure the rights to make a new movie. One source reports that the project is cancelled. One of the producers, Kathleen Kennedy, remarks, "It's too bad, because there's an opportunity with that book [The Neverending Story] because it's so beautifully written, but I guess it's not meant to be. Wiedenmann 91!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

James Naremore New Brunswick, N. Leo Braudy and Marshall Cohen, New York: Oxford University Press, , There is no form that can be separated from content. For further details, see for instance, Michail Bakhtin, Michael Holquist, ed. Wiedenmann 92!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! James Naremore, New Brunswick, N. See Bakhtin for more information on this subject. Later in the production, it seems it may have become a purely personal matter between Ende and Eichinger.

Wiedenmann 93 V. Conclusion The project was doomed to fail from the start. While Ende was hoping that the movie would be a deeply reflective work of cinematic art, the producers simply wanted to create a visually elaborate movie that would appeal to a young audience. As a result, the movie had to alter or leave out many aspects of the book, which Ende regarded as integral to the overall message of his story. The book may be interpreted as being simply about a boy who goes off on an adventure. In presenting a commentary on stories and storytelling, Ende touches on very specific topics like the ethics of storytelling and the issues related to a causal logic in storytelling.

As discussed in Section III, it was also very important to Ende that the story act as a dialogue with the reader, provoking him to go beyond the story at hand. As a playing field, the text should allow for the reader to create new connections and meanings. Whether form may be divorced from content depends on what stylistic elements one may consider to belong to the form rather than the actual story.

Much like a text, a movie may also be described as offering a playing field. However, this playing field is of course completely different from the filmic medium. In the case of The Neverending Story, did the rules of the film medium act as too great a confinement on the story? Wiedenmann 94 Games require rules. Every medium has its rules and has to operate within these rules. Without rules, play cannot happen. As Ende points out himself, without rules, we would not be able to communicate, and without communication, we could not be able to share our feelings and experiences with each other.

However, even after this transformation they are still unhappy. At a basic level, a text is, of course, made up of language, which itself is constructed based on countless rules. As a whole, a text also operates based on certain principles and conventions. A movie, on the other hand, presents an entirely different game. Since it is a different medium altogether, the rules of the game are, of course, very different.

Therefore, while a movie may also be described as having a playing field, a viewer plays with a movie much differently than a reader plays with a book. With a movie, the images are already there. A movie may offer gaps through cuts, but the immediate visual element is always there, constantly evoking an immediate response in the viewer. With a movie, the game has a different duration. A movie provides an experience. Only once it has come to a stop are you allowed to turn to your buddy and ask how he liked it. So what does it mean to transfer a story? What needs to happen in order for this to occur?

The play of any art form depends on the possibilities the respective form can provide. As Ende recognized himself, when a story is adapted to a different medium it must inevitably undergo changes, which may be described in one of two ways: either as compromises or as improvements. Some may consider these changes to represent compromises, implying that something is lost in the process.

Other may consider these changes to represent improvements, where the adaptation enhances the original material. What is important to the story? What can parts can be left out?

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The process of conceiving a script for The Neverending Story illustrates exactly these difficulties. Stories are inextricably wound up with ideology. They are deliberate, because they represent a clear articulation of cultural situations and thus values. Similarly, The Neverending Story presents a comprehensive commentary on stories and storytelling. Though there may not be one key message, it still represents a clear articulation of meaning.

In short, it must capture a shared ideology. Similarly, Ende wanted for his writing to effectively change the culture of his time.

The Neverending Story: Theme, Author & Summary

However, a similar cosmos also permeates many of his other work. In general, Ende sought to create a new imaginative universe with his readers, separate from reality. He wanted to create a universe with new values and possibilities, where his readers could explore new, compelling ideas. Iser describes humans themselves as Leerstellen. To identify themselves, people will often align themselves with shared notions of meaning, i. As discussed in Section II, a book essentially represents a mirror for the reader. However, it may also apply to an author.

Wiedenmann 97 But beyond this, a text allows an author to describe situations that may convey personal experiences or more abstract feelings. How does it feel to be in love or to be loved? Or how do you express what it feels like to be jealous? As Iser puts it, life exceeds its depiction.

On a larger scale, the text allows us to reflect on the human experience, to put into words what we feel. It describes situations, questions our judgments our ethics. Rowling, the author of the Harry Potter series, believes that the imagination can foster a sense of empathy. By experiencing some of these feelings, the text becomes real to us, as Ende might say.

It has truly been able to express the Zauberwort of an entire generation. Though some trends indicate that children are reading less books than they used to, the Harry Potter series certainly stands as a case in point that books are far from gone. And yet, it is probable that the novel may at some point fade away. Today, new forms of writing are developing. For purposes of entertainment, people now read blogs, tweets, or online news articles, to name a few examples. As far as I can tell, people are reading just as much as they once were, if not more.

The difference is that people today are generally taking in information in smaller sizes. Instead of watching a long movie, some people may be more drawn to TV series, broken down into twenty- minute segments. Nonetheless, writing and stories at large will continue to exist. Indeed, for better or for worse, some TV series seem to provide a never-ending stream of stories. However, in some cases, the same can be said of movies. Though Toy Story seemed complete enough, Toy Story 2 followed some time after, thus extending the previous story even further.

Backed by popular demand, a third installment made the trilogy complete. And yet, who can say for sure whether the adventures of Buzz Lightyear and Woody end at part three? Perhaps someone will make a feature length live-action adaptation, or someone will be inspired by Buzz Lightyear to make a movie about toys in outer space.

The possibilities are endless. As long as we can agree on matters relating to copyright, there should be no problems. Wiedenmann 99 Notes!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! People do not simply make up that kind of stuff, Ende insists. Instead, Ende holds, they faithfully pass on these stories from generation to generation, because they sense the truth that lies within them. Rowling, as quoted in Tatar, Enchanted Hunters, Wiedenmann VI.

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Urbana: The University of Illinois, Jung, C. Kehr, Dave. Kuckartz, Wilfried. Michael Ende "Die unendliche Geschichte. Essen: Die Blaue Eule, The fairytale as Art Form and Portrait of Man. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, MacCabe, Colin. MacCabe, Warner, Murray. MacFarlane, Brian. Oxford: Clarendon Press, Wiedenmann Nodelman, Perry. The Pleasures of Children's Literature.

White Plains, N. Ray, Robert B.. Rudd, David. Abingdon, Oxon. The Routledge Companion to Children's Literature. Rudolph, Chuck. Stam, Robert. Tatar, Maria. New York: W. Norton, Thienemann Verlag. Tilly, Chris. February 26, Todorov, Tzvetan. The Fantastic; A structural approach to a literary genre. Willenberg, Knud. Zipes, Jack. New York: Routledge, Related Papers. By Maggie Sadler. Breaking through - Staying inside. That made me think of how you can get lost and trapped in the.

I wonder if MZD has ever seen this movie??? Tags: None. Let me just say that you have made me the happiest guy on earth today by mentioning one of my all-time favorite childhood memories and tying it into H oL. Kimba No, I had nothing to add, just had to say something since I love that movie. Comment Cancel Post. I have to agree I always wondered why my parents never actually bought the movie, they must have spent a fortune renting it for my sister and I!!

Bastian names the empress "Moonchild". The quest to conquer "the nothing"! So much the same idea like the minotaur, I wonder if this had some influence on MZD Enough of this, I have to go rent that movie!!! Forget watching the movie; Read the book! I liked the movie a lot, but the book is an entirely different, deeper experience.

Also, the story has an eerie way of looping back on itself and into reality, although this was somewhat down- played in the movie. As a very simple example of this, the book's English title neverending story almost encodes the author's name Ende. I must warn you that the book comes from a tradition of German fairy tales, which are far darker than our Disney-ified versions. Still, it is WELL worth reading, especially after having enjoyed the happier, more accessible movie version. Why don't you do what you dream, Zampano!?!

Yeah, I've read the book, the movie is terrific, but as always, the book is better. It's a lot deeper. I just finished it about a month ago, which inspired me to watch the movie again. He who makes a beast of himself, gets rid of the pain of being a man. A friend of mine who has read my copy of the messaged me and said: "I was watching The Neverending Story and this guy says that 'this book is not for you'", after which I immediately recalled the copy I read in dutch when I was young.

It had blue lettering for Bastian's story and red text for Atreyu's. Just that you all should read this child's tale. It is one of the best books I ever read. It really opened my mind back then. You may or may not have read this thread , but it is another nice one about Michael Ende's book and the film. I only skim read it this time, and didn't see the dicussion about the coloured text, but I am certain that there has been a more in depth exchange about that in the past about Ende's coloured text that I remember reading, and may be worth you looking for.

He saw an old white woman fishing through a garbage can. That was necessary. He saw a bathtub toy, a little rubber duck, lying on its side on the grating over a storm sewer. It had to be there. And so on. The name Bastain gives the Childlike Empress is "Moon Child" which I found disappointing but I know a lot about this book as opposed to anything else so I can answer most questions about it.

How can you be so sure? I mean, yeah, I have heard people say that's what Bastian calls her, but I have also heard that in the film at least he was just told to shout a bunch of random sounds, or that he named her after his dead mother.

Buy the book!

If his mum was really called Moon Child, that could cast some light on her premature death. I've come to believe errors, especially written errors, are often the only markers left by a solitary life: to sacrifice them is to lose the angles of personality, the riddle of a soul. In this case a very old soul.

A very old riddle. That third movie was horrendous Yes, I am absolutely sure Bastian called the C.